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January, 1940 

No. 1 


Published Quarterly 

The Wyoming' Historical Department 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 


^ol. 12 January, 1940 No. 1 




WYOMING (Poem) 5 

By W. Milton York 


(From Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, 1887) 


By Harry B. Henderson, Sr. 


By Katharine A. Morton 



By Lillian L. Van Burgh 



By Paul Crane and Alfred Larson 

(A Review) 56 

By Dan W. Greenburg 
TRY IN 1834 (From The Washington Historical Quarterly) 62 

By Charles Gauld, III 


(From Diary of W. A. Richards) 






ACCESSIONS (Listed) 81 







ESTHER HOBART MORRIS (Mother of Woman Suffrage in Wvo.)- 20 

Published Quarterly 




State Librarian and Ex-Oflficio State Historian 

Cheyenne, Wj'oming 


Governor . Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State . Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor Wm. "Seotty" Jack 

Superintendent of Public Instruction . Esther L. Anderson 
State Librarian and Ex-Officio Historian . Gladys F. Eiley 

Inez Babb Taylor, Assistant Historian 

The original title, "ANNALS OF WYOMING," under which this 
magazine was published from 1925 to September, 1934, was resumed, 
with the April, 1939 issue — having carried the name, "Wyoming Annals" 
from January, 1938, to and including January, 1939. 

The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the 
State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any statement 
of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the State 's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State. The ANNALS OF 
WYOMING is one medium through which the Department seeks to 
gain this objective. All communications concerning the Annals should 
be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Eiley, Wyoming Historical Department, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are sent free of charge to all State Offi' 
cials, heads of State Departments, members of tJae State Historical 
Advisory Committee, Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming news- 
papers. It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscrip- 
tion price, $1.00 per year; single copies, 3.5c. 

Copyright, 1940, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


"Nowhere in all the country do the aeons and cycles of 
time seem to have indulged in such mad abandonment of freak 
and frolic as up on this 'Great Plain,' where, by the processes 
of countless ages, it was being fashioned into suitable dwelling 
for man, ' ' — spake an eloquent orator in declaring the simple 
fact that Wyoming is ' ' old as the hills. " . . . " Through the 
early development of our historj^, while men were fighting, ex- 
ploring, pushing their Avay across a continent, Wyoming stood 
apart — withdrawn into the silence and dignity of an unknown 
wilderness calmly awaiting the hour of revelation." 

The "hour of revelation" eventually arrived . . . and 
on July 10, A. D., 1940, Wyoming will arrive at her Fiftieth 
Anniversary of Statehood. Still young, as rank the ages of 
commonwealths, she now represents the forty-fourth brilliant 
star in the blue field of the American flag. 

The Wyoming of TODAY is a glorious reality, inviting 
fullest enjoyment of every precious moment as it comes. . . . 

The Wyoming of TOMORROW is an enchanting and entic- 
ing Rainbow of Promise, leading the faithful to a rich re- 
ward. . . . 

But the Wyoming of YESTERDAY— of which countless 
sagas have been written — is a fascinating panoramic picture of 
color and romance . . . high-lig'hted with innumerable epi- 
sodes of achievement and failure, of danger and daring . . . 
of life and death. 

Across the picturesque stage of the potential Empire — 
and sharply silhouetted against the illuminated skyline of time 
— moves a glorified procession . . . covered-wagons and THE 
PIONEERS ! Figures of men and women, framed in the bow- 
shaped openings . . . wagons creaking . . . wheels turning 
laboriously along the trackless trail — bringing Civilization I 

To these dauntless waymakers — Pioneers living and Pioneers 
who have passed on over that "One-Way Trail" — this num- 
ber of THE ANNALS and the three succeeding issues of 
the 1940 volume, are reverently dedicated, in observance of 
Wyoming's Golden Anniversary of Statehood. 

Historically minded citizens who appreciate Wyoming and 
its traditions, have evidenced their willingness to cooperate in 
the important undertaking of presenting and preserving histor- 
ical information regarding this great State, by making valuable 
contributions for this and preceding issues of the ANNALS. 
These have been gratefully received by those responsible for 
publication of the magazine. 

Wyoming, a huge rectangle, in size the combined area of 
Pennsjivania and New York, has climbed higu on the scale 

of progress, socially and economically, since Statehood was at- 
tained, a mere half -century ago. Population has increased from 
less than 62,000 in 1890 to approximately 240,000 in 1940. A 
tremendous development of natural resources and industrial 
enterprise has taken place ; the value of property has been 
repeatedly multiplied, and there has been achieved a record 
of governmental and other civic progressiveness unsurpassed by 
any other State. The people may view with admiration and 
satisfaction the advancement which has been made during fifty 
years of Statehood, and may paint, validly, a commanding pic- 
ture of developments to come in the most vivid hues of reason- 
able imagination. 

Plans are being made for appropriate observance of this 
Golden Anniversary, by a committee appointed by Governor 
Nels H. Smith, and for a state-wide organization for the pro- 
motion and holding of celebrations and programs in the vari- 
ous counties and the communities thereof. The committee is 
comprised of Mr. George 0. Houser, of the State Department of 
Commerce and Industry; Miss Esther Anderson, State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction ; Mr. John C. Thompson, mem- 
ber of the WyO;ming Historical Landmark Commission ; and 
Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, State Librarian and ex-officio State 

Two worthy objectives for this ambitious undertaking are : 
First, that the citizens themselves may become more historically- 
minded and therefore gain a new appreciation for the priceless 
historic values of their State ; and second, that the State may 
attract to itself the benefits of far-flung, constructive adver- 

The historical data and pageantry covered by the programs 
of the Golden Anniversary year will comprehend not merely 
the fifty years of Statehood, but that of twenty-one years of 
Territorial status and the sixty-two years of historical record 
preceding establishment of the Territory — a total of one hun- 
dred thirty-three years. 

A State passes but once through a Golden Anniversary 
year ... it has only one Fiftieth Birthday! Therefore, 
under the persuasive invitation of the Anniversary Committee, 
not only are the citizens of Wyoming beseeched to lend full 
cooperation to this, the first enterprise of its kind which oppor- 
tunity has ever offered to the people of the State — but atten- 
tion of folk elsewhere should be called to the qualities of Wyo- 
ming and the boundlessness of the opportunities which it affords. 
It is but another step for Wonderful Wyoming, on its way to 
a manifest destiny— the Wyoming of"^ TOMORROW, with 
its Rainbow of Promise. 

Gladys F. Riley, Editor, 

Inez Babb Taylor, Associate Editor. 


By W. Milton York 

I stand and gaze with reverence, on Wyoming's lofty peaks, 
Where Time's slow hand carves wondrous things, and silence 

almost speaks. 
The places where God's creatures roam, the mighty Master's 

No art can paint, or mind conceive, the loom His fingers span. 
Each waste place has its uses, as the timeless centuries flow, 
I find no place that God forgot, wherever I may go. 
Where winds the famous Bighorn, and the North Platte river 

With giant peaks on either hand, crowned with eternal snows. 
I see far back to other days, I hear the Bison's tread, 
Ere progress blazed the unknown ways, by covered wagons led. 
I seem to see the film of Time, the centuries pyramid piled. 
His art stupendous and sublime, the mysterious, boundless, wild. 
I see sun-crested golden peaks, I hear the call for men. 
The coursing water's silvered streaks, the canyon's roaring glen. 
I mark the red man's crimsoned tread, the time-worn trails of 

The yellow dust in river bed, the miner's quest for gold. 
The arrow's flint, the red man's plume, the mysteries of the 

The pioneer, the Master's Loom, the place where God has smiled. 
Now belching stacks besmear the skies, while teeming cities 

Yet backward still the memory flies, o'er mountain, vale and 

To Indian mounds, and unmarked graves, to time-worn trails of 

When white men fought the feathered braves, and delved for 

muck called "Gold". 



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Wyoming Territory— The Proposed New Capitol at Cheyenne. 

Prom a Photo, by C. D. Kirkland. 

'"^he Wyoming Territory Capitol at Cheyenne** 

(From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper,* June 11, 1887) 

Under the above headline a story describing the laving of 
the corner-stone of the Capitol building at Cheyenne on May 
18, 1887, carried to the world the news of that historic event 
in the pages of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, in its 
issue of June 11, 1887. G-enerously illustrated with pictures 
made from wood cuts, an art of former days, the weekly news- 
paper would be referred to in modern times as a magazine. 
Published in New York City, in tabloid size, it was one of the 
leading works of journalism of the nineteenth century. 

The article describing the ceremony was illustrated with 
two pictures from photos by C. D. Kirkland, a pioneer photog- 
rapher of Cheyenne, which, together with the story, are pre- 
sented here-sWth : 

*0n file in the archives of the State Historical Department, Chev- 
enne, Wyoming. 


' ' On the 18th iilt. the corner-stone of a stately new Capitol 
was laid at Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, and the occasion 
was enthusiastically celebrated. The civic, military and Masonic 
demonstrations were the most brilliant ever seen in Cheyenne. 
The city was in holiday dress, and the crowds thronging the 
streets were increased by a large influx of visitors from other 
towns of the Territory. Governor Thomas Moonlight partici- 
pated in the exercises, and Judge Joseph M. Carey delivered 
an eloquent and patriotic oration. The corner-stone contained 
numerous documents, photographs, and other articles of future 
historical interest, and bore the following inscription : ' Laid 
by the Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M. A. L. 5287, A D. 1887. 
N. R. Davis, Grand Master.' 

' ' The site of the New Capitol is an eminence at the junction 
of Twenty-fourth Street and Capitol Avenue, not far from the 
Union Pacific and Cheyenne and Burlington Railroads. It 
will be the most massive and elegant structure in the State. 
The architectural style of the building may be called a modified 
French Renaissance. It is at once stately and symmetrical. 
Its outlines and ornamentations, as shown by the architect's 
drawing, are airy and graceful, and its massive dome will form 
a fitting climax to its architectural beauty. Its erection was 
authorized by the last Legislative Assembly, when $150,000 
were appropriated to commence the work. The plans were pre- 
pared by D. W. Gibbs & Co., of Toledo, 0. The completed 
building will be 230 feet in length from east to west, and 144 
feet in width from north to south. It is set on a foundation 
of Fort Collins stone, which rises ten feet above the gTound. 
The centre of the building vdll be pierced by a huge iron tower 
152 feet in height, and the rotunda will be carried to the top 
of the interior of the tower, from which much of the necessary 
light will be secured. The superstructure is built of Rawlins 
stone, which presents a beautiful appearance. The construction 
has already reached the height of the first floor all around. 
The building will contain forty commodious rooms, exclusive 
of the basement. The interior will be finished in cherry, oak 
and butternut. The Council and House Chambers will be 
48x70 feet in dimensions. It is expected that the building will 
be sufficiently advanced towards completion to permit the meet- 
ings of the Legislature to be held there next Januar,v. ' ' 


By Harry B. Henderson, Sr. 

Upon the men first selected for Governors of the State 
of Wyoming there was a great responsibility. That they 
accepted and discharged the obligation with fidelity is at- 
tested by the records of their administrations. There was 
a transition of government from a dependency to a sovereignty. 
The Territory comprising "Wyoming, which had been bartered 
and traded as boys would trade jack knives became a State 
July 10, 1890. Thereafter a government of the people was 
set up. The first State election was held, officers were selected, 
and upon their taking the oath of office, the ship of State 
was^ launched. 

Governor Warren, the First Governor of the State, served 
from September, 1890 to November 18, 1890, at which time 
he was succeeded by Amos W. Barber, the then qualified Sec- 
retary of State who by virtue of the Constitution became 
acting Governor until January 2nd, 1893, at which time he 
w^as succeeded by John E. Osborne, the regularly elected 
governor at the 1892 election. Governor Osborne was suc- 
ceeded by William A. Richards on the first Monday of Janu- 
ary, 1895. 

It is a pleasure to present a brief sketch concerning each 
of these splendid men. 

NOTE — This is the second of a series of five articles written for 
the ANNALS by Mr. Henderson on the Governors who have guided 
the affairs of the Territory and State, respectively, since 1869. The 
first appeared in the October, 1939, issue of the magazine and chron- 
icled highlights of the regimes of the eight Territorial Governors. Ihis 
and three succeeding treatises on the State Governors of Wyoming, 
for the three subsequent numbers in 1940, represent one of the special 
features of this historical quarterly, in its observance of the Golden 
Anniversary of Statehood. 


(Left to right, top) : Francis E. Warren — October 11, 1890-Noveniber 

24, 1890; Amos W. Barber (Acting)— November 24, 1890- January 2, 

1893; (Lower) John E. Osborne — January 2, 1893-January 7, 1895; 

William A. Eichards — January 7, 1895-January 2, 1899. 


Governor Warren 

Francis E. Warren, the first governor of the State of 
Wyoming was born at Hinsdale, Massachusetts, June 20, 1844. 
His ancestors belonged to the Revolutionary days and strongly 
advocated American Independence. 

Mr. Warren was given the common school education of 
his community and a course in Hinsdale Academy, an insti- 
tution comparable to the present day high school. He en- 
listed in Company C, 49th Massachusetts Infantry in 1861 
and served during the Civil War. In 1868 he located in Iowa, 
and came further west in the same year, locating at Cheyenne, 
entering the employ of A. E. Converse; later he formed a 
partnership with Mr. Converse, who was engaged in mercan- 
tile and livestock business. 

In 1872 he was elected to the City Council of Cheyenne, 
Avas a member of the Territorial Assembly, Territorial Treas- 
urer September 30, 1876 to December 15, 1877 and from De- 
cember 10, 1879 to March 2, 1885. He was Mayor of Cheyenne 
from January to March 1885 ; Governor of the Territory of 
Wyoming in 1885 and 1886, and again in 1889-1890, succeed- 
ing himself as Territorial Governor at the first State election 
held September 11, 1890, when he was elected the first Gov- 
ernor of Wyoming. He resigned in November, 1890, and 
was at once elected United States Senator, serving until 1898. 
He was elected again to the Senate in 1895 and continued in 
such office until his death on November 24, 1929. His Senate 
service covered about thirty-eight years. 

Mr. Warren acquired the stock and mercantile business 
of his partner, A. R. Converse, in 1878, and at the time of his 
passing was counted as one of the largest growers of sheep 
in the United States. 

Governor Warren, in his message of January, 1890, urged 
upon the Territorial Legislature to deliberate with two pros- 
pects in view : A transformation from a dependency to a 
Sovereign State or a continuance of a Territorial Govern- 
ment. He further urged the necessity for transportation, 
citing that development would be slow unless railroads to 
remote sections of the territory were constructed. 

The Governor, in his message to the First State Legisla- 
ture said, "No unnecessary offices should be created or con- 
tinued and the salaries and emoluments of all public officials 
should be reduced to the least possible limit that will procure 
faithful and efficient service." 

To emphasize his recommendations he again stated in 


his message, "It is better to dispense with some offices, provide 
moderate salaries for the present than to become fettered by 

It will be suggested to the mind of the reader that the 
Governor was counselling from his experience in business. 
He knew the rule that must be applied in public affairs if 
expenses were to be kept down and the tax burden made light. 

Why not have such doctrine proclaimed now, and the 
tax burden lessened? It is just as necessary as it was fifty 
j'ears ago. 

Governor Warren also urged the Legislature "to recom- 
mend to Congress that the Homestead laws be amended so 
that the settler could engage in either agriculture or livestock 
business on a scale that would support his family and bear 
the carrying charges of the property." 

As citizen, Governor and United States Senator — Mr. 
Warren was ever alert to Wyoming 's interests ; he not only 
recommended and urged the development of the State and its 
resources, but was active in the construction of splendid busi- 
ness blocks in the city of Cheyenne, merchandising, raising 
livestock, improving ranch properties, the building of the 
electric light plant, said to be one of the first in the United 
States ; the building of Ft. D. A. Russell, now Fort Francis E. 
Warren; the incorporation of the Cheyenne and Northern 
Railway and the subsequent construction of the railroad; the 
building of the Burlington Railway into Cheyenne, and many 
other activities which have been of great value to the State. 
Governor Warren was always progressive and never selfish 
in his efforts. 

The imprints of his hand and mind are indelible in the 
affairs of this great State. He was one of the few men who 
attained greatness in the United States Senate and the affairs 
of the Nation. 

Francis E. Warren and Helen M. Smith of Hinsdale, 
Massachusetts, were married in 1871 and at once established 
their home in Cheyenne. Two children, Frances and Fred 
were born to this family. Frances Warren in her young 
v/omanhood became the wife of Captain Pershing, now Gen- 
eral Pershing. She, with three children perished in a fire at 
the Presidio in California in August, 1915. Mr. Fred Warren, 
one of our first citizens, has succeeded to the management of 
the Warren Live Stock Company. 


Governor Barber 

Amos W. Barber, Secretary of State, became Acting Gov- 
ernor of the State of Wyoming upon the resignation of Francis 
E. Warren, the first Governor-elect, and served from November, 
1890, to January 2, 1893. 

Dr. Barber was born April 26, 1861, at Doylestown, Pa., 
of Quaker family. His ancestry was conspicuous for its gal- 
lantry and patriotic devotion during the War of the Revolu- 
tion, the War of 1812 and during the Civil War. His father 
was an important secret service officer during the latter war. 

Dr. Barber was educated in the common school of his dis- 
trict, an Academy located at Doylestown and the University 
of Pennsylvania, where he pursued a full literary and medical 
course. He was graduated in the class of 1883 and immediately 
became the resident physician at the University Hospital. He 
served on the staff of several hospitals with credit and dis- 
tinction during the following two years, when lie was selected 
to have charge of the Military Hospital at Ft. Fetterman, Wyo- 
ming, then located on the Platte River about 100 miles north 
of the then Rock Creek Station, on the Union Pacific Railroad 
and about six miles north of the site of the present town of 

Central Wyoming had rapidly advanced as a cattle coun- 
try with a cow-hand population of considerable number. There 
were no towns, neither was there a physician save at Ft. Fetter- 
man. Dr. Barber, during his comparatively short residence in 
the district, acquired a high reputation among the settlers resid- 
ing along the Platte and foothill streams for a distance, east to 
west of approximately 100 miles. He was faithful as well as 
conscientious in the performance of his professional duty. He 
was the sole person to determine just what remedy should be 
applied to the sufferer and hoW to apply it. Generally, he was 
not only regarded as outstanding in his work, but in actuality, 
he was one of the great physicians of the Territory, and was 
very popular in central Wyoming. 

After the abandonment of Ft. Fetterman, Dr. Barber es- 
tablished his office at Douglas and continued his active and 
large practice in medicine and surgery in the district of which 
Douglas was the centralized point. 

In the nomination of first State officers. Dr. Barber was 
nominated for the office of Secretary of State and was elected 
to that position at the September elei'tion in 1890. Upon the 
election of Governor Warren as United States Senator. Secre- 
tary of State Barber became acting Governor of the State and 
continued as such officer until Januaiy 2, 1893. During this 
particular time there was what was termed the "cattlemen's 
invasion" which was an act on the part of individuals that 


brought upon the State unfavorable criticism. Governor Barber 
requested the President to give to the State, the aid of the sol- 
diers stationed at the military post at Ft. McKinney, Wyoming. 
The request was granted and soldiers were at once dispatched 
to rescue the besieged, and arrest the men constitutini^ the in- 
vading party. Had Governor Barber not acted promptl}^ upon 
learning of what was taking place in Johnson County, there 
doubtless would have been a great loss of men because of what 
would have been a finish fight between the settlers and the in- 

During Governor Barber's administration there was trouble 
with the Sioux Indians who had entered the State, under alleged 
treaty rights to hunt game. The Governor again acted forth- 
with in asserting the sovereignty of the State, which was resisted. 
The subject was eventually determined by U. S. Supreme Court 
decision in favor of the contentions of the Governor. 

The Second State Legislature did not convene until after 
Governor Barber had turned over the office of Governor to his 
successor, therefore he did not address the Legislature. 

Governor Barber administered the affairs of the State for 
the two years he was acting Governor as economically as pos- 
sible. He had a chief clerk, and a second clerk who was also 
Secretary to him as Governor. There were but three persons 
identified with the office of Secretary of State and that of Gov- 
ernor during the administration of Secretary Barber. He re- 
linquished the office to John E. Osborne, the regularly elected 
governor at the November, 1892, election, January 2, 1893. 

Governor Barber's term as Secretary of State ended Jan- 
uary 1, 1895. He was not a candidate to succeed himself, but 
preferred to, and did, direct his energies toward the practice 
of medicine and surgery at Cheyenne. He was outstanding in 
his profession. 

Dr. Barber was regarded not only as a first citizen but was 
counted professionally ,as one whose patients were put on the 
road to recovery because of his sincere and cheerful presence 
in the sick room. He was medicine to his patients. 

In 1892 he married Miss Amelia Kent, a beautiful girl of 
Cheyenne. Two children blessed their home and are today an 
honor to their parents. 

The good doctor continued to reside in Chevenne until his 
death in 1915. 


Governor Osborne 

John E. Osborne of Rawlins, elected Governor of Wyo- 
ming at the November, 1892 election, was born June 19, 1858, 
at Westport, Essex County, New York. His home was in 
that district which daring Revolutionary days, was very much 
"Pro-King George." It was The Tory District, largely Eng- 
lish descendants. Mr. Osborne's ancestors were greatly in 
favor of American Independence. He was educated in the 
common schools of his native town, apprenticed to a druggist 
in Vermont when fifteen years of age, continued his school 
work, subsequently entering the University of Vermont at 
Burlington, studied and graduated in medicine and suro;ery 
and moved to Rawlins and began the practice of medicine 
in 1882. 

One of his first acts at Rawlins was to buy a comer lot, 
erect a two-story frame building thereon, establish a drug 
store on the first floor, and use the second floor for his office 
and apartments. 

Dr. Osborne Avas a member of the Territorial Legislature 
in 1883, was Mayor of Rawlins in 1887 and Chairman of the 
Wyoming Penitentiary Building Commission in 1888. 

Dr. Osborne received the Democratic nomination at the 
primaries in 1892 and at the general election held in November 
was elected to the high office of Governor. 

The year 1892 presented many dramatic incidents. The 
Populist party held its first National nominating convention. 
It was a year of "fusion." The Republicans and Populists 
fused in the South — the Democrats and Populists merged 
their efforts in the North. In the election in Wyoming the 
State and Congressional offices were captured by the Demo- 
crats while the Presidential electors selected were Republican. 
Naturally, the campaign preceding the election was odjb 
wherein the contestants opposed each other most vigorously. 
Happily however, when the results of the election were deter- 
mined, the people forgot their political animosities and sap- 
ported the officers chosen, one of whom was John E. Osborne 
of Rawlins, a man of splendid character and ability. 

Upon the convening of the second State Legislature the 
Governor delivered a carefully prepared message covering 
the affairs of the State, public and private. He pointed out 
the unfortunate things that had happened in the State and 
called attention to the courts in which we had confidence, 
where controversial mattei*s should be settled. 

Governor Osborne urged upon the Legislature the enact- 
ment of such laws as would be for the best interests of the 
citizens of the State. He was particalarly interested in the 


development of our resources and inviting settlement of our 
lands. He said, "Your attention is called to the need of 
legislation to assist the more rapid development of our great 
natural resources and encourage the immigration of settlers 
to our State. It is truly said 'men constitute the State.' The 
great need of Wyoming is an influx of settlers and the invest- 
ment of capital." 

In reference to the election of a United States Senator 
the Governor said, "Out of the many aspirants for this 
exalted position, having the ability, attainments and purity 
of character, to represent this place with honor, I have no 
doubt you will make a fitting selection. I deem it important 
that such a gentleman should properly represent the senti- 
ments of our State on the silver question." 

The Legislature being composed of members of three 
political groups, and there being several candidates for the 
United States Senate, there was practically no legislation 
enacted and no Senator was elected. The Governor was 
greatly disappointed that the suggestions made by him had 
not been given the consideration they merited. The panic 
of 1893 occurred during his administration. Business was 
at a low ebb, money was scarce and State, County, and 
School expense, necessarily had to be limited. In reality 
this became a blessing to the tax payer, because economy was 
practiced publicly as well as privately. 

Governor Osborne, like his predecessor, was greatly inter- 
ested in his profession. He was an outstanding physician in 
Carbon County. He also had large business interests which 
were annually requiring more of his time. At the end of his 
term as Governor he sidestepped politics for the time being, 
but later was a member of Congress for two years. He was 
appointed first assistant Secretary of State, serving under 
the President Wilson Administration, 1913-1917, inclusive. 

The Governor has always made his home at Rawlins where 
he has large and successful business interests. He is one of 
the four elected Governors of Wj^oming now living. He has 
a wife and daughter. 


Governor Richards 

"William A. Richards, Wyoming's third elected Governor 
was born in 1849 at Hazel Green, Wisconsin. As a boy he 
worked on the farm and in the shop of his father. At an 
early age he began working in and about the lead mines near 
Hazel Green and at Galena, Illinois. During the winter 
months he attended the common school of the district in 
which he lived. His parents, Truman Richards and Eleanor 
Swinnerton Richards, were poor financially and could not 
give their children a college education. 

Mr. Richards was as a boy, quite patriotic and in 1863 
made his way to Washington where he tried to enlist in the 
army. Inasmuch as he was but about fourteen years of age 
he was rejected bj- the recruiting service. He made it known 
that he wanted a job of some kind. He said he could drive 
and handle horses, whereupon he was detailed to the service 
of ambulance driver. At the close of the war he returned 
'to Wisconsin and taught a country school for three winters, 
working on the farm or at the lead mines in the summer. In 
1866 he met General Grant at Galena, and tbe two men 
became warm personal friends. 

At the age of twenty Mr. Richards came west, finding 
employment in Omaha, later joining a government surveying 
party, work for which because of his strong body and keen 
mind he was well fitted. It was during his time in the field 
that he studied engineering and became proficient as a sur- 
veyor. He surveyed the south and west boundary lines of 
Wyoming, later becoming a writer for Omaha newspapers. 

Mr. Richards then went to California and located in 
Santa Clara County. He married Harriet Alice Hunt in 1875 
— was elected County Surveyor in 1879 and had an extensive 
engineering business. He became ill and being informed he 
had consumption he treked eastward in 1881 and located in 
Colorado Springs, Colorado. He continued his business of 
Civil Engineering and was elected County Surveyor of El Paso 
County, Colorado, in 1883. 

In the year 1884 Mr. Ricluirds made Homestead and 
Desert Entry filings at the Land Office on lands located on 
Red Bank Creek, a tributary of the No Wood, in Johnson 
County, Wyoming, and in the Spring of 1886 began develop- 
ing his property and the growing of livestock. The outdoor 
life incident to ranching restored him to nonnal physical 
condition. He was elected County Commissioner of Johnson 
County at the election held in November, 1886, the west 
border of the Countv at that time being the Big Horn River 


President Harrison appointed Mr. Richards Surveyor 
General of Wyoming in 1889, in which office he served with 
distinction for more than four years. He returned to his 
ranch at Red Bank in 1893 and gave his personal attention 
to the development of his livestock business. 

In 1894 he was a candidate for the office of Governor 
of Wyoming and was elected at the November election of 
that year. He served the State for the full four-year period 
of governorship, conducting its affairs npon as prudent busi- 
ness principles as those he applied to his individual affairs on 
the ranch. The State had less than thirty million dollars 
valuation at the time of his election and the revenues from 
sources other than taxation were exceedingly limited. Gov- 
ernor Richards insisted that the provisions of the Constitution 
of the State relative to indebtedness, should be rigidly en- 
forced. By reason of his attitude, public expenditures were 
kept within the revenues during his administration. 

Governor Richards in his message of January 8, 1895, 
stated: "Perfection in County government depends, to a 
great extent, upon the wise administration of state affairs." 
His counsels were reflected largely in County managements. 

Being a ranchman and knowing the value of water for 
irrigation purposes, the Governor discussed generally the 
subject of water rights, the selection of State Lands and 
their availability for agricultural and grazing purposes. He 
urged upon the Legislature such legislation as would promote 
development of the State resources. 

A bill was passed by the Legislature of 1895, approved 
by the Governor, to promote the growing of sugar beets in 
Wyoming. Beet-sugar refining plants were exempted for 
ten years from taxation. This legislation was at once taken 
advantage of by sugar companies and now, (1940) forty-five 
years later, more than eleven million pounds of sugar are 
being manufactured annually in the State, and perhaps another 
million pounds are manufactured from beets shipped out of 
the State. This was constructive legislation worth while. 
The law creating the Wyoming Historical Society was enacted 
in 1895 and received the Governor's approval. 

During Governor Richards' first two years in office he 
acquainted himself with every detail of State and County 
government, the economies that could be put into effect and 
the limitation of indebtedness, all of which are ably pre- 
sented in his second message, delivered January 12, 1897. He 
again gives major consideration to the subject of irrigation 
and its value to the State. The grazing of the Public Domain 


is discussed, and the suggestion is made that if such lands 
were leased at one cent per acre per annum the income would 
be large. The suggestion is also made that the United States 
should retire from the public land business. 

Governor Richards was anxious that "Wyoming provide 
its quota of soldiers for the Spanish- American War. Request 
to organize a Battalion was made April 23, 1898: The Gov- 
ernor, on May 10th, advised the Secretary of War that Wyo- 
ming's four companies were mustered into service. 

Governor Richards was not a candidate to succeed him- 
self, but after his retirement was appointed assistant Com- 
missioner, and later Commissioner of the General Land 
Office at Washington, which position he held for several 
years. During his term of office he conducted the opening 
of the Indian Territory to the white settlers in such manner 
as won him national comment for the plan evolved and the 
fairness with which the allotments of lands were made. Upon 
retiring from the office of Commissioner in 1907, he returned 
temporarily to his ranch and subsequently spent a year or 
more in studying irrigation development in Australia. He 
died July 25, 1912 in Victoria, Australia. 

William A. Richards was one of the plain men who left 
a large vacancy when he passed on to the New Home. He 
was one of the great men of his time. 


Mother of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming 

Born, August 8, 1814, Spencer. N. Y. 
Died, April 2, 1902, Cheyenne, Wyoming 

"Men's due deserts each reader may recite, 

For men of men do make a goodh^ show ; 
But women's works can seldom come to light, 

No mortal man their famous acts may know; 

Pew writers will a little time bestow. 
The worthy acts of women to repeat ; 

Though their renown and the deserts be great." 

— From "Pioneer Women of the West," 
by Mrs. Ellet, in 1856. 


By Katharine A. Morton* 

For background to any discussion of woman suffrage, it 
should be stated that the history of the political progress of 
the world is the record of successive extensions of suffrage to 
classes hitherto disfranchised. 

Prior to the settlement of America, mankind in general 
believed in tlie Divine Right of Kings. At the close of the 
Revolutionary War, only those who owned property could vote. 
All citizens who were still disfranchised called our nation "a 
rich man's government." They were not satisfied and adopted 
as their rallying cry, "a white man's government." This was 
achieved in 1800 when property qualifications were swept away 
and for the first time laborers, mechanics and farmers could 
vote. Class was no longer an issue. Then came the Civil War, 
resulting in suffrage for negro men. Birth, wealth, race had 
therefore been successively overcome. Sex, only, remained as 
the last barrier to equality for all citizens. 

Sometimes we think, because suffrage for women came so 
suddenly in Wyoming, that no general movement for this 
reform existed before that time. This is not true. The first 
overt act was recorded over a hundred years ago. In 1835. and 
again in 1846, women petitioned the legislature of New York 
for the ballot. 

*BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCH— Katliarine (Mrs. Eobert A.) Morton, 
according to "Women of Wyoming" by Mrs. Beach, was born Katharine 
Amnion in Brown County, Kansas, of pioneer parents. She attended 
Northwestern University and in 1903 began a teaching career in the 
Cheyenne schools. In ioOo she and Mr. Morton were married. 

In 1918 she was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
and served for twelve years, "during which time the schools of the 
state made splendid progress" and were accorded a high rating by 
national educators. She was elected president of the Wyoming State 
Teachers' Association in 1921. 

In addition to her official duties and those of her home, ilrs. Morton 
also has given generously of time and talent to social .and civic interests 
and continues to take part in various community activities. From 1913 
to 1917 she served as president of the Wyoming State Federation of 
Women's clubs, and during the World War, 1917-1918, she was "the 
only woman member of the Wyoming State Council of National Defense 
and acted as secretary of the council." 

Mrs. Morton is a longtime member of the Cheyenne Woman's club, 
and has given mai^y years of leadership service to the Presbyterian 
Church of Cheyenne, of which she is a member. The Morton home is 
situated at 319' West Twenty-sixth Street, Cheyenne. 


First Meeting of Equal Rights Association 

In 1848, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Stanton called the first meeting 
of the Equal Rights Association at her home at Seneca Falls, 
New York. No woman's meeting of any kind had ever been 
heard of before and it was followed by an outburst of jeering 
sarcasm, censure and abuse seldom witnessed in this country. 
The press indulged in caricature and misrepresentation. Fore- 
most in directing the attack was the pulpit. Since women at 
that time were more influenced by the church than anything 
else, it is a wonder that the movement surviA^ed. 

To make any unbiased consideration of the question almost 
impossible was the accepted status of women at the beginning 
of 1848, when this first meeting of women was held. At that 
time the English Common Law was in effect. The Law defined 
the position of wife thus: "The very being and existence of 
the woman is suspended during the marriage or at least is in- 
corporated and consolidated into that of her husband, under 
whose wing, protection and covert, she performs everything." 
The husband, also, by the old law might give his wife moderate 
correction. For, as he was to answer for her misbehavior, the 
law thought it reasonable to intrust him with this power of 
restraining her by domestic chastisement in the same moderation 
that a man was allowed to connect his apprentices or children. 

"The Civil Law gave larger authority over his wife, allow- 
ing him for some misdemeanors to beat his wife severely with 
whips and cudgels; for others only to administer moderate 
chastisement. * * * gy marriage, the husband and wife 
are one person in law ; that is, the legal existence of the woman 
is merged in that of her husband. He is her baron and lord, 
bound to supply her with shelter, food, clothing and medicine, 
and is entitled to her earnings and the use and custody of her 
person, which he may seize wherever he may find it. ' ' 

Right to Hold Property Gained, 1848 

But that same year, 1848, saw the first break in the servi- 
tude of women, their first glimmer of freedom. New York and 
Pennsylvania simultaneously, by special statutes, gave married 
women the right to hold property. 

Following that first meeting*, in spite of tremendous opposi- 
tion, the movement expanded. Several states organized Equal 
Rights Associations and by 1861 the entire nation was aware 
of the issue. With the outbreak of the Civil War, however, all 
activities ceased. 

Then Mrs. Stanton and Miss Susan B. Anthony called a 
meeting in New York in 1866. Miss Anthony became a suffra- 
gist in 1851 and for half a century was a leading figure. From 


that time on agitation for the suffrage was carried on unceas- 
ingly. In that year, too, Congress received its first demand 
for a constitutional amendment. Before this, it was believed 
the right to vote was an issue for each state to decide for itself, 
but with the freeing of the slaves, the Association changed its 
tactics and sought as a much swifter solution a national con- 
stitutional amendment. 

Wyoming' Women Accorded Right to Vote 

When there was still only the faintest of hopes in the hearts 
of women who desired the Ijallot, Wyoming suddenly granted 
suffrage to its women citizens. 

Esther Morris Given Credit 

The chief personal credit for this astounding event is by 
all competent authorities given to Mrs. Esther Morris. Mrs. 
Morris was born in 1814 and left an orphan when eleven years 
old. When still quite young she became a successful milliner in 
Owego, New York. When she married Mr. Slack at twenty- 
eight, she was already independent financially. After her hus- 
band's death, she came west with her baby. It was then, while 
settling her husband's estate, that she discovered how unjust 
to women were the property laws of that time. In IS-to she 
married John Morris of Peru, Illinois. It was not until 1869 
that she came to South Pass City, Wyoming, to join her three 

The Territory of Wyoming held an election that fall. On 
September 2, 1869, she invited about twenty of her friends to 
dinner at her home. Among the guests were W. H. Bright, 
Democrat, and H. G. Nickerson, Republican. Both men hoped 
to be elected to the legislature. Mrs. Mon-is secured a promise 
from each of them that if elected, he would introduce a bill 
giving suffrage to the women of Wyoming. 

Mr. Bright was elected and became President of the Coun- 
cil, as the Senate was then called. He remembered his promise 
and on November 27 introduced Council Bill No. TO, giving 
women the vote. It passed three days later. It read : ' ' Eveiy 
woman of the age of twenty-one, residing in this Territory, may, 
at every election, cast her vote ; and her right to the elective 
franchise and to hold office under the election laws of the 
Territory shall be the same as other electors." 

The House of Representatives acted favorably on the Bill 
and on December 10, 1869, Governor John A. Campbell signed 
it. Tlie members of this legislature showed their friendliness 
to women by passing also a property-rights law similar to those 
enacted in New York and Pennsj^lvania. 

Tremendous publicity followed the enactment of the equal 


suffrage law. Wyoming was accused of passing "freak" legis- 
lation by opponents of the measure ; was hailed by proponents 
as having passed the most forward-looking piece of legislation 
of the century. 

But the story of woman suffrage in Wyoming was not com- 
plete. Future legislatures might repeal the law. Wyoming was 
a Territory. The controversy would appear again when the 
time came to adopt a state constitution ; and yet again, when 
the state constitution should come before Congress for ratification. 

Measure Narrowly Escapes Repeal in 1871 

The very next time the legislature met, 1871, the uncer- 
tainty of tenure of the new law became apparent. The Demo- 
crats evidently had believed that women, in gratitude for the 
ballot, would remain loyal to their party. But a number of 
Democrats had been defeated and the votes of women were held 
responsible. So Council File No. 4 was introduced, repealing 
suffrage. It passed both houses by a strictly party vote. How- 
ever, Governor Campbell vetoed it and returned it to the legis- 
lature on December 13, 1871. The next day it came up for 
consideration in the Council. There ensued a fiery debate. 
C. K. Nuckols, Democrat, said, "I think women were made to 
obey men. They generally promise to obey, at any rate, and I 
think you had better abolish this female suffrage Act or get up 
a new marriage ceremony to fit it." 

"Women got so degraded," argued W. R. Steele, Demo- 
crat, "as to go to the polls and vote and ask other women to go 
to the polls. * * * This woman suffrage business will sap 
the foundations of society. Woman can't engage in politics 
without losin' her virtue. * * * No woman ain't got no 
right to sit on a jury, nohow% unless she is a man and every 
lawyer knows it. * * * They watch the face of the judge 
too much when the lawyer is addressin' 'em. * * * i don't 
believe she's fit for it, nohow. If those w^ho hev it tuck from 
'em now can at least prevent any more of them from gitten it, 
and thus save the unborn babe and the girl of sixteen." 

But Republicans refused to be swayed by this el>)ouence 
and the Democrats could not over- ride the Governor's veto. So, 
in reality, neither party may take the exclusive credit for this 
advanced legislation. It is true that the Democrats did inaugu- 
rate the bill in 1869. It is equally true that they made Hercu- 
lean efforts in 1871 to repeal the law, acting as "Injin givers" 
— giving something, then trying to take it back — and if the 
Republican governor and Republican legislators had not stood 
firm in the matter, would have done so. So any attempt by 
either party to take undue honor is balked by the known his- 
torical facts. 


But Wyoming women could not be sure that their rights 
in this regard were permanent. Suffrage once granted in other 
states had not always been retained. Utah women gained the 
vote the year after the Wyoming law was enacted but, due to 
problems raised by polygamy, they lost it partially in 1882. 
Later, in 1887, a federal statute denied suffrage to all women in 
that state. 

In New Jersey suffrage was granted in 1876. A special 
election was held in Essex County in 1807 to fix the location 
of jail and court house. Elizabethtown wished to have the 
buildings located there ; Newark insisted they should remain 
in Newark. The campaign grew abusive; the election corrupt. 
Afterward it was asserted that all women claimed to be of 
"full age," worth the fifty pounds required, and many voted 
as often as possible. In the state legislature it was told that a 
woman, by name Mary Johnson, came to the polls and voted. 
Soon, seeming to be a little stouter, she appeared again and 
voted as Mary Still. Later in the day, very stout indeed, she 
cast her ballot once again, this time giving the name of Mary 
Yet. The legislature proceeded to declare the election fraudu- 
lent and to limit the vote to white males. The record does not 
state that all men were sinless in that election. At any rate, 
they continued to have the right to vote. 

Massachusetts Seeks Advice of Wyoming- 

The absence of any controversy in Wyoming after 1871 
causes one to believe that the people of the Territory came very 
soon to look upon suffrage as a matter of course. But women 
all over the country were striving for recognition and in Jan- 
uary 1876, Hon. John W. Kingman, for four years judge of 
the Territorial supreme court, was asked to appear before the 
Massachusetts legislature to give a brief history of the working 
of the new law. 

He told the Massachusetts solons that Wyoming women were 
interested in government but were not yet attending political 
meetings. When discussing any potential candidate, the query 
now was commonly made, ' ' How does he stand with the ladies ? * ' 
For men of bad character could not be elected and therefore 
were not allowed to run. He told of the first grand jury in 
Laramie, composed of men and women, which indicted nearly 
every business man in town for keeping places of business open 
on Sunday contrary to law. The judge was very much em- 
barrassed for if all were convicted practically every influential 
business man in town would be in jail. So he solved the prob- 
lem by paroling everybody on his promise to keep the law 
thereafter. At the first election after the granting of suft'rage 


a politician of Laramie persuaded one of the lowest prostitutes, 
with the aid of whiskey, to accost women as they came to the 
polls. But her encounter with the first woman to appear was 
too much for her. She left and could not be persuaded to 
return. Judge Kingman testified that elections were then quiet 
and orderly, whereas formerly pandemonium had held sway. 
He assured his hearers that suffrage had come to stay in "Wyo- 
ming. After his speech, he was submitted to a searching cross 

During the 70 's and 80 's the struggle in other states for 
the vote continued with unabated zeal. Women entered cam- 
paigns knowing they would lose ; they presented petitions which 
they knew would be di.sregardecl or laughed at. Seven thou- 
sand women petitioned the Illinois legislature in 1887 for the 
privilege of voting on the license questions only. A member 
made a motion to allow the president of the Women's Christian 
Temperance Union to explain the petition. A gentleman sprang 
to his feet and shouted, "It's well enough for the honorable 
gentleman to present the petition, have it received and laid on 
the table, but to propose that the valuable time of the legisla- 
ture should be consumed in discussing the nonsense of these 
women is going a little too far. I move that the sergeant-at- 
arms be ordered to clear the hall of the House of Representatives 
of the mo&." 

''I met a woman in Grand Rapids, Michigan, a short time' 
ago," said Miss Anthony to the Congressional Committee in 
1887. "She came to me one morning and told me about the 
obscene shows licensed in that city and she thought of memorial- 
izing the legislature. I said, 'Do, you cannot do anything else; 
you are helpless ; but you can petition. Of course they will 
laugh at you.' Notwithstanding, I drew up a petition and the 
lady carried it to the legislature. They read it, laughed at it 
and laid it on the table ; and at the close of the session, by a 
unanimous vote, they retired in a solid body to witness the 
obscene show themselves. After witnessing it, they not only 
allowed the license to continue for that year, but they have 
licensed it from that day to this, against all the protests of the 
petitioners. ' ' 

The ballot truly means power. Contrast these two incidents 
with the post card barrage in 1937 and 1939 by Wyoming women 
against the Bill permitting open gambling. In neither instance 
did the legislature openly call women a mob. Neither did it 
laugh at the deluge of post cards expressing the opinions of 
women. And although very influential interests lobbied for 
the Bill, it did not pass. 


Whether Women Are ' ' Persons, ' ' Questioned 

But in the 80 's women had no standing under the law. "1 
ask 3'ou for the ballot that I may decide what I am," said Mrs. 
Mary Seymour Howell before the Congressional Committee. "I 
stand before you, but I do not know whether I am legally a 
'person' according to the law. It has been decided in some 
states that we are not persons. In the State of New York, in 
one village, it was decided that women are not inhabitants. I 
should like to know whether I am a person, whether I am an 
inhabitant, and above all, I ask you for the ballot, that I may 
become a citizen of this great Republic. ' ' 

It is illuminating indeed to peruse the proceedings in Con- 
gress on the Woman Suffrage Amendment during this period. 
Besides the speeches by Senators, leaflets and pamphlets written 
by both men and women containing arguments against the 
measure were introduced into the records. The discussions re- 
flected the social customs of the time and the tremendous handi- 
caps under which those favoring the ballot had to labor. 

Ludicrous Arguments Fifty Years Ago 

Reading the arguments more than fifty years later, most 
of them seem amusing and ridiculous. But it must be remem- 
bered that they were advanced, not by ignorant men, more 
prejudiced than the average, but by the dignified Senators, 
themselves. Here are some of them : 

Women are already represented by husbands, fathers and 

"Woman has been elevated to a higher sphere, where as 
an angel, she has attributes which render the possession of 
every day powers and privileges non-essential, however mere 
men themselves may find them indispensable to their freedom 
and happiness." 

The state is an aggregate of families duly represented at 
the ballot-box by their male head. 

Woman hasn 't sound judgment or moral excellence as com- 
pared to man. 

' ' If women were to be considered in their highest and finest 
estate as merely individual beings, and if the right to the ballot 
were to be conceded to man as an individual, it might perhaps 
be logically argued that women also possessed the inherent right 
to vote. But from the oldest times and through all history of 
the race has run the glimmer of an idea, more or less distinguish- 
able in different ages and under different circumstances, that 
neither man nor woman is, as such, individual ; that neither 
being is of itself a whole, a unit, but each requires to be sup- 
plemented by the other before its true structural integrity can 


be achieved. Of this idea, the science of botany furnishes the 
most perfect illustration. Two plants are required to make one 
structurally complete organization. Each is but half a plant, 
an incomplete individual in itself. The life principle of each 
must be united to that of the other; the twain must indeed be 
one flesh before the organization is either structurally or func- 
tionally complete." 

(The minority of the committee must have felt very groggy 
after that argument. But, rallying, it made reply. "This is 
a concession of the whole argument, unless the highest and 
finest estate of woman is to be something else than a mere in- 
dividual. It would also follow, that if such be her destiny — 
that is, to be something else than a 'mere individual being' — 
and if for that reason she is to be denied the suffrage, then man 
should equally be denied the ballot if his highest and final estate 
is to be something else than a mere individual. It seems to be 
conceded that man is just as much fitted for matrimony as 
woman, herself. But that does not prove that therefore woman 
should not vote, unless at the same time, it proves that man 
should not vote, either.") 

Husband and wife will disagree and thus suffrage will 
destroy the family and ruin society. 

The duties of maternity disqualify for the performance of 
the act of voting. 

"We are satisfied, therefore, that the pure, cultivated and 
pious ladies of this country now exercise a very powerful, but 
quiet, imperceptible influence in popular affairs, much greater 
than they can ever again exercise if female suffrage should be 
enacted and they should be compelled actively to take part in the 
affairs of state and the corruptions of party politics. 

Ignorant women might crowd to the polls and then the re- 
fined and educated women who did not desire the vote, would 
have to go to counteract the votes of the ignorant. 

"Wojnen will want to be President of the United States and 
Senators and want to be marshals and sheriffs and that is 
supremely ridiculous. It is unspeakably absurd that a woman, 
with her sentiment and emotional nature and liability to be 
moved by passion and feeling should hold the office of Senator. ' ' 

"But it is claimed that females should have the ballot as a 
protection against bad husbands. This is also delusive. The 
husband who compels her to conform to his wishes in other re- 
spects would also compel her to use the ballot as he dictates. It 
would be of no assistance. ' ' 

"It will bring new temptations to weak women and crowd 
upon them with great force in ways women little anticipate. ' ' 

"Under the present circumstances individuality of woman 
is not brought into prominence ; but when the ballot is placed 
in her hands, her individuality is enlarged and she will be ex- 


pected to answer for herself. This will draw her out from the 
dignified and cultivated refinement of her womanly position 
and bring her in contact with the rougher elements of so 'iety. 
It will destroy her dignity." 

"If the wife and mother is required to leave the sacred 
precinct of the home, and to attempt to do military duty when 
the state is in peril ; or if she is required to leave the home 
from day to day in attendance upon the court as a juror and 
to be shut up in a jury room from morning to night with strange 
men, * * * j if she is to attend political meetings, take part 
in discussions and mingle with the male sex at political gather- 
ings ; if she is to become an active politician ; if she is to attend 
political caucuses at late hours of the night ; if she is to take 
part in all of the unsavory work that may be deemed necessary 
for the triumph of her party ; if on election day .she is to leave 
her home and go upon the streets electioneering for votes for 
the candidates who receive her support and, mingling among 
the crowds of men who gather around the polls, she is to press 
her way through them to the precinct and deposit her ballot; if 
she is to take part in the corporate struggles of the city and town, 
attend to the dvities of his honor, the mayor, the councilman, 
or of policemen, how is she, with all these heavy duties of citi- 
zen, politician and officeholder resting on her shoulders, to 
attend to the more sacred, delicate and refining trust to which 
we have already referred and for which she is peculiarly fatted 
by nature? * * * AVho is to care for and train the children 
while she is absent in the discharge of these masculine duties?" 

' ' It is said by those who have examined the question closely 
that the largest number of divorces is now found in the com- 
munities where the advocates of female suffrage are most 
numerous. ' ' 

Senator Vest dragged in the French Revolution and the 
fact that the women in Paris took part. He argued that Amer- 
ican wives and mothers and sisters are not fit for the calm and 
temperate management of public affairs. 

Chivalry, it was asserted, with its refining infiuem-e over 
men, would pass away when women became politicians. 

An essay, written by Goldwyn Smith and inti-oduced in 
evidence, stated, "Muscle, the committee pass over as having 
nothing to do with the matter. But the fact is that muscle has 
a great deal to do with the matter. Why has the male sex alone 
made the laws? Because law, with whatever majesty Ave may 
invest it, is will, which, to give it effect, must be backed by 
force; and the force of the connnunity is male. * * * That 
the tendency of a state governed by women would be to arbi- 
trary and sentimental legislation can hardly be doubted." 

The servant problem, as discussed in a pamphlet by Adeline 
D. T. Whitney, was used by opponents in Congress. Miss Wliit- 


ney wrote, "Must she go to the polls, sick or well, baby or no 
baby, servant or no servant, strength or no strength, desire or 
no desire? If she have cook or housemaid, they are to go also 
and number her two to one, anyway. How will it be when 
Norah and Maggie and Katie have not only their mass and 
confession, their Fourth of July and Christmas, their mission 
weeks, their social engagements and family plans, and their 
appointments with their dressmakers, to curtail your claims 
upon their bargained time and service, but their share in the 
primary meetings, the caucuses, committees and torch-light 
processions and mass meetings?" 

One timid Senator argued, "It introduces a terrible risk 
into the life of the state because, once given, it is unalterable. 
* * * We certainly do not want to find ourselves under neces- 
sity of trying to take it back." 

Suffragfe Law Wins in Constitutional Convention 

In the midst of this nation-Avide controversy, the Wyo- 
ming Constitutional Convention convened September 2, 1889. 
At the close of twenty-five working days, it adjourned Sep- 
tember 30. The Constitution written by this body had to be 
accepted by both the people of the State and the Congress of 
the United States. The framers were faced by a dilemma. If 
thej^ failed to include woman suffrage, the State would almost 
certainly refuse to adopt the Constitution ; but if they did ap- 
prove that provision, the Congress might refuse the statehood. 

The only argument on the question in the convention was 
whether or not its inclusion should be referred to the people 
of the Territory. The discussion was well summed up by 
Mr. Conoway of Sweetwater County, who said, "The senti- 
ment of this convention and I believe of the people which 
we represent, is so nearly unanimous that extended argument 
or extended discussion, it seems to me, would be a mere 
waste of time." 

So woman suffrage was thereupon included in the Con- 
stitution. But before that happy conclusion much oratory was 
indulged in, such as this gem by Mr. Coffeen of Sheridan ; 
"Now, let us catch inspiration from the glorious features of 
nature about us, the grand valleys, the lifting mountains, 
the reverberating hills, the floating clouds, so lovely above 
them, yes, let us catch inspiration from the beautiful symbols 
and surroundings about us, and let us incorporate into the 
Constitution of this coming State, for which we all hope so 
much, a clause, giving full, free and equal enjoyment of the 
rights of suffrage to all." 


It is not surprising- that after that flight of eloquence, 
Mr. Conoway finished the debate. The vote was unanimous. 

Now comes the last chapter of this narrative. A Bill 
for Statehood was introduced into the Congress on March 
21, 1890. It was committed to the Committee of the Whole 
House of the State of the Union and ordered printed. The 
Committee brought in a favorable report. But Mr. Springer 
submitted the following as the Views of the Minority con- 
cerning Article 6, Sections 1 and 2, Avhicli dealt with the 
right of women to vote: "The undersigned are of the opinion 
that the question is of so grave a character as to require 
most serious and candid deliberation before the adoption of 
a constitution containing such provisions. There is no state 
in the Union which contains such provisions in its constitu- 
tion. * * * The undersigned are of the opinion that justice 
to those who are to live hereafter in the State of Wyoming- 
requires that another convention should be held, called under 
the authority of an Act of Congress and due notice given to 
all, in order that all may participate in the election of dele- 
gates and also in the ratification of the constitution which 
may be submitted. * * * The undersigned therefore recommend 
that Sections 1 and 2 of the pending Bill be stricken out." 
The minority then proposed to substitute provisions calling 
for another constitutional convention. 

Congress would not approve the plan of the minority. 
President Harrison signed the Bill admitting Wyoming as 
the 44th State in the Union on July 10, 1890. this ended 
for all time am' question of the equality of women in the 
State of Wyoming. 

But women elsewhere continued to be denied. Three 
generations were compelled to witness the struggles before 
women were given even footing Avith men in matters of 
government. The Avorld had never seen so prolonged a 
striving for political freedom, nor one carried on Avith such 
dauntless persistency. 

It is into the newspapers, punctilious Record-keepers of the 
Ages, that the seeking chronicler of later days must often delve 
for those elusive historical facts — and frequently the rewards 
are great. 





IT S 1 I i\ 

I MH lOLK IDi; lilt WlhK JMil>G \<i\hMI'.H! li 1"-^ 

Woman Suffrage in Wyoming Territory — Scene at the Polls in Cheyenne 

From a Photo, by Kirklaiid. 



As is true in many instances regarding those whose writ- 
ings have so profusely recorded the activities of others, there is 
a scarcity of available information on Charles G. Coutant, 
eminent Wyoming historian, the hundredth anniversary of 
whose birth occurs this year as Wyoming celebrates her Golden 
Anniversary of Statehood. 

Several years a resident of Oregon after leaving Wyoming, 
Mr. Coutant 's death became known at Laramie, Wyoming, with 
receipt of a copy of the Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, 
Ore., of which he was editor, and the January 29, 1913, issue 
of the Laramie Republican. Semi-Weekly Edition, contains an 
article announcing his demise and giving other information, as 
follows : 

"Mr. Coutant died at Grants Pass at 7 o'clock on Friday 
evening, January 17, aged 72 years, 3 months and 1 day. Mr. 
Coutant was stricken early in October while at his duties on 
the paper of which he was the editor, an insidious paralysis 
rendering useless his left arm. This and the succeeding mild 
attacks of the protest of nature to a furtherance of human ac- 
tivities kept breaking down the physical defenses. He was 
down town for the last time on Christmas day. 

''Mr. Coutant was born in Ulster County, N. Y.. October 
16, 1840, being left an orphan at the age of seven years, spend- 
ing some years on a farm with his uncle. He went to New York 
at the age of 14 and accepted a place in a publishing otifice, 
later becoming a newspaper writer. He went to California 
in 1859, where he recorded the story of the golden west for 
the New York papers, later visiting Old Mexico in the same 

War Correspondent 

"During the w^ar^ he was a war correspondent and in like 
manner followed the Indian wars. Mr. Coutant went to Kan- 
sas after these experiences and came to Wyoming in the 
early '90s, where he was engaged in newspaper work, publish- 
ing one volume of a very succinct and interesting history of 
Wyoming. The material for the second volume had been 
largely prepared and arranged, but the volume did not reach 
the press. 

"He was state librarian at Cheyenne, going to the north- 
west some years ago Mr. Coutant was a frequent visitor to 
this city, and in 1902 was one of the most brilliant of the re- 

lEvidently the War of the Eebellioii. 


porters reporting the Republican State Convention and also 
at the industrial convention held the following winter in 
Laramie. He was- married on Christmas day, 1867, to Mary 
Elizabeth Clarke. The children who survive are George Ulmer 
Coutant of G-rants Pass, Mrs. Oliver Messenger of Eugene, 
Ore., Charles D. Coutant of New York, Mrs. C. W. Gilmore of 
Washington, D. C, Walter S. Coutant of Grants Pass and 
Mrs. C. W. Aikens of Ketchikan, Alaska. Mrs. Walter Coutant 
is the sister of E. S. Gray of this city." 


By Lillian L. Van Burgh 

"Come bright little Oming, come with me, 
, And a warrior 's princess you shall be ; 
We'll hunt through the forests deep and wide 

If you will but come and be my bride." 
But the princess shook her dusky head ; 

And waving her hand to the west, she said, 
' * If you win fair Oming to be your bride 

You must find a new home great and wide, 
A land resplendent with wondrous thrills 

In every canyon and great rocky hills." 
So leaving green lands where soft winds blow 

They followed the trail of the buffalo 
Through lands that were fair, but on they pressed, 

Answering the lure of the golden west. 
At evening they stood on the rim of the world, 

Before them new, wondrous grandeur lay unfurled. 
In the far away canyon so wide and deep 

Mother-nature seemed lulling all life to sleep. 
' ' Why, Oming ! " he cried, as he waved his hand, — 

' ' Here is our home in this glorious land. ' ' 
"Wyoming," she whispered, "yes, this is our home. 

The Great Spirit made it to be our own." 
So bright Princess Oming and her warrior brave 

To our glorious country, "Wyoming," they gave. 





Chapter I 

Laramie County 

Early Times — Fort Laramie — Father De Smet — Fremont — 
Buffaloes — The Indians — Laramie County, Geographically 
Considered, etc. 

As it is not our purpose iu this work to give to the world 
as history a mere directory or a compilation of "facts and 
figures" in tabulated form — but a true and correct record 
of events as they have happened from time to time from the 
early period to the present day; a proper discharge of this 
duty requires that a backward glance be taken and that 
some matters be briefly mentioned that do not relate except 
ill a remote degree to the organization and history of Laramie 

*NOTE: Charles Griffin Coutant, one of the most talented and 
valuable men Wyoming has ever known within her borders, left an 
everlasting monument to himself and a priceless heritage to the State 
by devoting practically a lifetime to delving into innumerable sources 
of information and recording his findings regarding extremely early-day 
trappers and explorers in this region, as well as events and personalities 
of later times. 

Author of THE HISTOEY OF WYOMING, Volume I, published 
in 1899, he was the first Wyoming historian to assemble in book form 
such a wealth of detailed information bearing directly on this State, 
preceding and during its Territorial days, as is contained between the 
covers of this 712-page work. Relied upon by research students for 
its accuracy, the volume, long ago out of print, is now rare and valuable. 

The history of Laramie County by Mr. Coutant, here presented, 
is a section of the data assembled by him for his proposed Volumes 
II and III, which, unfortunately, he did not live to publish. 

In his Preface to Volume I the author refers to plans for two 
succeeding volumes, and also explains: ''I owe it to myself to say that 
the undertaking has gro^^^^ on my hands and has become of greater 
magnitude than was contemplated. " He noted that Wyoming, being 
on the highway "where converged all roads leading across the plains 
to the territories, ' ' made the State the ' ' theater of bloody wars from 
the time of discovery of South Pass, for more than seventy years;" 
that while Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado each have histories filled 
with thrilling tales of the border. Wyoming had to bear the "concen- 
trated warfare engendered in the territories named. ' ' 

It was to the painstaking task of preparing such a history of 
Wyoming that he devoted so many yeai"s of his life, only to be par- 
tially defeated by the advent of ill health and financial reverses. 

Mr. Coutant 's attitude toward his obligation to accuracy is also 


There are comparatively but few people who inhabit what 
is now known as Laramie County who would at first admit — 
if so informed — that the ground on which their homes are now 
reared once belonged to Spain, and that latterly it constituted 
a part of the empire of the First Napoleon — yet such is never- 
theless the fact. Prior to 1804 what is now Laramie county, 
Wyoming, was but a small portion of that vast extent of territorj^ 
afterwards known as the "Louisiana Purchase" and which with- 
out authority under the Constitution (as he himself admitted) 
President Jefferson bought of the French emperor for the sum 
of $15,000,000. Of the wild, strange and romantic history of 
this region of country which antedates the exploring expedition 
of Lewis and Clark in 1804, and which goes far back to the days 
when Old Mexico was but a colony planted by pilgrims, adven- 
turers and refugees from the hills of Castile and the sunny vales 
of Andalusia, little can here be said, even in a general way. In 
reference to this, however, it might be mentioned as showing 
what the historian might show, that there is now standing at 
Santa Fe in New Mexico a stone building erected 325 years ago 
— 59 years before the landing of the pilgrim fathers at Plymouth 
Rock. Except in a vague and indefinite way the explorations 
of Lewis and Clark and of other daring and adventurous men 
since their time gave the world in general but little information 

revealed in the Preface to Volume I, in which he assumes to "make 
no claim that this history is entirely free from error, but I will assure 
the reader that every precaution has been taken in its preparation, and, 
as far as possible, dates, incidents and circumstances have been secured 
from official reports and from other reliable sources." 

Known as "The Coutant Notes," the entire collection of data was 
purchased from Mrs. Coutant in January, 1914, by the late Dr. Grace 
Eaymond Hebard, another eminent Wyoming historian and author, who 
in turn sold them to the former Wyoming Historical Society (now the 
State Historical Department) in July, 1921. 

While it is the plan of the Historical Department to offer such of 
this material as is possible, through the ANNALS, there is a quantity 
which cannot be made available for general use because of Mr. Coutant 's 
system of brevity employed in making notes for covering topics, 
together with the long lapse of time since the data was gathered. 

Concerning this point the Second Biennial Report of the State 
Historian of Wyoming for the period ending September 30, 1922, refers 
to the Coutant material in the following manner, as applied to certain 
of the notes: "There are approximately 1,250 brief biographies in both 
manuscript and notebook form. Many facts can be gleaned from them, 
although Colonel Coutant 's system of abbreviation and note taking is 
difficult for others to follow and many of the biographies are in- 

The original Laramie County manuscript, evidently written in 
1886 with pencil in ordinary school tablets, has been transcribed ver- 
batim, with the exception of customary editing in such procedure. 
Frayed and yellowed with age, the tablets themselves are among the 
most prized items in the Original Manuscript Files of the Historical 
Department. — I. B. T. 


of what for the past twenty years or more has been known and 
alluded to by many, as ''The Border Land." Within its con- 
fines since the earliest date have dwelt savage tribes of various 
names such as the Sioux, Arapahoes, Pawnees, Crows, Sho- 
shones and others — the first of these tribes being subdivided 
into numerous bands, bands ever ready to go on "The War- 
path" against the whites upon the slightest provocation. AVhile 
it cannot be said that the scope of country now embraced within 
the present limits of Laramie county was a part or parcel of 
the actual reservations of any of the tribes or bands of Indians, 
yet it is true, nevertheless, that this was in part their hunting 
ground and over and through it they roamed at will for more 
than three generations, since the time when our government 
first acquired title to the vast region lying west of the Missouri. 
During that time with the exception of their war cry that rang 
and re-echoed across these plains and through the canyons and 
foot-hills, and the dismal bowlings of the wild beasts that here 
had their homes and lairs, this wide region of country now in- 
habited bj^ so many thousands of civilized men was naught but 
nature's unbroken solitude. While farther along mention will 
be made at some length of adventures and encounters with the 
Indians, the subject of their occupation and influence upon the 
country will not be further treated in this chapter. Suffice it 
to say in a general way that their power and influence is now 
on the wane and that 

"Soon they'll journey sadly onward to that reservation vast, 
Which remains for them unheeded when the storms of life 

are past. 
Soon they'll cross the tideless waters to that dim untrod- 
den shore 
Where the warpath days are ended and the pale face 
comes no more." 

A word should here be said respecting the geographical fea- 
tures of the region of country which is now included within the 
boundaries of Laramie county although in so doing the refer- 
ence will extend to some portions of the territory of AYyoming 
not now included in the county alluded to as well as to adjacent 
regions in the State of Nebraska and the great Territory of 
Dakota. In the western portion of what is now Laramie county 
but extending somewhat further westward rise the Black Hills 
of Wyoming — often, however, for the sake of convenience called 
' ' The Foot Hills. ' ' This range of hills extends northward from 
the line between the State of Colorado and Wyoming Territory 
for a distance of more than 100 miles, at which point they teriui- 
nate, or rather degenerate, into small isolated clusters of hills 


01 medium size some distance northeast of the North Platte 
River. The same range of hills again appears and extends north- 
ward to the Montana line and eastward until they merge with 
the famous Black Hills of Dakota which of late years have been 
so widely and universally known as a prosperous mineral region. 
Beyond the North Platte River, however, these hills while ris- 
ing almost to the dignity of mountains, are mostly in clusters 
and between them are plains and valleys that are exceedingly 
fertile, suitable for agricultural purposes in many instances 
and from the fact that the country is well watered and that the 
hills and buttes afford protection to stock it is one of the finest 
grazing countries in the Far West. The greater portion of this 
region was organized as Crook County in 1884 of which mention 
will be made in its appropriate place in this work. The North 
Platte River for the distance of nearly 125 miles flows in a 
southeasterly direction through what constitutes Laramie Coun- 
ty and between that stream and Colorado on the south, Nebraska 
on the east and the range of hills already mentioned, the country 
is rolling and well watered. Through this section flow the 
Chugwater in a general northerl}^ direction, upper and lower 
Horse Creeks, Pole Creek (called Lodgepole Creek in Nebraska), 
Crow Creek and Bear Creek all of which flow in a general south- 
easterly direction except Crow Creek which a few miles below 
Chej^enne abruptly turns to the right and flows nearly in a 
westerly direction until it unites its waters with those of the 
South Platte River. In the northeastern portion of the region 
last alluded to, there are several small streams which flowing in 
a general northerly direction eventually unite with the North 
Platte. In most of the streams within the county fish of various 
kinds are found in great abundance. The country adjacent to 
the region alluded to and in the adjoining two states does not 
differ materially from the region above described. 

For many years after the region of country of which men- 
tion has been made was first visited by white men it seems to 
have been virtually ignored by the few adventurous spirits who 
occasionally paid visits to this country. Twenty-eight years, 
however, after the exploration by Lewis and Clark the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, whose headquarters were then at St. Louis, 
began to turn its attention to this portion of the Far West and 
in the Fall of 1832 a fur trading station was established near 
what is now called Fort Laramie. To this day traces of this 
early occupation still remain. Aside from a few more or less 
romantic and perhaps entirely visionary stories of that early 
period, but little that is reliable can be ascertained of the situa- 
tion as it then existed in that immediate vicinity. The trading 
station was kept up, however, for several years although it does 
not appear to have been a very important one and was not as 


widely known as many other stations that were established by 
the company at about the same time through other portions 
of the Far West. 

In 1838, Father De Smet the Catholic missionary of whom 
so much has been said and written visited the trading; station 
on one of his western tours, but his visit does not appear to have 
been a very important one as he remained but a single day. It 
was during this trip Mdien according to the romantic "gold 
story" the good old missionary made the discovery that gold 
existed in great quantities somewhere in the Black Hills. As 
the story runs, being short of lead with which to make bullets 
an Indian brought him some "j^ellow nuggets" for that pur- 
pose. The nuggets were gold and in answer to the inquiry of 
Father De Smet the Indian told him where he obtained them 
and directed him to the spot and discovering it to be a fact 
that gold existed in that locality in large quantities the mis- 
sionary who was ever the friend of the red men charged the 
Indian never to reveal to any other white man the fact of the 
existence of gold in their country, as otherwise they would be 
driven out and the country filled with miners. Years after, 
Tousant Kensler, half breed Indian, who was in Cheyenne, 
claimed that he knew the exact locality where this gold existed 
in "big chunks" as he expressed it and told where it would be 
found. If Kensler was right the place has never been thorough- 
ly prospected for it is within a day 's ride of what is now known 
as Hat Creek. However, it is not the purpose of this work to 
speculate upon the gold or any other question. 

In 1843, Fremont made his way up the valley of the Cache 
La Poudre and thence out upon the Laramie Plains, but prior 
to so doing he divided his command somewhere in the vicinity 
of the St. Vrains in Colorado. As near as can now be ascer- 
tained one portion of his party came directly north and must 
have passed over or near the present cite of the City of Chey- 
enne. From thence in a northwesterly direction to Laramie 
Peake from which point it bore to the southwest and re-united 
with the balance of the command somewhere on the Laramie 
Plains. This party, however, appears not to have visited the 
fur trading station, and it is doubtful whether its existence was 
known to Fremont or his men. 

In those early days the country was well filled with game 
of nearly every kind and variety. The immense herds of buffalo, 
however, which at that time roamed and wandered at will over 
the greater part of the Far West did not, as a general thing, 
frequent the region of which mention has been made, although 
small bands were constantly j)assing to and fro across the plains 
and rolling country which lies between the North Platte Kiver 
and the northern boundarv of Colorado. These animals while 


in transit through the locality, were the prey both of Indians 
and white hunters who made their way from the Missouri west- 
ward for the purpose of engaging in their favorite, if not at 
all times lucrative, employment and during the ten years which 
intervened between the advent of Father De Smet at the trad- 
ing station and the time when the "old Overland Trail" began 
to be used and a few permanent settlers began to pitch their 
tents along the valley of the North Platte, thousands, yes tens 
of thousands — of these animals were killed and their hides sold 
to the agents and traders of the American Fur Company. In 
addition to the buffalo, deer, elk, antelope, bear, beaver, mink 
and other game of that sort was found in abundance and the 
trapper or hunter was "out of luck" indeed if during a single 
season he could not make enough in his wild and adventurous 
employment to enable him to drift back to the precincts of 
civilized life with at least enough for himself and loved ones 
for the long winter to come. 

Beyond the North Platte river and south of what would 
now be the Montana line the buffalo, though not making such 
frequent incursions into the country, when they did come would 
make their advent in much larger numbers and would stay 
longer. Hence it was that among the hills and valleys of what 
is now Crook county and between Inyan Kara and Harney's 
Peak on the east and the Panther range on the west would 
almost constantly be found large bands of the animals alluded 
to which were practically at the mercy of the white hunter and 
the Indian. Between the two the buffalo fared slim indeed — 
so badly in fact that the particular branch or breed perhaps 
as the stockmen would say— which for so many years was in 
the habit of making this region their veritable "stamping 
ground ' " became practically extinct and for many years prior to 
the advent of the whites who came to stay, but very few of these 
animals visited that country. Not so, however, in the southern 
portion of what is now Laramie county, for while, as before 
stated, the buffalo never lingered there, as late as 1874 a small 
band of these animals passed over what is now the bed of Lake 
Minnehaha adjacent to Cheyenne and proceeded northward 
until close to Fort D. A. Russell when apparently astonished 
'at the surroundings it turned eastward and eventually to the 
south and made its way at a rapid gait back across the Union 
Pacific track to Northeastern Colorado and was seen no more. 

During the period of which mention has been made the 
southern portion of what is now Laramie county was but little 
known or visited. It was considered in those days as being a 
legitimate portion of the " Great American Desert" which was 
so prominently indicated upon the maps and in the school 
geographies of those days, and was so considered until the signs 
of the times began to indicate the near approach of that great 


transcontinental line of communication — The Union Pacific 
railroad — when it at once commenced to have a history and a 
very important one which will, of course, be mentioned farther 
along in this narrative. 

Chapter II 

Laramie County 

Fort Laramie — The Overland Trail — A Military Post Estab- 
lished — Perilous Times — Indian Burial — Trees. 

For a number of years Jacques Laramie, an old trapper 
and hunter of French descent and a Canadian by birth, was 
the agent and manager of the business of the American Fur 
Company at what is now Fort Laramie. Year after year, 
while others came and departed, the old man remained at his 
post and faithfully discharged the duties developing upon him 
which in truth and justice it must be said were at times not 
very onerous. During the greater portion of the time there 
were a few men, mostly of the same nationality, stationed at 
the post with him and as the company at all times kept him 
well supplied with tobacco, whiskey and other "necessaries 
of life" as they were termed in those early days, and as he 
was at all times on pretty friendly terms with most of the 
Indians who traded with or visited the station, the old veteran 
of the plains passed his time very comfortably. About the 
year 1847, however, times began to undergo a change and 
from that date forward the region of country around and 
tributary to the fur station which up to that period had 
experienced a not very eventful history, had a very serious 
transformation and was kno^vn as the "dark and bloody 
ground" of the border land. 

Prior to 1847 there had been — indeed since 1839 — quite 
an emigration by overland to Oregon which had received 
the attention of the American Fur Company (which from 
1820 to 1850 had for its president John Jacob Astor, its 
western headquarters being at St. Louis) as far back as 1792, 
and before it fell into our hands by purchase, a trading station 
having been established at what is now Astoria, Oregon, 
during that year. Emigration began to set in across the 
plains to Oregon as early as 1839, and just prior to 1847 it had 
begun to drift along in close proximity to, or by, the fur 
station of which the old French Voyager, Laramie, was the 
controlling genius. Eventually, many Mormons, who at that 
time were turning their faces westward, began to drift along, 
and about the same time Fremont was directed to survey 
California, so that all things considered the government 


decided it wise to station a few troops at the fur station which 
it did. Two years later, 1849 — a permanent military post 
known and designated as Fort Laramie was established at 
the old time fur station, it being named in honor of the old 
man who for so many years had been almost the only 

Two companies of troops were originally stationed there, 
but eventually other companies were sent to the post, so that 
several times in its history Ft. Laramie has been the rendez- 
A'ous of large bodies of troops which on two or three occasions 
have been, temporarily, gathered as preparations have been 
made for encounters with the hostile Sioux, which in years 
gone by have been frequent and bloody. No attempt will 
here be made to give a detailed and specific history of Fort 
Laramie as a military post merely, nor even a complete roster 
of the many gallant officers and their commands from time 
to time stationed there, as to do so would be foreign to the 
purpose of this work. Only such incidents and events as have 
some bearing in connection with the history of the country 
of which Fort Laramie is the center can be mentioned. Not 
all of them can be recorded here and those which are alluded 
to can only receive casual notice by the writer. 

That Fort Laramie as a military post has a most romantic 
and interesting history is well known to all, but it must be 
reserved to some future writer to give it entire. Fort Laramie, 
it might be mentioned, has had some very able and eminent 
commanders since its first establishment as a permanent mili- 
tary post among whom Gen. Pat Connor, Gen. L. P. Bradley, 
Gen. "Wesley Merritt, Gen. John Gibbon and several other 
military men of note might be named. 

Although the advent of troops at Fort Laramie in 1849 
did not for a long time excite the jealousy of the Indians to 
such an extent as to provoke them to hostilities, yet it must 
be recorded as a matter of history that it awakened distrust 
in their minds and the whole aspect of affairs was soon 
changed. Besides the army officers and private soldiers who 
were stationed there, a large number of citizens among whom 
were a few '' hangers on" flocked to the post and were con- 
stantly coming and going the whole year round. Some of 
these men acted very unruly with their red neighbors and 
by trading with them constantly in the course of which traffic 
the consideration moving from the grantee to the grantor 
would not infrequently be what the Indian has always and 
not inappropriately termed "fire water," the red men of the 
entire country to the north and east of Fort Laramie, eventu- 
ally, became more or less demoralized and in time deadly 
hostile and treacherous. In vain the gallant officers who from 


time to time commanded at Ft. Laramie endeavored to put 
a stop to the sale or distribution of whiskey to the Indians 
in which effort they were ably seconded by most of the non- 
commissioned officers at the post, among whom should be 
mentioned Sergeant Snyder, who by the way was stationed 
at Ft. Laramie in 1849 and still remains there, never having 
left his post but once in the thirty-seven years that have 
intervened. While it was some years before the Indians 
resorted to actual hostilties, yet it was not long after the 
establishment of a military post at Fort Laramie before they 
began to be troublesome and at length it became a very 
hazardous thing to be caught far away from the military post 
alone and unarmed. Travel over the old Overland Route, 
which had now been duly and permanently established via 
Fort Laramie westward, was seriously impeded and hindered 
by the frequent depradations of the red men whose enmity 
took the form of stealing and running off stock. This in 
time became too tame for them and for some years prior to 
the great outbreak, which eventually came, frequent murders 
happened, especially along the Overland Route and at other 
places where one or two unarmed and defenseless parties 
could be found. The whole country was in time thoroughly 
and effectually terrorized and the few adventurous spirits 
who remained in the country Avere forced to look well to 
their own protection, and where comparative safety had been 
felt prior to the conclusion on the part of the Indians that 
their country was to be wrested from them, the times became 
perilous indeed for the Indians did not propose to give up 
without a struggle the land through which they had roamed 
so long — -which they claimed as their own — and where for 
more than a century their dead had been buried (suspended 
in trees many of which are still standing in tlie vicinity of 
Ft. Laramie) and from Avhere their kindred had taken their 
departure to the dim precincts of the far away ''happy 
hunting ground." 

Chapter III 

Laramie County 

The Sioux Uprising — Massacre at Bordeaux Bend — Battle on 
Horse Creek — etc. 

The great uprising of the Sioux, wliich began in Minne- 
sota by the massacre at New Ulm in 1863. did not immediately 
extend as far west as the region of country adjacent and 
tributary to Fort Laramie but when it did come it was 
terrible in its results. The hostilitv of the Sioux began to 


manifest itself in attacks on isolated ranches and exposed 
points, and many were the depredations of this sort that 
were committed from 1863 to the close of the Indian troubles 
in 1869. One of the first of these attacks was upon a ranch 
owned by H. B. Kelly now of Cheyenne and who was then 
as now one of the leading and foremost men in the county. 
He had been for some years on the plains, however, and was 
for a long time connected with the Overland mail service but 
at length concluded to settle down to a more quiet life and 
for that purpose took up a ranch not far from the mouth of 
Horse Creek. He was attacked by the Sioux, his ranch barned 
and Mr. Kelly himself barely escaped with his life. This 
seems to have been the signal for active hostilities. Not only 
was the gentleman alluded to driven out of other localities 
in which he attempted to locate, but a score or more of others 
were treated the same way until at length nearly every man 
in the country was obliged to take refuge at Fort Laramie. 
The times became so perilous that it was unsafe for a person 
to go fifty yards from the post unless he was thoroughly 
armed, even then it was not a pleasant undertaking. 

During this time, however, the old overland trail was 
still followed by parties of emigrants going westward, among 
whom were many Mormons, and in the summer of 1864 
occurred the massacre at Bordeaux Bend on the North Platte 
River nine miles below Fort Laramie. A party of emigrants 
who were on their way westward had camped a few miles 
below the Fort and during the night one of their cows strayed 
away and was driven off by the Indians. The party hastily 
packed up and hurried to the military post where they told 
their story. The post was at that time temporarily in com- 
mand of a Lieutenant whose name it has been impossible to 
ascertain but who it seems was a hot-headed impetuous man 
with more bravery than discretion. He resolved to either 
make the Indians pay for the cow or give them a chastising 
and for this purpose took fourteen soldiers and a small cannon 
and proceeded down the river to where the Indians were 
camped and at once made a demand of them for payment 
for the cow. By some means, probably by accident, a musket 
was discharged. With one fierce war whoop the entire band of 
Indians numbering nearly 150 rushed upon the little squad of 
soldiers before they had time to use their cannon or otiier 
arms. Not one of them was left alive to tell the story. When 
the news of the massacre reached the post a strong detach- 
ment was sent down who buried all the victims in one common 
giave and marked the spot by piling high a pyramid of stones 
over their last resting place. This pile of rock remains there 
to this day, while the cannon which the Sioux threw into the 


river has never been recovered from the watery grave to 
■\rhich it was conjured by the hostile red men. This bloody 
episode was the cause of great excitement at Fort Laramie 
and elsewhere as it became known, but it was quickly followed 
by others, mostly along the Overland route. 

Among these depredations was the attempted massacre of a 
gentleman named J. H. Kineade and his party of three men who 
were on their M^ay westward on the old trail. This attempt which 
was partially successful was made by three Indian chiefs. Red 
Leaf, Long Chin and the third said to be Spotted Tail himself 
(although this is somewhat doubtful) who with a small party 
of followers attacked the party killed two of the men and as 
was supposed Kineade also. The fourth member of the party 
made good his escape and carried the news to Ft. Laramie 
from whence a party sallied out to the scene of the murder. 
There were at this time nearly 200 lodges of friendly (?) 
Indians camped in the immediate vicinity of Fort Laramie, 
but their conduct was such that it at length became apparent 
that they were secretly acting in conjunction Avith the hostiles. 
It was resolved to remove them eastward to some point in 
Nebraska where they would be within reach of the Pawnees 
Avho were then, as at nearly all other times, friendly in the 
fullest sense of the word. For this purpose two companies 
of Nebraska troops who were temporarily in the service of 
the government came through on the Overland route to Fort 
Laramie. There two companies were commanded respectively 
by Captains Wilcox and Foot. The alarm had been taken by 
these friendly ( ?) Indians, however, and many of them had 
departed ere these troops arrived. There were 185 lodges of 
these Indians left in the vicinity and these were gathered 
together preparatory to their removal eastward. Tlie march 
was eventually begun the two companies alluded to, together 
Avith forty citizens among whom was Wm. F. Lee now one 
of the Justices of the Peace in Cheyenne, all under the com- 
mand of Captain Wilcox. When the column reached a point 
well along tOAvard the mouth of Horse Creek the Indians, in 
accordance AAath a preconcerted plan, rose against the little 
party Avhich in all did not number one hundred men, and 
Avhile tliey Avere scattered along the road commenced an indis- 
criminate slaughter. There AA-as Avith the party also a long 
train of Avagons Avhich Avere in charge of Judge Lee, and as 
soon as the slaughter commenced that gentleman AA'ho appears 
to have been about the only one in the command equal to the 
emergency succeeded in arranging the greater part of the 
Avagons in the form of a corral in AAdiich a stand was made. 
The Indians were fierce and determined and the battle raged 
hot for a couple of hours, but at the expiration of that time 


the whites having succeeded in quite securely barricading 
against their foemen and had even thrown up some rude 
iiitrenchments, the Indians withdrew across the river in great 
haste. Captain Wilcox and seven of his men were killed and 
seventeen of the party including some of the citizens were 
wounded. Nearly all of the stock and other property belong- 
ing to the whites was lost in this fight and after it was over 
what was left of the two companies made rapid marches 
toward the Missouri while most of the citizens returned to 
Fort Laramie and vicinity. The fight above mentioned oc- 
curred May 16, 1865. 

(To be continued in April, 1940, issue) 


The first cattle brand recorded in what is now Wyoming- 
was that of Mrs. W. L. Kuykendall, according to "Frontier 
Days" by her husband, Judge Kuykendall, in 1917, a 251-page 
book sub-titled as "A True Narrative of Striking Events on 
the Western Frontier?" 

In Chapter 24, concerning formation of the Laramie 
County Stock Association in the early seventies, of which 
Judge Kuykendall was secretary, the author makes the above 
claim and states regarding his wife, that "she brought a 
few cows and other cattle with her when she and my two 
sons, then small children, crossed the plains in wagons to 
Denver in 1866;" that the cattle were driven to his ranch 
east of Cheyenne "when the family moved to Cheyenne in 
the. winter of 1867." 

The first church bell heard in the Big Horn Basin was 
on the Baptist church at Otto? 

The Basin Republican-Rustler, issue of December 14, 
1939, calls attention to the above fact in connection with 
announcement that Mrs. Allie Massey, a pioneer resident of 
the Greybull Valley, has now made the Baptist Church at 
Burlington a present of the bell. 

.The first motor hearse funeral held in the Capital City 
of Wyoming, occurred on July 18, 1916? The burial rites 
were performed for Mrs. Benjamin Smalley, said to be the 
city's first bride, who was married at Cheyenne in 1867, when 
only a few tents marked the site of the city that was to be. 


By Paul Crane and Alfred Larson* 

On September 2, 1885, whites at Rock Springs, Wyoming 
Territory, killed 28 Chinese laborers, wounded 15 others, 
chased several hundred other Chinese out of town, and de- 
stroyed property valued at $147,000 in what has come to be 
known as The Chinese Massacre. The story with causes and 
consequences can be followed through a mass of documents 
submitted to the United States House of Representatives, ' 
another set of records preserved in a report evidently author- 
ized by the Union Pacific, '■^ and contemporary newspapers. ^ 

In the background of the riot were bitterness against 
alleged mistreatment by the Union Pacific Coal Department 
and smouldering race prejudice fanned into raging hatred by 
the refusal of the Chinese to join in strikes. Company records 
indicate that at the time of the massacre there were 150 whites 
and 331 Chinese employed in the mines at Rock Springs. '^ 
Many of the white miners were members of the Knights of 
Labor, powerful national labor organization, which had worked 
for the exclusion of Chinese laborers from the United States. ^ 

The gruesome details of the massacre which are preserved 
in many documents need not concern us here, but a recital of 
the main facts seems to be desirable. The Chinese miners 
clearly were not expecting any serious attack when the pent 
up hatred of the whites suddenly broke loose. Early on Sep- 
tember 2 an incident occurred at No. 6 mine which precipitated 
mob action. Four rooms, or stalls, had been assigned to two 
white miners and two Chinese. The whites went to work in 

* Alfred Larson, Ph. D., is assistant professor of History at the 
University of Wyoming. Paul Crane is one of his students. 

1 House Eeports, 1st Session, 49th Congress, lS85-lSS(i, Vol. 7. Eeport 
No. 2044, "Providing Indemnity to Certain Chinese Subjects." 

2 The Chinese Massacre at Eock Springs, Wyoming Territory (Bos- 
ton: Franklin Press: Eand, Avery, & Company, 1886) Hereafter cited 
as The Chinese Massacre. This is a rare paper-bound volume, 92 pages, 
9 by 6 inches, in the University of Wyoming Library. 

3. Newspaper accounts appeared throughout the country, but of 
special value are articles appearing in the Laramie Boomerang, the 
Eock Springs Independent, the Salt Lake Tribune, the Cheyenne Trib- 
une, and the Cheyenne Sun. 

4 The Chinese Massacre, p. 45. 

5 Postmaster O. C. Smith of Eock Springs testified that he had no 
doubt that the support of and encouragement given by the miners' 
union — affiliated -n-ith the Knights of Labor — led to the riot. House 
Eeports loc. cit., p. 12. As Avill appear later the Knights of Labor 
organization was certainly involved. 


two of the rooms, and put in a shot which they did not fire. 
The next morning, September 2, when the two white miners 
appeared, they found that the two Chinese had fired the shot 
and were working in the room. The Chinese claimed the room 
had been assigned to them. Evidently the room was a desir- 
able one, that is, one where the coal was accessible and the 
miners, who were paid by the ton, could make money easily. 
In the resulting argument the Chinese were beaten and sent 
home in a buckboard. About a half hour later the white 
miners left the mine, marched up town and down Front street 
towards the Knights of Labor hall, shouting "White men 
fall in."^ The word was passed around that there would 
be a miners' meeting at 6 p. m. to settle the Chinese question. 
The men dispersed and retired to various saloons. "When it 
became apparent that they were drinking too freely, all stores 
and saloons agreed to sell no more drinks that day. Various 
accounts indicate that this prohibition left the rebellious 
miners quite sober. About two in the afternoon a mob of 150 
whites, half of them with Winchester rifles, set out for China- 
town. As shots were fired, the Chinese fled to the hills. An 
eyewitness in a prepared statement described the scene: "The 
Chinamen were fleeing like a herd of hunted antelopes, making 
no resistance. Volley upon volley was fired after the fugitives. 
In a few minutes the hill east of the town was literally blue 
with hunted Chinamen."''' Some of the Chinese houses were 
fired. The rioters then went to Foremen Evans and O'Donnell, 
and told them to leaA^e town on the first train east, which 
they did. 

In the evening the destruction of Chinatown was com- 
pleted. Not all the Chinese had fled, judging by the coroner's 
jury reports, which in a number of cases read that the victims 
"came to their death from exposure to fire."^ 

The aggressors, like the victims, appear to have been al- 
most all aliens. James H. Dickey, in charge of the Beckwith, 
Quinn & Company store at No. 6 mine testified that they 
were Welsh, Cornishmen, and Swedes.^ Three Union Pacific 
Directors were quoted in a press dispatch as saying that the 
attacking party included English, Welsh. Scotch, Irish, and 
Scandinavians. ^° The Chinese Consul at San Francisco, Avho 
held an investigation at Rock Springs, wrote that not one of 
the attackers was a native of this countrv, manv had resided 

6 Ibid., pp. 13-14. Eeport of Ralph Zwicky, Manager of Eoek 
Springs Store of Beckwith, Quinn & Company. 

7 House Reports, loc, cit., p. 14. 

8 Ibid., pp. 16-17. 

9 Ibid., p. 13. 

10 Ibid., p. 24. 


in the United States less than a year, and only a small number 
were naturalized citizens. "^^ The names of the attackers were 
never published. The grand jury of Sweetwater County 
brought in no indictments. It reported : 

We have diligently inquired into the occurrence at 
Rock Springs on the 2d day of September last, and though 
we have examined a large number of witnesses, no one 
has been able to testify to a single criminal act committed 
by any known white person that day. Whatever crimes 
may have been committed, the perpetrators thereof have 
not been disclosed by the evidence before us ; and, there- 
fore, while we deeply regret the circumstance, we are 
wholly unable, acting under the obligation of our oaths, 
to return indictments. We have also inquired into the 
causes that led to the outbreak at Rock Springs. While 
we tind no excuse for the crimes committed, there ap- 
pears to be no doubt of abuses existing that should have 
been promptly adjusted by the railroad company and its 
officers. If this had been done, the fair name of our 
Territory would not have been stained by the terrible 
events of the 2d of September. ^^ 

Meanwhile order had been restored and the Chinese had 
been brought back to Rock Springs. Most of those who es- 
caped the massacre had walked west along the railroad toward 
the town of Green River. The railroad company telegraphed 
to its conductors to pick up the Chinese along the line, both 
east and west of Rock Springs, and carry them to Evanston.^'"' 
There was strou'^ feeling against the Chinese at Evanston and 
at Almy, near Evanston, but the arrival of troops forestalled 
a possible repetition of the massacre. Governor Warren of 
Wyoming Territory appealed to President Cleveland on the 
4th of September, as follows : 

Evanston, Wyoming, 4th. Uidawful combinations and 
conspiracies exist among coal-miners and others, in the 
Uintah and Sweetwater Counties in this Territory, which 
prevents individuals and corporations from enjoyment 
and protection of their property, and obstruct execution 
of laws. Open insurrection at Rock Springs : property 
burned ; sixteen dead bodies found ; probably tifty more 
under ruins. Seven hundred Chinamen driven from town, 

11 Ibid., p. 10. 

12 House Reports, loc. eit., p. 25. 

13 Ibid., p. 29. Cf . The Chinese Massacre, pp. 4, 52-53, and Beard, 
Frances Birkhead, Wyoming From Territorial Davs to the Present, 
Vol. I, p. 373. 


and have taken refuge at Evanston, and are ordered to 
leave there. Sheriff powerless to make necessary arrests 
and protect life and property, unless supported by organ- 
ized bodies of armed men. Wyoming had no territorial 
militia; therefore I respectfully and earnestly request the 
aid of the United States troops, not only to protect the 
mails and mail-routes, but that they may be instructed to 
support civil authorities until order is restored, criminals 
arrested, and the suffering relieved. ^^ 

A few days later Governor Warren telegraphed the Presi- 
dent again : 

Referring to my several late telegrams, I respectfully 
submit that the unlawful organized mob in possession of 
coal-mines at Almy, near here, will not permit Chinamen 
to approach their own home, property, or employment. 
Prom the nature of the outbreak, sheriff of county cannot 
rally sufficient posse, and territorial government cannot 
sufficiently aid him. Insurrectionists know, through news- 
papers and dispatches, that troops will not interfere under 
present orders ; and moral effect of presence of troops is 
destroyed. If troops were known to have orders to assist 
sheriff's posse in case driven back, I am quite sure civil 
authorities could restore order without actual use of sol- 
diers. But unless United States Government can find 
way to relieve us immediately, I believe worse scenes than 
those at Rock Springs will follow, and all Chinamen 
driven from the Territory. I beg an early reply and 
information regarding the attitude of the United States 

The difficulty of securing troops is told in a long series of 
telegrams quoted in the Union Pacific report and the House 
of Representatives documents.-^*" Troops finally arrived from 
Camp Murray, Utah Territory,^''' and escorted the Chinese 
back to Rock Springs on the 9th, just a week after the massa- 
cre. The press west of the Missouri objected strenuously.^^ 
The Rock Springs Independent tossed the gauntlet to the 
Union Pacific: 

14 The Chinese Massacre, p. 2. 

15 Ibid., p. 3. 

16 Ibid., pp. 63-69, and House Reports, loc. cit., p. 18. 

17 Apparently there were also some troops from Fort Steele. The 
Chinese Massacre, p. 14. 

18 Ibid., p. 7 ff. 


The action of the company in bringing back the 
Chinese means that they are to be set to work in the mines, 
and that American soldiers are to prevent them from 
being again driven out. 

It means that all white miners at Rock Springs, ex- 
cept those absolutely required, are to be replaced by 
Chinese labor. 

It means that the company intend to make a "China- 
town" out of Rock Springs, as they proposed to the Almy 
miners last Monday. 

It means that Rock Springs is killed, as far as white 
men are concerned, if such a programme is carried out. 

How do our miners and how do our business men like 
the situation, and what are they going to do about it ? 

There is bat one thing to do : miners, merchants, and 
railway employes must unite as one man against such a 
high-handed proceeding. It is a matter in which every 
business man and every working man along the line of 
the Union Pacific is concerned. 

If the labor organizations of Colorado and Wyoming, 
backed up by the business interest and public sentiment 
and public press of the country, cannot enforce their de- 
mand that the Chinese must go, we are much mistaken 
as to their strength. 

Neither the labor organizations nor public sentiment 
will uphold the brutal murder of the Chinese last week. 
The punishment of these crimes is within the province of 
the civil authorities, and they will not be molested in the 
prosecution of their duties. But innocent men with their 
families, and the business interest of Rock Springs, must 
not be allowed to suffer through the avenging spirit of 
the Union Pacific Railway. Let the demand go up from 
one end of the Union Pacific to the other, THE CHINESE 
MUST G0.19 

The spear-head of opposition to the employment of Chi- 
nese was the Knights of Labor association. This national 
organization was growing very rapidly in the 1880s. At the 
end of 1878 the membership was only 9,287. At the end of 
1883 the membership was 51,91-1. By 1886, at the peak of 
its power, its membership had risen to 700,000. -'^ The National 
organization had worked for the passage of the Chinese Exclu- 

19 The Chinese Massacre, p. 15. 

20 Hacker, L. M. and Kendrick, B. B. The United States since 
1865, pp. 226-227. 


sion Act in Congress in 1882.21 Its activity in Rock Springs 
seems to go back to 1883. ^^ 

Was sentiment along the line of the Union Pacific, coupled 
with the organized effort of the Knights of Labor, power- 
ful enough to force the Union Pacific to abandon Chinese 
labor? Was the Union Pacific justified in bringing in Chinese 
laborers in the first place? Before these questions are an- 
swered, it may be well to review briefly the conflict over 
Chinese labor from its beginning. 

Chinese migration to the United States began with the 
California gold discovery in 1848. White men busy looking 
for gold were glad to leave menial tasks to the Chinese. Con- 
gress prohibited the importation of Chinese coolies in 1862, 
but many were brought in for construction work on the Pacific 
railways. As more white laborers migrated to California, 
trouble with the Chinese developed. Although there was some 
anti-Chinese feeling in California, the United States Govern- 
ment ignored this and signed the Burlingame Treaty with 
China in 1868. Most-favored-nation treatment was granted 
to Chinese subjects in the United States, although they were 
denied the right of naturalization. Friction in California 
continued. This led to the modification of the Burlingame 
Treaty in 1880 to the extent that China recognized the right 
of the United States to regulate, limit, or suspend Chinese 
immigration whenever it was deemed necessary. In 1882 
under the terms of this treaty Chinese immigration was sus- 
pended for ten years. ^^ Later this exclusion became permanent. 

In Wyoming Territory friction between whites and Chi- 
nese came later than in California. The mines at Rock Springs 
had been worked exclusively by whites until 1875 when a 
strike occurred. Spokesmen for the Union Pacific contended 
that the white miners Avere most unreasonable in their de- 
mands at that time. According to the company records the 
miners were receiving one dollar per ton and demanded 
twenty-five cents more per ton. Mr. Glafcke, editor of the 
Cheyenne Leader, in 1885, who was much opposed to Chinese 
labor, nevertheless was of the opinion that the demands of 
the white miners in 1875 had forced the Company to bring in 
Chinese. Glafcke wrote: "But if the white men will not 
dig the company's coal for pay, who will blame the com- 

21 Moiison, S. E., and Commager, H. S., The Growth of the Amerj- 
ean Eepublic, Vol. II, p. 155. 

22 Judging from testimony of O. C. Smith, House Eeports, loe. 
cit., p. 12. 

23 Stephenson, G. M. American History Since 1865, p. 121 ff. 


pany for hiring yellow, black, or red men, who are ready and 
willing to do what white men will not do ? " ^^ 

About 150 Chinese laborers were brought to Rock Springs 
in 1875, and more later, by the firm of Beckwith, Quinn & 
Company, which thereafter furnished miners of all nationali- 
ties for the Union Pacific Railroad, and took care of the pay 
roll for both whites and Chinese. ^^ Striking white miners 
lost their jobs in 1875. Work was resumed with the 150 Chi- 
nese and 50 whites. -^ In following years the numbers of 
Chinese and whites alike were increased. Company records 
indicate, as has been mentioned, that at the time of the massa- 
cre there were 150 whites and 331 Chinese employed in the 
mines, ^7 figures which do not take into account hundreds of 
others in each category otherwise employed. Estimates of 
the number of Chinese temporarily driven from Rock Springs 
vary from 600 to 700. No doubt many of the whites disliked 
the Chinese from their first appearance in Rock Springs, and 
liked them less as they became more numerous. A memorial 
signed by 559 Chinese residents of Rock Springs and sent to 
their consul at New York, dated September 18, 1885, declared 
that "While they knew that the white men entertained ill 
feelings toward them the Chinese did not take any precau- 
tion * * *, inasmuch as at no time in the past had there been 
any quarrel or fighting between the races. ^^ 

Company spokesmen declared that until the massacre rela- 
tions between whites and Chinese had been generally peaceful. 
William H. O'Donnell, foreman of the Chinese and company 
storekeeper, testified that in ten years that Chinese had been 
employed in the mines there had been no trouble Avorth men- 
tioning. -9 A. C. Beckwith, member of the firm of Beckwith, 
Quinn & Company, testified that there had never been any 
complaint by the white men against the employment of Chi- 
nese, and that there had been the best of feeling between the 
two races working in the mines. ^° 

Territorial newspapers took the attitude that the presence 
of Chinese miners was a serious threat to the well-being of 
the white miners. The Rock Springs Independent reported 
that feeling had been growing in the summer of 1885. The 

24 The Chinese Massacre, p. -iO. 

25 House Reports, loe. cit., p. 13. The agreement made between 
Beckwith, Quinn, & Company and the Union Pacific Railroad Company 
is reproduced in full in The Chinese Massacre, p. 41 ff. 

26 The Chinese Massacre, p. 45. 

27 Ibid. 

28 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 30. 

29 Ibid., p. 12. 

30 House Reports, loc. cit., pp. 12-13. 


Independent declared that white men had been turned off the 
section and hundreds could not get work while the Chinese 
were shipped in by the car-load and given work. ^^ The 
Cheyenne Tribune reported: "In extenuation of their action 
in compelling the Chinese to leave Rock Springs the miaiers 
claim they were driven to desperation at seeing their wives 
and children starving. It is to be regretted that the riot 
should have occurred, but it must be hard to starve when food 
is within reach. "^^ The Laramie Boomerang called to mind 
that some time before, when the Union Pacific company re- 
duced the hours of their employees, notices had been posted 
at various points between Ogden and Laramie, demanding 
the immediate discharge of all Chinamen. "This order, as has 
usually been the case," the Boomerang continued, "was dis- 
obeyed and the result has been a most serious one. * * *"33 

The assorted evidence submitted by the Chinese ambassa- 
dor, Cheng Tsao Ju, to Secretary of State Bayard attempted 
to show that most of the complaints against the Chinese were 
unjustified. 3^ The Chinese Consul at San Francisco, who 
collected most of the material for the ambassador, reported 
that the Chinese were paid the same rate per ton as white 
miners received for taking coal out, and that whites and Chi- 
nese worked upon the same terms, and were governed by the 
same regulations. The Chinese miners, he contended, had 
always been law-abiding and peaceful. The one offense which 
the Chinese consul recognized was the refusal of Chinese 
miners to join the whites in strike. The refusal of the Chinese 
to join the Knights of Labor made it probable that .strikes 
could not be successful. It was this, the consul said, that led 
directly to the decision that the Chinese would have to be 
expelled from all the mines along the Union Pacific. 

The contention of the Chinese ambassador that the Chi- 
nese did not under-cut the white miners was based upon the 
statements of the company officials. A. C. Beckwith, although 
he maintained that the wages were the same, admitted that 
the earnings of a Chinese miner averaged $3 a day, while 
white miners averaged from three to four dollars. ^^ The 
standard price was seventy-four cents per ton, although in 
some cases the price varied from seventy to eightj^-five cents 
according to the vein. ^^ The assumption is apparently that 
the whites turned out more work. 

31 Ibid., p. 21. 

32 Quoted in Laramie Boomerang, Sept. 5, 1885. 

33 Ibid., Sept. 3, 1885. 

34 House Eeports, loc. cit., p. 3 ff . 

35 Ibid., p. 13. 

36 The Chinese Massacre, p. 45. 


Ralph Zwicky, manager of the Rock Springs store of 
Beekwith, Quinn & Company, mentioned grievances of the 
white miners, such as pit-boss favoritism for the Chinese, but 
denied any personal knowledge except for the discharge of 
one boss who had been proved guilty of selling rooms. 

On September 19, 1885, soon after the massacre, Thomas 
Neasham, chairman of the Knights of Labor Executive com- 
mittee of Employees of the Union Pacific Railway, asked the 
removal of Chinese from the system. ^"^ In behalf of the 
Knights of Labor Neasham submitted a report charging that 
the white miners at Rock Springs had been replaced by Chi- 
nese who paid mine bosses as much as $100 for their places, 
had been made to work where Chinese would not work, had 
been robbed by the use of false weights, had been discharged 
because they refused to vote for Mrs. Tisdel for school super- 
intendent, and had been compelled to buy their goods from 
the store of Beekwith, Quinn & Company. Besides asking the 
abandonment of Chinese labor, the Knights of Labor asked 
the removal of Beekwith, Quinn & Company, and D. 0. Clark, 
general superintendent of the Coal Department. 

The general manager of the Union Pacific, S. R. Callaway, 
replied in terms very familiar in 1939: "When the company 
can be assured against strikes and other outbreaks at the 
hands of persons who deny its owners the right to manage 
their property, it may consider the expediency of abandoning 
Chinese labor ; but under all circumstances and at any cost 
or hazard it will assert its right to employ whom it pleases 
and refuse to ostracize any one class of its employees at the 
dictation of another. ' ' ^8 TJiig uncompromising attitude was 
expressed just four days after Charles F. Adams, Junior, 
President of the Union Pacific Railway Company, with head- 
quarters in Boston, had wired Callaway: "We here think you 
too timid. "39 

It was then the intention of the Union Pacific to keep the 
Chinese at work, no matter how loud the protests became. 

(The second part of this study, which will appear in the next 
issue of the Annals, will carry the conflict to its conclusion, and will 
consider the international questions raised when the Chinese Govern- 
ment claimed damages.) 

37 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 20. 

38 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 21. 

39 The Chinese Massacre, p. 71. 



(A Review) 

By Dan W. Greenburg* 

While it has always been related that Fort William (pres- 
ent Fort Laramie) was named for William L. Sublette, noted 
fur trader of St. Louis, Missouri, in 1834, not until recently 
has the origin of the naming of the old trading post been 
disclosed. It has now, authentically, been proven that it was 
named for three persons, Sublette, Anderson, and Patton, 
each of whose first names were William. Anderson was a 
friend of Sublette's and joined his party on a trip to Green 
E/iver Rendezvous in 1834, while Patton was a clerk in the 
employ of Sublette, Campbell and Fitzpatrick, and remained 
at the site of this new post established by Sublette and his 

Credit for the research into this intensely interesting- 
sidelight on the establishment of a fur trading post on Lara- 
mie river near its junction with the North Platte, goes to the 
Historical Department of the University of Montana and 
Albert J. Partoll, who edited the Anderson Journals, his 
review of which appeared in one of the 1939 issues of the 
FRONTIER AND MIDLAND, a magazine until recently pub- 
lished at the Montana State LTniversity, Missoula. 

siderable attention to a research of the fur trading days and 
frequently published new and important discoveries dealing 
with the early period of the West. Previously, under direc- 

^BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCH— Daniel W. Greenburg passed away 
at his home in Cheyenne, Wyoming, on the evening of January 1, 1940, 
following a heart attack with which he was stricken earlier in the 
day, and thus was brought to a close a useful career of varied ac- 
tivity, much of which centered around his avocation of historical re- 

He had prepared the above review especially for the ANNALS, 
which was only one of his many gestures of cooperation with the State 
Historical Department during this and previous administrations. 

Mr. Greenburg was bom in Chicago, in April, 1876, but passed forty 
years of his life at Lewisto^vni, Idaho, before coming to Wyoming in 
1924. He managed and edited a number of newspapers during his earlier 
life. Originally living at Casper, Wyoming, Mr. Greenburg, as pub- 
licity director for the Midwest Kefining Company, edited the com- 
pany's magazine, "The Midwest Eeview, " until early in 1931, when 
publication was suspended. He and Mrs. Greenburg moved to Cheyenne 
in 1935, following the former's appointment as director-secretary of 
the State Planning Board, which he held until its consolidation with 


tion of Prof. Paul F. Phillips, of the University of Montana, 
splendid contributions were made to the annals of early West- 
ern Americana, much of which has had specific interest in early 
Wyoming history. 

The late feature, "Anderson's Narrative of a Ride to the 
Kocky Mountains in 1834," is full of impelling interest and 
throws new light upon Sublette's activities in Wyoming. 
While the article is too lengthy to reproduce here, our readers 
will be keenly interested in some of the highlights of Ander- 
son's Journal. As an "introduction" Mr. Partoll discloses 
something about Anderson in the following manner : 

"William Marshall Anderson, the writer of this inter- 
esting narrative, came to the far western region as a guest 
of the William L. Sublette expedition of the Rocky Mountain 
Fur Company. He accompanied the Sublette party from 
Independence, Missouri, following the Kaw river, the Blue 
and the North Platte rivers, and the Sweetwater river to the 
fur trade rendezvous in the Green River valley of the later 
state of Wyoming. For the main part the route was over the 
famed Old Oregon trail of the pioneers. 

"The narrative here presented is taken from Anderson's 
journal of May 28, 1834, to June 19, 1834, which relates to 
his journey from Chimney Rock in Nebraska to the Green River 
rendezvous in Wyoming. In this brief interval Anderson 
recorded a series of events and descriptions worthy of serious 
consideration among the records of western American expan- 
sion and development. Many noted figures of the early fron- 
tier are mentioned as participants in this fur trade venture, 
which was one of the most picturesque in the history of the 
far west. 

another department in 1939. Eecently, he had accepted the position of 
district census supervisor for three southern Wyoming counties, with 
headquarters at Cheyenne. 

An avid student of State and "western history, on which he was 
thoroughly informed, as well as being a prolific Avriter and contributor 
to various publications, Mr. Greenburg was active in promoting a greater 
appreciation for the historical values of the State, and in this connec- 
tion he is credited with being largely responsible for creation of the 
Wyoming Historical Landmarks Commission by the State Legislature. 
He served as publicity director for the commission for several years; 
also, was active in the work of the Oregon Trail Memorial Association, 
of which he was a regional director, and at the National Convention 
of the Association at Sacramento, Calif., the past summer, secured the 
1940 convention for Wyoming, the conclave to be held in the Teton 
National Park at the Jackson Lodge, near Moran, in August. Coinci- 
dent with his death came announcement from eastern headquarters of 
the Association that Mr. Greenburg had been elected vice-president 
of the organization. 


''Anderson left his home in Louisville, Kentucky, March 
11, 1834, for St. Louis and continued to Independence, Mis- 
souri, where he joined the Sublette expedition, which left for 
the mountains April 26. He returned to the east accompany- 
ing Thomas Fitzpatrick and party through Council Bluffs, 
September 11, from where he made his way homeward by 
way of St. Louis to Louisville, where he arrived October 6." 

Mr. PartoU has done a splendid work in his "footnotes" 
referring to the published parts of the journal, and the foot- 
notes are as interesting as is the original narrative. It is 
unimportant that there are some errors, which naturally creep 
iuto such footnotes, as for instance, he refers to Laramie, the 
noted trapper, as "Joseph" which of course is an error, since 
his name was "Jacques." He also says that Laramie was 
drowned in 1821, but so far as known it has always been cur- 
rently thought that Laramie M'^as killed by Indians and his 
remains lie in an unmarked grave somewhere along the Lara- 
mie river. This, however, does not detract in the least from 
the splendid work Mr. Partoll has done in his review of the 
Anderson journal. Another footnote gives additional light 
on Anderson's life, indicating his fitness to observe details 
on such a journey. A man of education and culture, he had 
a distinctive style in writing of his observations. Partoll saj^s : 

"William Marshall Anderson was born June 24, 1807, at 
Soldier's Retreat, Louisville, Kentucky, and was the son 
of Colonel Richard Clough Anderson and Sarah Marshall. 
His education included attendance at Transylvania Institute 
at Lexington, where he continued until his junior year. 
Louisville, Kentucky, Chillicothe and Circleville, Ohio, were 
his main places of residence. He practiced law for a time 
and was later engaged in farming. In 1835 he married Eliza 
Ann McArthur, and in 1857 following the death of his first 
wife, married Ellen Columbia Ryan. The first marriage was 
blessed with four boys and five girls, and the second with 
three boys and one girl. He passed away at Circleville, Ohio, 
January 7, 1881, leaving a distinguished line of descendents. " 

It is further disclosed that Anderson's father, by his first 
marriage, was a brother-in-law of the brothers William Allen 
Clark, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and George Rogers 
Clark, Revolutionary hero. 

Referring to the founding of Fort AVilliam, Anderson's 
journal is quoted as of May 31, 1834, by Mr. Partoll as follows: 

"31st.- — This evening we arrived at the mouth of Lara- 
mie's Fork, where Capt. (William L.) Sublette intends to 
erect a trader's fort. This is a bright and rapid stream of 
water, running out of the Black Hills from the South. As 
soon as the fort is planned and commenced we will resume 


our westward march. The Black Hills are spurs of the great 
Bocky Mountain range, and derive their name from the dark 
shadoAvs which the cedar and pine growing upon their sides, 
forcibly suggest." Now on the next day is definitely estab- 
lished that it was June 1, 1834, that began the building of 
Fort William. Here is Anderson's account: 

"June 1st. — 1834. — This day we laid the foundation log 
of a fort, on Laramie 's fork. A friendly dispute arose between 
our leader and myself, as to the name. He proposed to call 
it Fort Anderson, I insisted on calling it Fort Sublette, and 
holding the trump card in my hand, (a bottle of champagne 
was about to claim the trick). Sublette stood by, cup reversed, 
still objecting when (William) Patton offered a compromise 
which was accepted, and the foam flew, in honor of Fort 
William, which contained the triad prenames of clerk, leader 
and friend. Leaving Patton and fourteen men to finish tlie 
job, we started upwards. From the top of the Black Hills I 
got my first view of the Kocky Mountains — the snow covered 
mountains. My eyes have been fastened upon them all day, 
and at night I am not sobered, I must pen down my mind 

''My first thought or feeling rather, was. Oh, ye toppling 
crags of ice, "summoned by the desperate Manfred'," to 
crush him! Wherein are ye more terrific, more magnificently 
grand ! See towering up to Heaven, the Kremlin of the winter 
God! Pillars and arches of gold and silver, with rose dyed 
glories of the setting sun, flashing from tower to tower. There 
palaces and pyramids of christal pierce the skies, and all 
around mansions of parian purity, spotless and white as virgin' 
souls. Other portions of the range, not entirely wrapped in 
snow, were ever changing in form and color, whilst the sum- 
mits were sporting with broad blades of light, the center was 
darkened by moving clouds, which like the mighty billows 
surged onward and upward, or rolled back with resistless 
power, as if to tear the giant Oregon from its base. To me 
these mimic battles of clouds and mountains are supremely 
grand, and whether serious thoughts or wild imaginings, I 
write them down. 

"In six or seven hundred miles of weary travel, we have 
seen no trees, save here and there a cottonwood, near the 
banks, or on some island on the Platte. 

"Marvels, they say. will never cease, but the marvel of 
mar^^els is now before me. This muddy, slow and sleepy 
(North) Platte — this water cheat, which, for so many days, 
we have seen floating downward, impelled by its own weight 
— is here, one of the mightiest elements of the earth. It has 


come rushing with resistless power, over barriers of granite 
rock, and bursting and breaking through the Black Hills, 
leaving perpendicular walls eight hundred feet on either side. 
I feel assured I shall never forget the grand spectacle, or 
cease to wonder at the change. I shall also mark this day 
with a white pebble, for another cause: I killed one of the 
fastest of fast animals, the antelope. Moore calls it 'the 
silver-footed Antelope.' Those of our deserts are decidedly 

Referring to the establishment of Fort William, Partoll, 
in a footnote, says: "Anderson gives vital facts regarding the 
beginning of this trading post. Robert Campbell is believed 
to have been among those who remained to help with its 
construction. Fort William was later known as Fort Laramie 
from its location, and was shortly acquired by the American 
Fur Company. Another post by the same name was later 
built in the vicinity and became the property of the United 
States government in 1849." It would be interesting to read 
the detail of Anderson's diary, which is not quoted in Par- 
toll's review. There is no attempt here to point out any 
deficiencies in Partoll 's footnotes, but he seems to have lost 
sight of the fact that "Fort John" was another name given 
the post in question. Fort John, Fort William and Fort 
Laramie, each and all of them w^ere located within the area 
of present Fort Laramie, now once again in the title of the 
United States government. Recently the writer of this review 
came into possession of a photographic print from an oil 
painting of "Sublette's Fort" made in 1837 when the post 
was in charge of Lucien Fontenelle for the American Fur 
Company, and undoubtedly is that of the post started by 
Sublette in 1834. 

The Anderson narrative reviews the day by day journey 
up the Platte in which he dwells upon the scenic beauties, 
the wild game and the constant lookout for Indians, which 
he terms "Yellow-jackets." He has crossed the Platte in the 
vicinity of Casper; thence on towards Red Buttes, which he 
describes in his inimitable way. He tells of the journey across 
the country to the Sweetwater: "Immense numbers of buffalo 
are in sight," he says, and then he regales us with his gastro- 
nomic estimate of buffalo ribs, hump and tongue, all the most 
tender and delicious delicacies. What he took for "frost" 
turned out to be the well known soda lakes near the Sweet- 
water, as he later learned. It was on June 6th that he reached 
"Rock Independence," and his comment is worthy of repro- 
ducing here : 

"We have breakfasted this morning at the base of Rock 
Independence. There are few places better known or more 


biteresting to the mountaineer than this huge boulder. Here 
they look for and often obtain information of intense interest 
to them. On the side of the rock names, dates and messages, 
written in buffalo-grease and powder, are read and re-read 
with as much eagerness as if they were letters in detail from 
long absent friends. Besides being a place of advertisement, 
or kind of trappers' post office, it possesses a reputation and 
a fame peculiar to itself. It is a large, egg-shaped mass of 
granite, entirely separate and apart from all other Mils, or 
ranges of hills. One mile in circumference, and about six or 
seven hundred feet high, without a particle of vegetation, and 
with no change known but the varying sparkles of mica which 
are seen by day and by tlie moon by night. 

"Some years ago, a party of buffalo killers and beaver 
skinners celebrated here our national jubilee on the great 
Fourth of July. What noise, what roar of powder and pomp 
of patriotism surrounded and echoed from this eternal monu- 
ment my informant did not say, nor can I imagine. I shall 
suppose the immortal Declaration was talked over, Washing- 
ton toasted, and Rock Independence baptised into the old 

"We are now in a very dangerous region, and our motto is, 
or should be, 'watch and pray.' There is a great deal of the 
first done, I know, and very little of the last I suspect.'' On 
this same day Anderson soars in eloquence over the scenic beau- 
ties of the region. He describes his journey up the Sweetwater 
— through the ' ' narrow gorge, ' ' which must have been at Devil 's 
Gate ; then on the 9th the party find ' ' fresh horse tracks, ' ' which 
they followed and found a letter sticking in a twig near Fitzpat- 
rick's "Cache." It was from Louis Vasquez, who later was to 
become a partner in the ownership of Fort Bridger. In his 
narrative, Anderson says : 

"It was from Lew Vasquez," referring to the letter, "a 
great favorite of the mountaineers, who had almost been given 
up for lost. This letter was his resurrection. He was much 
talked of today, and always praised. One old trapper said 
'thank God he lives, and I shall hear his merry laugh again.' 

On the same day, Anderson muses: "Today I drink the 
waters which flow into the Atlantic ; tomorrow I shall (luench 
my thirst from fountains which send their tributaries to the 
Ocean of Peace (Pacific). We have had a restless, sleepless, 
and unhappy night. My anxiety is particularly great. Our 
hunter and young Walker, the grandson of ]\rajor Christy of 
St. Louis, have not returned. I have ascended all the highest 
hills, and eminences around, to look for them. Our guns have 
all been discharged, but no response, no sign." However, next 
day's notes tell that 12 miles beyond they came upon the men. 


who were calmly awaiting their arrival. Then Anderson de- 
scribes his crossing South Pass and later of the arrival of the 
party at the Green River Rendezvous, their original objective. 
For a number of succeeding days he tells of the life at the ' ' Ren- 
dezvous" and of the many notables in the peltry traffic encoun- 
tered, including Major Drips, Vasquez, Fitzpatrick, John Gray, 
Nathanial Wyeth and many Indian chiefs. 

Space forbids quoting more extensively, but the charm of 
the Anderson Diary intrigues one to know m.ore of the man's 
life, and to have opportunity to read the more full and complete 
diary. In his last footnote in relation to Anderson's narrative, 
Mr. Partoll says : 

''Following the termination of the rendezvous some days 
later, Anderson returned east with a party under Thomas Fitz- 
patrick, with memories of his western sojourn preserved in his 
personal notes. He had participated in a historic expedition 
in 'pioineering the west' and had seen the far western frontier 
when the pelt of the beaver and the peltries of the fur trade 
induced men to brave great dangers, while, perhaps uncon- 
sciously, leading the way for white occupation of the great 
wilderness vaguely shown on early maps as the territory of 
Oregon. ' ' 


By Charles Gauld, III* 

A century ago this year my great-grandfather, Wm. Mar- 
shall Anderson, made a trip on horseback from Kentucky to 
Yellowstone and the Oregon Country. A native of Kentucky, 
he was the nephew of the great John Marshall. Leaving Louis- 
ville in March, 1834, he went to St. Louis where he had hoped 
to join the dragoons of the Pawnee-Pic expedition commanded 
by his relative Gen. Atkinson. Although he had a letter to 
General Dodge too, this did not work out. On General Atkin- 
son's advice he accepted the invitation of the famed fur trader 
Capt. Wm. Sublette to accompany him to the Rocky Mountains. 

The party left St. Louis April 26, 1834, for a rendezvous 
near Lexington, Missouri. Wm. Anderson had named his horse 
"Blackhawk" because of the participation of his brother Robert 
in the Blackhawk campaign. Later Robert Anderson com- 

* Charles Gauld, III is the great grandson of William Marshall 
Anderson, author of the Journal reviewed in the preceding article by 
Dan Greenburg. This article, written by Mr. Gauld, is a resume of 
his great-grandfather's journals, edited by Albert J. Partoll, and was 
published in the January, 1935, issue of ''The Washington Historical 
Quarterly. ' ' 


manded Fort fcJumpter, was a Union General, and founded the 
National Soldiers' Home in Washington, D. C. Wm. Anderson 
was much impressed by the fertility of the valley between St. 
Louis and Independence which he said was ' ' now the very verge 
of civilization." He described the recent Mormon strife there. 

On M,ay 7, 1834, the party camped on the Kansas river at 
General Marston G. Clark's Indian agency. lie and Wm. An- 
derson talked of mutual friends and relatives. Now far out on 
the Great Plains, the group crossed the Platte and headed for 
the Black Hills. On June 1, he wrote, "This day we laid the 
foundation log of a fort on Laramee's fork." He and Captain 
Sublette each wanted to name it for the other. They compro- 
mised, both being named William, and so Fort William was 
christened. He said in his little leather-bound journal, "From 
the top of the Black Hills I got my first view of the Rocky ]\Ioun- 
tains — the snow-covered mountains. My eyes have been fastened 
on them all day." 

In the Rockies they met trappers who had been away from 
civilization for from three to twelve years, bringing the freshest 
news in three years to one band of French and American trap- 
pers of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. On June 14, 1834, 
Wm. Anderson raised the first American flag seen in that part 
of the Rockies, to the cheers of the fur-men. 

Wm. Anderson met Nez Perces and Flatheads as they came 
into Sublette's camp in what is now the state of Idaho, to trade. 
One chief was very friendly when he heard Wm. Anderson was 
a relative of the explorer William Clark, and embraced him, 
telling him of his boyhood recollections of the great expedition. 
Wm. Anderson's blonde hair was much admired by the Indians. 
The same Flathead chief who remembered Clark gave Wm. 
Anderson a grizzly skin, complete with head and claw^s. 

June 18, he wrote, "Capt. Wyeth of Boston who left the 
settlements ten days before us, came into camp this evening. 
He is on his way to the mouth of the Columbia River, where 
he expects a vessel, freighted with merchandise to be exchanged 
for furs, salmon, etc. I have declined an invitation to accom- 
pany him, although his return trip by way of the Sandwich 
Islands is a strong temptation. I think I am far enough away 
from home for this time. ' ' 

"Mr. Edward Christy of St. Louis has just arrived from 
Fort Vancouver, bringing with him a considerable number of 
Snakes and Nez Perces." Fifteen hundred Indians were en- 
camped around Sublette to trade. Sublette met an old friend 
"Rotten Belly," a Nez Perce. Both had been wounded together 
in a fight against the terrible and hated Blackfeet, the brave 
being shot in the bellv. 


Wm. Marshall Anderson noted that all the mountain tribes 
had a similar name for Americans, it being the native word 
for "long-knife," "sword," or "big-blade." He described In- 
dians, buffalo herds and hunts, scenery of mountain and plains, 
and the fur trappers and traders of the remote Oregon Country 
of one hundred years ago. 

My grandfather. General T. M. Anderson, for whom Mt. 
Anderson in the Olympics is named, served at many frontier 
army posts before commanding Vancouver Barracks, Washing- 
ton,' from 1886 to 1898. In 1898 he led half of the forces that 
captured Manila, being the first American general to command 
an army overseas. 

The writer is at present engaged in the study of History 
at the University of Washington. 


(Excerpts from Diary of W. A. EICHAEDS*) 

"I have a very distinct recollection of my first experience 
"vvith a herd of buffalo. I was one of a party of fourteen travel- 
ing south from Fort Kearney, Nebraska, on foot, with two 
two-mule teams to haul our camp equipment and supplies. 

"We had reached a point about forty miles from Fort 
Kearney when, about the middle of the afternoon, as w^e were 
driving along a ridge or high plateau, with a little valley to 
the west, there suddenly appeared on the summit of the oppo- 
site ridge to the west of the valley a huge black line about 
half a mile long, which the chief of the party, who had been 
on the plains before, informed us, was a herd of buffalo. This 
ridge was about half a mile from us, and we were about oppo- 
site the center of the line. It w^as apparent that with our 
loaded teams it would be impossible to get beyond the line 
before the herd would be upon us. Our chief, who had had 
experience of this kind before, immediately called a halt, 
directed that the two wagons be brought up close together, 
one behind the other, and that the mules be unhitched and 

"NOTE — The manuscript from which these excerpts were taken 
was prepared from information furnished by Mrs. Alice Eichards 
McCreery, of 627 East 20th Street, Long Beach, California, daughter 
of Governor W. A. Eichards, author of the diary, and is on tile in the 
State Historical Department. Mrs. McCreery, whose husband was the 
late Eev. Gnuy W. McCreeiy, of Long Beach, was a young Avoman of 
18 at the time of her father's inauguration as Governor of Wyoming,, 
and served as his private secretary during the entire four years of 
his term of office. 

Additional information which brings the biographical data of the 
Richards family up to date, has been provided recently by Mrs. Mc- 
Creery and is also on file in the Department. 


placed behind the wagons opposite the side from which the 
buffalo were coming, and securely fastened to the wheels. 
One man was detailed to each mule to keep it quiet as possible. 
Then ten of us were instructed to take as many cartridges as 
we could put in our pockets, form a line, go out and meet the 
buffalo, and try to split them and keep them divided until 
they had passed the wagons. 

"We were armed with Spencer carbines, which shot a 
59-calibre bullet with a charge of powder much too light for 
that weight of lead and that kind of game. There was a 
magazine in the stock which would carry seven cartridges, 
and a lever which was used in the same manner in which the 
Winchester lever is used today. After the magazine was 
exhausted the gun could be used as a single shotgun is, loaded 
from the breach by hand. We went out some three hundred 
yards from the wagons and began to shoot. At that time the 
rear end of the herd had not come over the opposite ridge, 
so that we were facing a mass of buffalo half a mile long on 
the front and extending at least as far back, the animals 
packed as solidly together as it was possible for them to 
stand, and coming at what was only a fast walk until we 
began shooting, when they broke into a gallop. It was impos- 
sible for us to stop them as those in front were urged forward 
by those behind, and the crowding extended clear to the rear. 
The front of the line presented a terrifying appearance to a 
boy who had never fired a gun at anj'^thing larger than a 
rabbit. It seemed to be a solid mass of black heads, horns 
and humps, and extended as far as we could see in every 
direction in front of us. 

"I remember very distinctly that when I fired my first 
shot, the front of the line being about a hundred yards from 
us, I thought I had certainly struck a horn. I did not then 
know that one could hear a bullet strike a body of flesh at 
that distance but when I had fired several shots and heard 
them all strike I knew I was hitting something other than 
horns. At that particular moment there came into my mind 
a story I had read in the old fourth reader at school of an 
experience of this kind, in which old Leather Stocking, 
Cooper's hero in his story of "The Prairie," was the central 
figure. On that occasion the tide had been turned in favor 
of the few persons about to be overwhelmed by the onrushing 
herd, by the donkey which was used for a pack animal lifting 
up his voice when his domain had been encroached upon. As 
it had been successful on that occasion I thought some more 
noise might be of benefit at this time, and having pretty good 
lungs, I exerted them to the utmost, joined at once by the 


rest of the firing party. My theory worked out all right. At 
any rate, the noise of our guns and voices, with what execu- 
tion our bullets were doing, caused the herd to divide and 
pass on either side of us; but we soon found ourselves in a 
very precarious situation. 

"When the herd was first split the buffalo could see as 
v^ell as hear us and veered off either way, but those who were 
following created such a noise themselves and raised such a 
cloud of dust that they could hardly see or hear as, and soon 
began to crowd in on us in a manner exceedingly disquieting. 
We could see nothing except a black mass, which now almost 
surrounded us, and was being forced backward and in upon 
itself to such an extent that it became very doubtful whether 
we were going to be successful in our effort. Of course, if 
we failed here, it meant that we would be trampled under 
foot and the entire party, as well as the outfit, literally wiped 
off the face of the earth. What with our shooting and shout- 
ing and the terrific noise of the herd and the excitement of 
the occasion there was little time to figure on the probability. 
We only knew that we had been forced into a solid line, and 
were simply splitting the herd because we would not double 
up or give way on either end. We had been giving back, 
foot by foot, for what seemed to me a very long time, had 
very few cartridges left, and it was becoming evident we 
could not stand the strain much longer. Just then our backs 
came in contact with the wagon, and at almost the same 
instant we saAv daylight ahead of us, and there was the end 
of the herd. Those at the wagon said that for more than 
half an hour they had been entirely surrounded by buffalo, 
as the herd had united as soon as the wagons were passed. 
The chief of our party declared that in ten years' work on 
the plains this was the closest shave he ever had had from 
being annihilated by buffalo. The most remarkable thing 
about the whole affair was that when the herd had passed 
and the dust had settled there were only two dead buffalo 
l^dng upon the plains, while more than 300 shots had been 
fired. With such guns as are used today for hunting purposes 
a large proportion of the shots Avould have killed. With the 
guns Avhicli we were using, a shot in the head from the front 
would not even knock a buffalo down. 

"Having a small supply of water in our wagons, we 
camped at this place, but got very little sleep, as the herd 
stopped within a short distance of us and spent the night 
there. On account, doubtless, of the wounded buffalo and 
the smell of fresh blood they were in a state of turmoil all 
night while the wolves, both coyotes and the large gray 
wolves, kept up an incessant howling all night long. In 


addition to these unpleasant features there was the constant 
fear of a stampede of the herd in our direction again. This 
did not occur, however, and we moved on the next morning 
in good order with a plentiful supply of buffalo meat, the 
first we had obtained upon the trip. 

"This was my introduction to buffalo hunting, of which 
J. did a great deal during the next few years. In that time 
I saw herds of buffalo larger than this herd, but we were 
always so fortunate as not to get in their line of march. 

"The buffalo is, under ordinary circumstances, a docile 
animal, neither aggressive nor combative, but I had some 
experiences with them which went to show that when aggra- 
vated they are exceedingly dangerous. I found that ordinarily 
a buffalo, like any other wild animal with which I have had 
experience, including the grizzly bear, would run from a 
hunter if given the opportunity, and when wounded it would 
not ordinarily charge a man from a greater distance than 
about fifty yards. Upon one occasion I met one which was 
an exception to this rule. I was hunting on foot with a 
Henry rifle, which was the first model of the Winchester. 
Buffaloes were not plentiful in that locality, but finally I 
sighted an old bull lying on the plain ; there was nothing 
within half a mile of him to conceal a hunter. Hunting on 
foot, I needed meat badly and could not afford to let this old 
fellow get away. I worked around directly behind him and 
then advanced toward him. Buffaloes are not very wary when 
lying down, and I approached to within about a hundred and 
fifty yards, when I concluded I was as close as I cared to 
be and so took a shot at him. 

"When lying down, a buft'alo's back slopes considerably 
on account of its forequarters being so much the heavier, 
and my bullet struck this sloping surface on a rib, made a 
slit in the skin, and did no further damage. The old fellow 
jumped up and started to run at right angles to the line T 
was following, giving me a good shot at his side. I fired, but 
having underestimated the distance, the ball dropped and 
struck him just above the hoof of the foreleg. Although I 
found subsequently that this ball broke no bones, it had a 
very bad effect upon his temper, for, to my great surprise, 
he turned and came straight toward me. 

"I would have liked to have gone somewhere, but the 
plain extended for a mile in every direction without a break. 
and I could not outrun him for that distance. There was 
nothing for it but to hold my ground and shoot, which T 
proceeded to do, and I was much gratified to see that I 
retained my nerve, for I could hear every ball strike him. 
He came on without any hesitation and I kept shooting as 


fast as possible, but after a few shots became very much 
alarmed respecting the number of cartridges remaining in 
the magazine. I had not time to look to see whether I was 
throwing in a cartridge every time I threw down the lever, 
and every time I pulled it was with a sickening feeling of 
uncertainty as to whether the gun was loaded or not. Aside 
from this I was getting a little bit doubtful of the propriety 
of holding the fort much longer, when just as I was about 
to pull the trigger for another shot, he suddenly stopped. 
He was near enough so that I could have thrown my hat 
upon his horns. I had determined to fire that shot and then 
turn the fight into a foot race, and I was consequently very 
much displeased when he showed a disposition to call it a 
draw. I did not fire again because I felt morally certain I had 
the last cartridge in the gun; besides this, the shot was as 
apt to start him forward as to do him any injury, and I was 
very certain I had had enough of it, so I stood there holding 
the gun on him but hoping that it would not be necessary 
to fire. 

''He certainly presented the most terrifying aspect of any 
animal I had ever faced. He was of immense size, had been 
shot several times where it brought the blood, was standing 
with his feet slightly apart, his head somewhat lowered as 
though he would like to charge me, with blood and foam 
running from his mouth and nostrils while he sent forth a 
low bellow of rage. This situation did not last long. He had 
come just as far as he could and had stopped, not because 
he was afraid of me, but because he could not come a step 
farther. He stood there and glared and bellowed until he 
began to waver a little from one side to the other. Suddenly 
he went down. He was dead when I reached him. 

''I found two or three bullets in his foretop or flattened 
on his skull, while the ball which killed him had passed along 
the side of his neck and had entered his body between the 
neck and the shoulder blade. But for that one fortunate shot 
this story would probably have had an entirely different 
ending. ' ' 

' ' Here is another hunting experience of those early days : 
"In 1873 I was hunting on Sheep mountain in southern 
"Wyoming. On its summit, near the Little Snake River, there 
is a well defined crater, now closed at the bottom and over- 
grown with grass. 

"Here I came on a small band of mountain sheep, which 
immediately disappeared over the farther rim of the crater. 
Crossing over after them and looking down the side of the 
mountain which was a mass of broken rock without timber, 


I saw the sheep strung out, working their way around the 
mountain side, about two hundred yards below me. The last 
in line was a young buck, who stopped and gazed up the 
mountain with an evident desire to come back. Resting my 
gun across a large boulder, I took deliberate aim just behind 
the knuckle of the shoulder and fired. To my great surprise 
he fell as though electrocuted. There was scarcely a struggle, 
and I could not imagine where I had hit him. If shot through 
the heart he would have darted forward a few yards at least. 
With a broken back he could still struggle ; but he lay per- 
fectly still. It was no easy task to get down to him, for he 
lay on a slide of shale which was just about as steep as a could travel on. 

"At last I reached him and took hold of a hind leg, 
when it seemed the whole side of the mountain had started 
for a lower altitude. Naturally I at once sat down. I retained 
my hold on the leg of the sheep with my left hand, and was 
therefore unable to protect myself much. Some of the rocks 
were exceedingly sharp. 

"In the toboggan race the sheep was ahead part of 
the time, and the other part I was ahead. The inevitable 
precipice lay before us, but the grade changed somewhat in 
our favor, and we stopped just in time to escape a plunge that 
would have been disastrous. 

"I was not hurt, to speak of, but some portions of my 
clothing were decidedly the worse for wear. The sheep was 
considerably skinned up and had left quite a trail of hair 
down the mountainside. 

"My first thought was to see where he had been hit. 
He had stood with his left side toward me, and examination 
sliowed he had been struck just where I had aimed. The 
ball, from a 50-calibre needle gun, had not only gone through 
his heart but entirely through his body; yet that should not 
have killed him instantly. On examination of his horns, 
which were not unusually large, the secret was revealed. 
The bullet had gone through his head just above the eyes, 
but had gone out at the left. 

"It was evident that just as I fired he had thrown his 
head around on his side, exactly in the line of sight, and the 
ball had first gone through his brain, then through his heart. 

"No wonder he dropped dead. Probably few animals 
have ever been shot sidewise, through the head and through 
the body at one shot and with one bullet." 




The musical name, ''Wyoming," was used by J. M. Ash- 
ley, of Ohio, who, "as early as 1865," introduced into Congress 
a bill to provide a temporary government "for the territory of 
"Wyoming," to be formed from portions of Dakota, Utah, and 
Idaho Territories. The bill was referred to the committee on 
territories where it rested until 1868, when Dakota's regularly 
elected delegate, S. L. Spink, presented himself at the door of 
Congress, and while not being permitted a seat, he was able to 
' ' refresh the memories of the territorial committee. ' ' Others 
active in sponsoring organization of the new territory, attached 
the name "Wyoming," to their proposals, though credit for 
popularizing the idea is given by Historian Coutant to Leigh 
Richmond Freeman, publisher of a newspaper, "The Pioneer 
Index," at Fort Kearney, Nebraska. "He had numerous ar- 
ticles in his 'Pioneer Index' advocating the name and there is 
no doubt that such editorial work had its effect on the people 
in this country and those who afterwards inserted the name in 
the bill creating Wyoming Territory." Mr. Coutant records 
Freeman's claim that he was the first to apply the name to the 
"southwest half of Dakota," when "in the spring of 1866, 
while enroute from Fort Kearney, Nebraska, to Fort Laramie 
to attend a Peace Conference, he wrote a letter for publication, 
to his paper and dated this correspondence, 'Third Crossing 
of Lodge Pole Creek, Wyoming Territory".' " 

The name Wyoming is probably an imprint left by emi- 
grants on their westward trek from Wyoming Valley, Pennsyl- 
vania, made famous by Campbell's beautiful poem, "Gertrude 
of Wyoming." The word means mountains and valleys alter- 
nating, while the Delaware Indian interpretation of it is a cor- 
ruption of Maugh-wau-wa-ma, meaning ' ' The Large Plains. ' ' 


First to grant woman suffrage, Wyoming is known as the 
"Equalitv State" — and is sometimes called the "Sagebrush 

State Flag 

The Wyoming State flag, designed by ]\Irs. Verna Keays, 
of Buffalo, Wyoming, was adopted by the fourteenth legislature 
on January 31, 1917. 

Submitted in a contest conducted by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, it was selected from thirtv-seven entrants. 


The original sketch was received from the artist by the State 
Historical Department a few years after its adoption, and is on 
display in the State Museum. 

The following legend of the flag was written by Mrs. Keays : 

"The Great Seal of the State of Wyoming is the heart of the flag. 

' ' The seal of the bison represents the truly western custom of 
branding. The bison was once 'monarch of the plains.' 

"The red border represents the Red Men, who knew and loved our 
country long before any of us were here; also, the blood of the pioneers 
who gave their lives in reclaiming the soil. 

"White is an emblem of purity and uprightness over Wyoming. 

"Blue, which is found in the bluest of blue Wyoming skies and the 
distant mountains, has through the ages been significant of fidelity, 
justice and virility. 

"And finally, the red, the white, aird the blue of the flag of the 
State of Wyoming are the colors of the greatest flag in all the world, 
the Stars and Stripes of the United States of America. ' ' 

State Bird 

Meadow Lark 

By an act of the nineteenth legislature, the Meadow Lark 
was designated as the State Bird on February 5, 1927. 

From the imagination of Hazel Harper Sample Pickett 
has come one version as to how the choice originally was 
made. In a juvenile story by the author which appeared in 
the July, 1931, issue of ANNALS OF WYOMING, and pre- 
vious to that, in The Pepper Pot, Vol. I, No. 23, April, 1930, 
and since ceased publication — Mother Nature called all the 
birds of the State together and told them of the proposal by 
the people to select one of them for the honor of being the 
official State Bird. 

There was a general commotion among the birds, the 
noisiest of which was Sir Robert Magpie, who did nothing 
but talk, talk. Order was soon restored and Mother Nature 
outlined the requirements: "First, the chosen one must be 
found in every county of the State. Next, he must be useful 
and beautiful. Then he must come very early in the spring 
and stay as late as possible in the fall. Lastly, he must have 
a beautiful voice, for he must cheer the people who have 
endured the long, cold winter and are looking for spring." 
The conceited Mr. Magpie voted for himself, but the sweet- 
voiced Meadow Lark won the election in Bird-dom. His 
song is "Spring o' the year! Spring o' the year!" "'Now 
Mother Nature has a way of suggesting things to human 
beings, * * *" and the sequel of the story is that when 
those people met "whose business it was to select the State 
Bird, they, too, agreed on the Meadow Lark. So that is how 
the Meadow Lark came to be the State Bird of AVvoming. " 


State Flower 

The Indian Paint Brush 

(Castillija Linariaefolia) 

The Indian Paint Brush was adopted by act of the four- 
teenth legislature on January 31, 1917, to which the poetical 
pen of A. V. Hudson has addressed the following lines : 

A strange little flower 

With a sun-kissed nose, 
Without any perfume, 

Yet red as a rose. 
Did some Indian maiden 

Plant you here 
In the footprint left 

By the hoof of a deer? 
Or are you the symbol 

Of blood that was shed 
In the feud of the white man 

And the red? 

State Seal 

A seal for "Wyoming was adopted February 8, 1893, and 
the dimensions were reduced by an act of the sixteenth legis- 
lature, approved February 15, 1921, as follows : 

' ' There shall be a great seal of the State of Wyoming, which shall 
be of the following design, viz.: A circle one and one-half inches in 
diameter, on the outer edge of rim of which shall be engraven the 
words ' Great Seal of the State of Wyoming, ' and the design shall con- 
form substantially to the following description: A pedestal showing on 
the front thereof an eagle resting upon a shield, said shield to have 
engraven thereon a star and the figures '44,' being the number of 
Wyoming in order of admission to statehood. Standing upon the 
pedestal shall be a draped figure of a woman, modeled after the statue 
of the 'Victory of the Louvre,' from whose wrists shall hang links of 
a broken chain, and holding in her right hand a staff from the top of 
which shall float a banner with the words 'Equal Eights' thereon, all sug- 
gesting the political position of women in this state. On either side 
of the pedestal, and standing at the base thereof, shall be male figures 
typifying the live stock and mining industries of Wyoming. Behind 
the pedestal and in the background, shall be two pillars, each sup- 
porting a lighted lamp, signifying the light of knowledge. Around- 
each pillar shall be a scroll with the following words thereon: On 
the right of the central figure the words 'Live Stock' and 'Grain,' and 
on the left the words 'Mines' and 'Oil.' At the base of the pedestal 
and in front, shall appear the figures '1869-1890,' the former date signi- 
fying the organization of the territory of Wyoming and the latter the 
date of its admission to statehood. " 

The original seal was two and one-quarter inches in 


State Songf 
"Wyoming March Song"" 

Words by Charles E. Winter 

Music (marcli) by George E. Knapp 

In the far and might West, 

Where the crimson sun seeks rest, 

There's a growing splendid state that lies above 

On the breast of this great land; 

Where the massive Rockies stand, 

There's Wyoming young and strong, the State I love! 


In the flowers wdld and sweet. 

Colors, rare and perfumes meet; 

There 's the columbine so pure, the daisy too, 

Wild the rose and red it springs, 

White the button and its rings. 

Thou art loyal for they're red and white and blue. 


Where thy peaks with crowned head, 

Rising till the sky they wed, 

Sit like snow queens ruling wood and stream and plain; 

'Neath thy granite bases deep, 

'Neath thy bosom's broadened sweep, 

Lie the riches that have gained and brought thee fame. 


Other treasures thou dost hold. 

Men and women thou dost mould; 

True and earnest are the lives that thou dost raise, 

Strength thy children thou dost teach, 

Nature's truth thou givst to each. 

Free and noble are thy workings and thy ways. 

In the nation's banner free 

There 's one star that has for me 

A radiance pure and a splendor like the sun; 

Mine it is, Wyoming's star, 

Home it leads me near or far; 

O Wyoming! all my heart and love you've won! 


Wyoming, Wyoming! Land of the sunlight clear! 

Wyoming, Wyoming! Land that we hold so dear! 

Wyoming, Wyoming! Precious art thou and thine! 

Wyoming, Wyoming! Beloved State of mine! 


History of State Song 

During the summer of 1903, Charles E. Winter, in a 
mood of loneliness for his friends, family and beloved State 
of Wyoming- while traveling in the east, jotted down the 
five verses and chorus of the song, "Wyoming." Upon 
returning to his home in the then "thriving copper mining 
camp. Grand Encampment, in southeastern Carbon County," 
the lines were typed, pigeon-holed and forgotten for several 
months, but later were perused by Earle R. Clemens, editor 
of the Encampment Herald, who, inspired by the sentiment 
of the verses, composed the first music for the song, "for a 
solo verse and quartet chorus, and later a quartet arrange- 
ment for the entire song." 

Soon after, the song was introduced at Sheridan, Wyo- 
ming, by Mr. Winter and Mr. Clemens in a quartet of which 
they both were members, before the convention of the State 
Industrial Association, predecessor of the Wyoming State 
Fair Association, where it was well received and "declared 
to be the State Song." It was also presented "with marked 
success" on Wyoming Day at the World's Fairs held, respec- 
tively, at St. Louis in 1904, and at Portland, Oregon, in 1905, 
and again at the Panama Exposition, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, in 1915. 

Early in 1920, George E. Knapp, Professor of Voice at 
the State University, Laramie, Wyoming, composed a stirring 
tune in march tempo, which immediately popularized the song 
for choruses and group or assembly singing and secured for 
it, general acceptance. The Ij^ric is the same in both compo- 
sitions, but the latter was published under title, "Wyoming 
March Song," and may be obtained from Mr. Winter at 
P. 0. Box 1266, Casper, Wyoming. 

Wyoming Day 

An act of the twenty-third legislature designated the 
tenth day of December in each year as "Wyoming Day," 
provided for its proper observance and for a proclamation 
b}^ the Governor, "in recognition of the action of the Wyo- 
ming Territorial Governor on December 10, 1869, in approving 
the first law found anywhere in legislative history which 
extends the right of suffrage to women, * * *" Approved 
February 19, 1935. 



Grave of Former Wyoming Indian Fighter Marked Recently 

A reminder of early day frontier calamities in Wyoming 
at Fort Phil Kearny is an article which appeared in a Wil- 
mington, Delaware, newspaper, The Journal, on October 12, 
1939. It concerned the marking of the grave of John Guthrie, 
"Indian fighter of the old school," buried in Cathedral Ceme- 
tery of that section. He had returned to Brandywine Village 
where he was born in 1848, and where he died in 1923. 

The newspaper clipping was received by the State Historical 
Department from A. Y. Ryan, of Midland Park, N. J., a great 
nephew of Mr. G-uthrie, in which it was stated also that ]\Ir. 
Ryan ' ' has been gathering data on Guthrie 's life from army rec- 
ords and accounts in the files of the Historical Department of 
Wyoming. ' ' 

The article referred to efforts being made by relatives and 
friends to have a new marker erected on the Guthrie grave, 
"in place of the old one which has been missing for six years." 
A letter from Mr. Ryan accompanying the clipping related that 
when he located the grave of his soldier-relative, it was un- 
noticed and unmarked, but that he has now succeeded in secur- 
ing a Government headstone, and also has placed a bronze 
marker of the Indian War Veterans on the grave. A portion 
of the newspaper storv follows : 

"Mr. Guthrie served with Troop C, Second U. S. Cavalry 
from 1865 through '68 and took part in some of the most bitter 
Indian warfare of the period, including the famous 'Fetterman 
Massacre' in Wyoming Avhere he was during most of his army 
service. ' ' 

An account of the Fetterman Massacre by ^Ir. Guthrie, on 
file in the State Historical Department, reveals that his horse. 
Dapple Dave, of Company C, 2nd Cavalry, ridden that day In- 
one of Fetterman "s men, was the only life which escaped, though 
several arrows and a bullet had found their mark in his flesh. 

Mr. Guthrie "enlisted in Philadelphia in September, 1865. 
His record shows he served in campaigns against the Sioux In- 
dians in Dakota Territory in 1866 and "67, participated in en- 
gagements at Goose Creek, Dakota Territory, in December, 1866. 
and at Crazy Woman's Fork, Dakota Territory, in October, 
1867, and is a survivor of the massacre at Fort Phil Kearny. 
Later he acted as an Indian scout." 

The thrilling story of the "Wagon Box" fight in which 
Mr. Guthrie and a group of companions withstood the onslaught 
of several thousand Indians for a number of hours is related, 
as well as the Fetterman disaster in which Lieut. Col. Fetterman 


and his entire regiment (81 officers and men) were killed by 
the Sioux, under Chief Red Cloud on December 21, 1867. 

"Known as 'Blue Stone Jack,' Guthrie was instrumental 
in having Congress provide funds for a monument to his com- 
panions who were killed in this massacre. ' ' 

Greeting's from Denmai'k - 

From the Dan-America Archives, of Aalborg, Denmark, 
through Archivist S. V, Waendelin, comes a cheerful message 
acknowledging receipt of "The Annals of Wyoming" which 
they are very glad to have on file in their American Library, 
and concluding with "We wish you and your readers a Merry 
Christmas and a bright, blessed New Year." 

Called "The Emigrant Archives," established in Denmark 
four years ago, it is the only institution of its kind in the world, 
and is devoted exclusively to collecting material on the history 
of Danish emigration. 

A pamphlet on the institution explains that the Danes have 
emigrated to practically every country in the world, and being 
good citizens, have done their part in developing the new com- 

' ' A thorough understanding of the Danish emigrants ' share 
in the development of the United States, Canada, Australia, 
South America, can only be obtained in conjunction with the 
general history of these countries. ' ' 

The sum of $10,000 was donated to cover expenses of the 
Archives for the first four years by "a prominent American 
citizen of Danish birth, Mr. William S. Knudsen, ranking Vice 
President of the General Motors Co., Detroit, Michigan, U. S. A. 
Other money gifts have been received from interested parties. ' ' 

Well illustrated with views of the imposing Archives Build- 
ing, as well as some of the interior rooms, the brochure makes 
appeal for assistance in contribution of "books, manuscripts 
and pictures, historical works covering also social, religious, lit- 
erary, artistic, economic and industrial activities, all of which 
will be of great value to the Archives. ' ' 

"We venture to hope that you sympathize with the objects 
of the Emigrant Archives. There is no better cause in the world 
today than the promotion of friendly understanding between 
the various peoples of the earth and this is the rock on which 
our institution is built." 

From Mrs. Nora Moss Law, 1001 Sierra Street, Berkeley, 
Calif., has come cheerful word, as follows, in part : 

"I wish to thank you for the three issues of the 'Annals 
of Wyoming,' which I treasure highly. This seems to me to be 


a very worthy publication. I found it most interesting and val- 

Mrs. Law, born at Fort Bridger, Wyoming, is an active 
member of the California "Writers' Club, and last summer was 
the author of an article in defense of the Wyoming exhibit on 
display at the Golden Gate Exposition in San Francisco, fol- 
lowing a Wyoming newspaper reporter's criticism. Incensed at 
what she believed as a gross injustice to her native State, Mrs. 
IjSlw made vigorous response which, subsequently, was given wide 
dissemination by the Wyoming press. 

Her ambition is ' ' to study at Wyoming University and then 
write a book about 'Wonderful Wyoming.' " 

Former Residents Plan Visit 

If plans of Mrs. Alice R. McCreery, of Long Beach, Cali- 
fornia, and her sister, Mrs. L. A. Barrett, of Belmont, Cali- 
fornia, materialize, they M^ill be visitors in Wyoming this sum- 
mer. Early residents of this State, they are daughters of 
former Governor, AV. A. Richards, and are anticipating the 
opportunity to view old scenes. 

Writes Mrs. McCireery: ''One of the first, if not the first, 
Frontier Day was in 1898. Mr. Cody was my father's guest 
and they led the parade in Buffalo Bill's pony cart. Incidental- 
ly, his wife and daughter were our guests for dinner. ' ' 

"I remember July 10, 1890, very distinctly. My father 
was Surveyor General and we had moved from Big Horn County 
to Cheyenne in the fall of 1889, so I grew up in Cheyenne and 
it is still 'home.' " 


As the end of the year approached, so many complimentary 
letters concerning the past three issues of the ANNALS were 
received that it has been most encouraging to the staff in plan- 
ning the Golden Anniversary quarterly issues for this year 
of 1940. 

These expressions of approval and commendation are 
especially appreciated and it is to be regretted that personal 
acknowledgment cannot be made, but with the regular full 
schedule of duties and the extra work involved in preparing 
material for the Anniversary numbers — we are compelled to 
take this means of saving a big, hearty ''Thank You!" 


The Jackson Photographs 

A project of most importance for the Museum the past 
quarter was the assembling- of a collection of immense pictures 
of Yellowstone Park and other Wyoming- scenes photographed 
by the near-centenarian, AVilliam H. Jackson, only living mem- 
ber of the Hayden Geological Survey party, for which he was 
official photographer in the Yellowstone Park survey of 1871. 

Mr. Jackson, now 96 years old, was commissioned in 1892 
by the State of AVyoming to make a series of large photographs 
for the exhibit of Wyoming scenery at the Columbian Exposi- 
tion at Chicago in 1893, and these pictures represent a part of 
that series. They have been enhancing the walls of the various 
State offices in the Capitol building- at Cheyenne the past half 
century, as well as the chambers of the Supreme Court Judges 
in the Supreme Court and State Library Building. 

Fourteen pictures had been acquired at the end of the 
quarter. All are in ivory frames, the majority of which are 
five feet wide, of varying' depths, and contain from three to 
five views each. Arranged on the north wall of the Museum, 
the display extends around to the east side and makes an im- 
posing and attractive array, of interest to all visitors. Other 
pictures of the same exhibit are known to exist. 

A picture of Mr. Jackson, posed recently in his New York 
laboratory, where he is still in business, is also on exhibit, and 
was contributed by the National Park Service, through the late 
Daniel W. Greenburg. 

In an address prepared by Mr. Jackson,^ for the dedication 
of the Teton National Park on July 29, 1929, but not delivered 
on that occasion, he disclaimed honor accorded him as "the" 
Pioneer Photographer, but expressed preference to be known 
as "a" pioneer photographer of Wyoming scenes, following 
earlier adventurers with their cameras. 

Said he, "Following these real pioneers I was fortunate, 
as the official photographer of the Hayden Geological Survey, in 
having first had the opportunity to give to the world the first 
photographs of places and scenes of more than ordinary inter- 
est; such as the Yellowstone in 1871; the three Tetons, from 
the Idaho side, in 1872 ; the Mount of the Holy Cross in 1873 ; 
the Cliff Ruins of the Mesa Verde and the Southwest in 1871- 
'75 ; Fremont Peak and the Jackson Lake region in 1878 — and 
other places of less importance." 

iCopy of the address is on file in the archives of the State His- 
torical Department. 


"This pioneering' in photography had its handicaps, as 
well as other kinds of pioneering. There were no prepared dry 
plates or handy kodaks. Instead, the photographer had to 
carry with him the material and apparatus, including an ex- 
temporized dark room to work in, for making his own plates 
as required for each exposure. A pack mule was required to 
carry his outfit, sometimes, too, depending on the size of camera 
and length of time afield ; and it had to be well packed for fre- 
quently there would be rough going. The photographer sought 
his views, as the hunter his game, in places far removed from 
beaten trails. " ' * * * 

Toward the conclusion of his paper, Mr. Jackson refers to 
the 1892 commission to make the photographs which comprise 
the collection first described, and explains that the party was 
led by El wood Mead.- 

Souvenir Is Reminder of World War Activities 

A gold cord fishnet bag which held the bottle of champagne 
that splashed the prow of the Merchant Marine U. S. Steam- 
ship, "Casper,'" at Hog Island, Pa., in its christening ceremony 
on June 25, 1919, has been received during the past quarter 
from Mrs. Charles E. AVinter, of Casper, Wyoming, and is on 
display in the Museum. 

Being Natrona County chairman of the AVomen's Com- 
mittee for the Fourth Liberty Loan, as well as the Third which 
preceded, won Mrs. AYinter the honor of christening the ship. 
The gold bag and its container, a handsome mahogany box. 
were given her as mementos of the ceremonial occasion. 

Says Mrs. Winter in her letter of transmittal: "We took 
in more money per capita than any other county in the United 
States, and they offered us the Merchant Marine V. S. Steam- 
ship to christen in honor of the City of Casper." It was one 
of the first ten cities in the L'''. S. to "go over the top" in its 
Liberty Loan allotment. 

The christening was witnessed by 2,000 spectators, includ- 
ing the late Senator John B. Kendrick, i\Ir. Wintei- and Fred 
Morris, of Cody, Wyoming, the latter having an official position 
in the ship-building yards at that time. 


A farm implement of unusual appearance is a one-man- 
power corn-planter invented about sixty years ago by one Cles- 
den F. Martin, at iMitchellville, Iowa, for his own use in planting 

2The last Territorial and first State Engineer of Wyoming. Was 
IT. S. Commissioner of Eeelamation for more than a decade, and died in 
Washington, D. C. on January 26, 1936. at the age of seventy-eight. 


broom corn, and donated to the State Historical Department 
by Harry Crain, of Cheyenne, Wyoming. The relic was brought 
to the State in 1908, and used on a dry farm near Campstool 
approximately 20 miles east of Cheyenne. It was given to Mr. 
Crain by the inventor's son, Earl L. Martin, during the fall of 


The first penitentiary in "Wyoming was located at Laramie? 
In April, 1868, the city of Laramie was platted by the Union 
Pacific Railroad Company, and within a week about four 
hundred lots were sold. In May the railroad was completed 
to Laramie and by that time nearly 500 houses had been 
erected, most of which were of a transient and flimsy con- 
struction. When Albany County was established by the first 
Territorial Legislature, Laramie was made the County Seat, 
and the same Legislature located the penitentiary here. 
'"Probably no town in the west at that time stood in greater 
need of such an institution," says Mr. Bartlett, the Historian. 

During 1898 the penitentiary at Rawlins was completed, 
the total cost of the building being over $100,000, and an 
Act of February 10, 1899, directed that all prisoners be con- 
centrated in the Rawlins penitentiary during 1900. "The 
State is now blessed, or otherwise, with two good peniten- 
tiaries," was the comment of Governor W. A. Richards when 
he retired from office in 1899. 

Johnson County has the distinction of being the first to 
hold a County agricultural and stock fair, which took place 
at Big Horn City in 1885? 

One of the first libraries in America to be named 
for a living poet or writer, is the Robert Frost Poetry 
Library at the University of Wyoming, Laramie? The library 
was dedicated by the famous American poet, Robert Frost, 
on April 18 and 19, 1939. Its purpose is to collect all ma- 
terial written by or relating to Mr. Frost, as well as being 
a general English library. 

The first annual Wyoming Territorial fair of the Wyo- 
ming Fair Association was held September 14, 15, 16 and 17, 
1886, at Cheyenne? The front cover on the "Premium List" 
booklet announced: "Competition open to the World." 



October 1, 1939, to December 31, 1939 



Logan, E. A., Cheyenne, Wyoming — ^"Glass Ball Pigeon" and holder 
from trap. Oldtime "shooting match" equipment in 1875 — replaced 
by present-day clay pigeons. 

Winter, Mrs. Chas. E., Casper, Wyoming — Gold fishnet bag which con- 
tained bottle of champagne used by Mrs. Winter for christening of 
the merchant marine, U. S. Steamship, "The City of Casper" at 
Hog Island Ship Yard, Philadelphia, Pa., June 25, 1919; original 
mahogany box container for bag, and framed picture of Mrs. Winter, 
Mr. Winter and Fred Morris, of Cody, at scene of christening. 

Hunt, Dr. Lester C., Secretary of State, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Two Wyo- 
ming automobile license plates, 1939 and 1940. 

Jessel, Pa.ul W., 508 East 10th Street, Clieyenne, Wyoming — Shot gun, 
center fire. Found in Grand Eiver brakes, Perkins County, S. D., 
Old Standing Eoek Reservation, by donor's brother, J. C. Jessel of 
Cheyenne, and Lee McKelvey, of Cheyenne. First observed in the 
sand about 1906 or 1908 and had been altered from an Old Country 
gun called a "Zulu." 

Schreibeis, Chas. D., Custodian, Ft. Phil Kearney, Banner, Wyo. — 11 
small pieces found on the Fort site — consisting of 9 nails, part of a 
hinge, and a bit of burned wood. The Fort was burned by the 
Indians the day of abandonment in August, 1887. 

Grain, Harry, 1721 Central Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Old home- 
made corn-planter of about 1880. 

Wright, Miss Vester, Home Demonstration Agent, Federal Building, 
Evanston, Wyoming — A relic from site of old Fort Supply, first 
Mormon settlement in Wyoming, 1853, near Fort Bridger, being a log 
seven inches in diameter and forty-three inches long. 


Snow, Mrs. William C., Cheyenne, Wyoming — File of correspondence 
(eight pieces) between Mrs. Snow and Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, 
Senator O'Mahoney, and the Smithsonian Institute, in connection 
with the moving of the two framed messages of congratulation, from 
the British women to the Women of Wyoming in 1891, from the 
Smithsonian Institute to the Wyoming Historical Department, se- 
cured in May, 1939; copies of Wyoming Day Proclamation by former 
Governor Leslie A. Miller, November 16, 1937, and by Governor 
Nels H. Smith, November 30, 1939. 

Sedfield, Mrs. James, 311 North Grand, Marshall, Mich. — Original penned 
letter, dated August 30, 1869, from the first Wyoming Territorial 
Governor, James A. Campbell, to N. J. Frink, of Marshall, Mich., 
father of the donor. Eeceived through Governor Nels H. Smith. 

Pictures — Gifts 

State and Supreme Court Offices — Collection of thirteen five-foot, framed 
photographs of Wyoming scenes by William H. Jackson, taken in 
1892. Assembled for permanent exhibit by the State Historical 


Snow, Mrs. William C, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Photograph, cast of char- 
acters in woman suffrage play, ' ' Wyoming Tea Party, ' ' written by 
Marie M. Horton for the Cheyenne Woman's Club, and first pre- 
sented by it on December 4, 1935. Unframed. 5x8". 

National Park Service, Washington, J). C.- — Photograph of William H. 
Jackson, pioneer Wyoming photographer-artist, posed in 1937, in 
his New York City laboratory. 5x7". 

Books — Gifts 

Snow, Mrs. William C, Cheyenne, Wyoming — "Songs From the Last 
West," by Porter B. C'oolidge, of Lander, Wyoming. 122 pp. Poems. 

Books — Purchased 

Dale, Harrison G. — The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery 
of a Central Eoute to the Pacific, 1822-1829, with the original jour- 
nals. 1918. 

Northwest Territory Celebration Commission — History of the Ordinance 
of 1787. 1937. 

Pitcairn, Raymond— First Congress of the U. S., 1789-1791. 1939. 

Wilson, Mrs. Eugene — Cabin Days. 1939. 

Dustin, Fred— Caster Tragedy. 1939. 

Spear, Elsa— Fort Phil Kearny. 1939. 

Hosmer, James — History of the Louisiana Purchase. 1939. 

Budd, Ralph — Railway Routes Across the Rocky Mountains. 1939. 

Moore, Austin — Early Cattle Days in Wyoming. 1939. 

Master, Joseph G. — Stories of the Far West. 1940. 

Mokler, Alfred — Transition of the West. 1927. 

Spring, Agnes Wright, Cheyenne, Wyoming — "How the Oregon Trail 
Became a Road," by G. W. Martin (1906), 52 pp. 


Horton, Frank, M. C., Washington, D. C. — Group of 18 maps, including 
individual states at time of ratification of the Constitution, from 
1777 to 1795. Issued by the H. S. Constitution Sesqui-Centennial 
Commission. Reprinted, 1938, by U. S. Geological Survey. Orig- 
inals in Library of Congress at Washington, D. 0. 

Miller, Mrs. Rollie E., Sheridan, Wyoming — Holt's New Map of Wyo- 
ming, 1887. 28x31% inches. Published by George L. Holt, Chey- 
enne, Wyo., and shows location of ranches and homes of early pio- 


rol. 12 

April, 1940 

No. 2 

freight Oxen at Best, a Picturesque Early-Day View of the East Side of Main Street, 
Buffalo, Wyoming, Probably in 1883. (See Page 119.) 

Published Quarterly 

The Wyoming Historical Department 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 



Vol. 12 April, 1940 No. 2 




By Howard B. Lott. 




By Harry B. Henderson, Sr. 

"WONDERFUL WYOMING," (From the Wyoming Com- 
monwealth, Clieyenne, Wyoming, December 5, 1891) 130 
By Col. S. W. Downey. 

PUBLISHED, Chapters 4 and 5 144 


By Paul Crane and Alfred Larson. 







MING (1885) 154 

(From Harper's W&ekly, September 26, 1885). 

Published Quarterlv 




State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian 

Cheyenne. Wyoming 



Governor Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State . Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor Wm. "Seotty" Jack 

Superintendent of Public Instruction . Esther L. Anderson 
State Librarian and Ex-Officio Historian . Gladys F. Eiley 

Inez Babb Taylor, Assistant Historian 

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Copyright, 1940, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 

Diary of Major Wise, an Englishman, Recites 

Details of Hunting Trip in Powder River 

Country in 1880 

Edited by Howard B. Lott* 


This portion of the diary of Major Lewis Lovatt Ashford Wise, 
covering a hunting trip in the Powder Eiver country in 1880, was 
written by him while on a journey around the world, which began on 
February 13, 1880. The author of the journal started from London, 
proceeded to Brindisi where he boarded the "S. S. Ceylon," cruised 
through the Suez Canal, visiting in Australia, Tasmania and New 
Zealand. He arrived in San Francisco by steamer on August 10, 1880, 
and from thence came to Wyoming and the Powder Eiver country, 
where he and his party met with exciting experiences in bagging 64 
head of game. Major Wise, himself, was the champion shot, with 23 
head. The entries published here begin on August 29, 1880, at Fort 
Fetterman, Wyoming, and end on November 2 of the same year, at 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

To Dr. Henry E. Wagner, San Marino, California, is the editor of 
these notes indebted for information as to the existence of the original 
diary, with its Wyoming subject-matter, which Dr. Wagner had pur- 
chased in 1935 and presented to the Yale University Library. 

In presenting the Major Wise diary, acknowledgment is made of 
the assistance of several others, without whose bit of contributing 
information the diary, perhaps, would be a little less interesting. 

Besides Dr. Wagner, the following persons have contributed the 
bulk of the material from which these notes have been written, and 
to them the editor is, indeed, grateful: 

To Miss' Emily Eichmond, of the Yale University Library, for 
furnishing a copy of the diary from the original manuscript; to the 
wi-itings of Moreton Frewen; to Albert L. Brock, Edward W. Burnett, 
Thomas F. Carr, Mrs. F. G. S. Hesse, Fred W. Hesse, Joe LaFors, Fred 
Pettitt, J. F. Skiles and Mart Tisdale, for many of the notes; to Mrs. 
Edith M. Chappell for her pamphlet, "Hi&tory of Fort McKinney;" 
and to Mrs. J. C. VanDyke for a copy of the Hanna manuscript. 

Much work and patience have been expended in the preparation 
of the notes and I believe they will bear a thorough checking, though 
it is possible that an error may occur here and there. 

— H. B. L. 

*BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCH— Mr. Howard B. Lott, of Buffalo, 
Wyoming, editor and contributor of the Major Wise diary and supple- 
menting notes in this issue, is a native son of Wyoming. He Avas born 
in Johnson County on September 23, 1896, and his parents were Dr. 
and Mrs. Howard Lott, pioneer Johnson county residents. 

He Avas educated in the Buffalo grade and high schools, and in 
1914 entered the U. S. Forest Service. In 1918-1919 Mr. Lott served 
in the World War, and entered the U. S. Postal Service in 1925. At 
the present time is a clerk in the Buffalo postoffice. 

Keenly interested in the history of the Powder Eiver country, Mr. 
Lott has written a number of articles on early-day historical events 
in that section which have appeared in Wyoming and Montana news- 
papers and magazines. 


Rock Creek — Fort Fetterman 

Sunday, August 29. We were called at 3 :30 and by 4 
we were in the coach and off. For many miles we drove over 
flat prairie. On it we saw heaps of antelope — some quite close 
to the trail. Towards afternoon we got into a canyon, which 
is a sort of valley or pass, enclosed with rocks ; here we saw 
some sagehens for the first time, whole coveys of them. They 
look much like greyhens, only much larger, nearly as large as 
guinea fowl. The young are, I am told, good to eat, but the 
old ones taste of sagebrush; anyhow we were not adventurous 
enough to try. The trail now became worse, and we got a good 
jolting before arriving at Fort Fetterman^ at 7 P. M. having 
driven 80 miles. Here are stationed two companies of U. S. 
soldiers. Frank felt indisposed and wished to see the Doctor 
here; the only one for many miles around. He was out, so 
Frank determined to stay the night. I thought I might as well 
go on, as all our kit was on the coach and there was nothing 
really serious the matter with Frank, and we should each have 
more room for the night drive, so at 8 I started again alone. 
It soon began to get chilly, so I rolled myself up in my 'possum 
rug and tried to sleep, a feat by no means easy to accomplish 
in a jolting coach with one's legs cramped up. However, after 
a time wearied out, I dropped off and remember no more ! 

Powder River 

Monday, August 30. I passed, as may be supposed, a 
somewhat uncomfortable night, but I slept every now and then, 
when the jolting was least. About 6 I unwound myself. We 
were jogging along over the "boundless prairie." As far as 
the eye could see in every direction were grass rollers like the 
big rolling billows of the ocean. The grass was rather yellow 
and burnt up after the summer. Here and there broods of sage- 

1 Fort Fetterman, a military post built on the Platte at the mouth 
of La Prele Creek in 1867 and named in honor of Colonel W. J. 
Fetterman who was killed with many of his command near Fort 
Phil Kearny, Dec. 21, 1866. It was built by the enlisted men of Companies 
A, C, H and I, Fourth Infantry, under command of Major William Dye. 
It became quite a prominent military post with the abandonment of 
Forts Eeno, C. F. Smith and Phil Kearny in 1868. (Coutant's History 
of Wyoming, p. 594.) It had been abandoned by 1890. (John F. 
Finerty, 'War-Path and Bivouac.') 

2 McKinney. A cantonment built at the Bozeman Trail Crossing 
of Powder Kiver in 1876. It Avas known as Cantonment Eeno and 
construction was begun in September, 1876, by Captain Pollock with 
two companies of the Ninth Infantry. W^inter quarters Avere main- 
tained in holes excavated in the faces of clay banks. A much better 
fort was built the next summer, numerous buildings of cottonwood with 
dirt roofs. In 1878 the post was transferred to Clear Creek, near the 
present Buffalo, Wyoming. 


hens were to be seen, and an occasional deer. The last 17 miles 
of the journey the trail was very bad. The country was cut 
up with water courses, in and out of which we had to bump. 
At last about 2 P. M. we arrived at Powder River 90 miles ; in 
all 170 miles, in 34 hours. I was much less tired than I ex- 
pected. Visions of wapiti and grizzlies, I suppose had some 
effect. This is a deserted Fort ; called McKinney.- The log huts, 
built in a large square, are still standing. Prewen's^ store 
is in one of them, and there are two or three bedrooms there, 
rather rough and ready, one of which I secured. Frewen's 
Ranche is 23 miles nearer the Big Horn Mountains and I sent 
a note to Moreton Frewen,* telling him I had arrived. I was 
very tired towards night, and turned in early — no sheets— only 
a pair of blankets to get between, but I was soon asleep not- 

Tuesday, August 31. I slept like a top last night. I turned 
out about 7 and went out and pumped myself a pail full of 
water for a tub. It was a beautiful morning, but not hot by 
any means. I pottered about waiting for Frank, who turned 
up about 2 p. m. Just before he arrived Moreton Frewen came 

3 A store, or rather commissary, maintained by ^loreton Frewen 
in one of the deserted buildings on the soutli side of Powder Eiver 
opposite the site of Cantonment Reno, or Depot Fort MeKinney. Frewen 
sold the building to W. E. Hathaway and he operated it as a store 
and placed Mr. Andy Kennedy in charge. It was short lived, however, 
as Buffalo was rapidly becoming the trading center of the new Johnson 

4 Moreton Frewen was born in 1853 at Northiam, Sussex, England, 
the family home since 1583, which his ancestor, Richard Frewen, had 
purchased in that year. He first came to America in 1878 with John 
Adair at whose invitation he was to be a guest at the Adair Ranch 
in Palo Duro canyon of the Staked Plains of Texas. During the next 
thirty-five years Mr. Frewen made over 100 crossings to and from 
America. That he was a man of prominence in England there is no 
doubt and his position and culture admitted him to friendship with 
many ])rominent and influential persons in America. In Ii1l3 he stated 
to President Wilson that it had been his privilege to shake the hand 
of all his (Wilson's) predecessors since Buchanan. Senator Blaine, 
William Jennings Bryan, P. T. Barnum, Senator Lodge. Theodore 
Roosevelt, General Sheridan, W. K. Vanderbilt, President Wilson, 
Owen Wister and many other prominent Americans were his friends. 

Landing in New York on this first trip to America, Frewen 
remained there a few days, then on to Philadelphia, then to Washing- 
ton and thence on to Chicago. Here he met General Sheridan, and, 
after a few weeks spent in Texas, he again returned to Chicago, and 
from the General received such wonderful tales of the Upper Yellow- 
stone region and the wondrous wealth of big game there that his Texas 
trip seemed but a prelude of greater joys. He returned to England 
in July resolved that he would be on the Yellowstone the following 
year with a herd of cattle. 


in his buggy from the Ranche. We then started for Big Horn 
Ranche — 23 miles — ^Moreton and Frank in the buggy, and I 
rode a pony. We had hardly gone a mile, when, going down 
an awful hill, one of the buggy horses turned stupid, and would 
not answer the rein ; the consequence was, he got to the side 
of the track, and fell over the edge into a gulch 12 or 14 feet 
deep,^ dragging the other horse and the buggy with him, and 
there they lay at the bottom, both horses wedged in tight and 
the buggy on top of them. Prank saw them going and jumped 
out and Moreton managed to get clear of the buggy, just as 
it was going over the edge. So far, good, as no one was hurt, 
which was in itself a marvel. But how to get the buggy and 
horses out? I rode off back to the post to get some men to 
come with rope and then we set to work to get the buggy out, 
which we did by dragging it bodily over the prostrate horses. 
They were wedged in so tight they could not move so we had 
to drag them out by their heels, one by one, by main force. 
Extraordinary as it may seem, the horses were scarcely hurt 
at all, and the buggy had only the pole broken. The harness, 
however, was torn all to bits. They are evidently accus- 

In the fall of 1878 Frewen again returned to America in a party 
of six among whom was Gilbert Leigh, of Stoneleigh, of whom more will 
be said later. Upon his way west he again called upon General 
Sheridan. This time, however, the General was not so enthusiastic 
about a game hunt in the Yellowstone Country because of recent Indian 
hostilities there, the Crows and Blackfeet showing signs of unrest. 
Instead, he advised the party to go to Rawlins, assuring them 
that they would find good hunting in the canyons of the Platte and 
Sweetwater. To Rawlins then, they went. After some two months 
of hunting the party dissolved at Fort Washakie, all but Moreton 
Frewen and his brother Dick, returning to England for Christmas. 
With them were left, of the former party, a cattleman named Tate 
whom Frewen had brought up from Texas, and a Jack Hargreaves 
who had come into the Big Horn Mountains five years earlier from 
Deadwood with a party of prospectors. Hargreaves assured Frewen 
that the Big Horn Country was quite safe from Indians and that ''lie 
should find the ranges between Powder River and Tongue River ideal 
for cattle and entirely unoccupied." This assurance by Hargreaves 
decided the party to cross the Big Horn Mountains and see the country 
on the eastern side. The crossing was effected during the last two 
weeks in December and what a crossing it turned out to be. The 
temperature at night was not above zero; Frewen came near to acci- 
dentally shooting Jack Hargreaves. A few Indian scares, and a great 
depth of snow, traversed only by forcing buffalo ahead of the party 
to break the trail — were some of the difficulties encountered by this 
party, the pioneers of the first settlers of the Powder River Country 
unless we consider some fur traders of nearly a half century before 
as settlers. Moreton Frewen 's marriage to a New York lady, and the 
Home Ranch on the Powder River, will be treated in another note. 

Gilbert Leigh, a member of Frewen 's second party to America, 
and who returned to England from Fort Washakie late in the fall of 


tomed to little contretempts of this kind in his part of the 
world, and I don't wonder at it, seeing the kind of road one 
has to drive over. "We were, nevertheless, well out of a very 
nasty accident. We could not put the horses in again, as the 
harness no longer existed, so we rode them to Big Horn 
lianche, none the worse, only minus any kit, other than what 
Ave stood up in. The brothers Frewen have set up a palace^ 
here in the wilderness. They have built the Ranche, of logs 
of course, themselves, and fitted it up most comfortably. 
They are real good fellows, and have ordered all our stores 
for us, and camp outfit and have gotten us hunters and horees 
and everything we can want, and we anticipate great sport. 
We had a good dinner, and were not soiTy to turn into a com- 
fortable bed. Captain Sara Ashton and his wife are now in 
camp in the mountains. 

1878, should be mentioned here because his untimely death in Tensleep 
canyon connects his name with the history of the Big Horn Mountains. 
I quote Moreton Frewen in his book "Melton Mowbray and Other 
Memories" published in London in 1924: "In the autumn of 1884, 
our dear friend Gilbert Leigh, of Stoneleigh, at that time member 
for Warwickshire, and who had been one of our original expedition in 
1878, arrived from home with Willy Grenfell of Taplow. A very few 
days later a messenger rode in to say that Leigh was missing, and 
asking us to send every available man to help search. By the time 
we reached their camp his body had been found by Bob Stuart, the 
trapper. Apparently in the twilight he had mistaken the tree-tops of 
the pine trees sticking out of a deep canyon for some cypress brush, 
and had walked on and fallen a hundred feet sheer. At least there 
was this relief, death must have been instantaneous. A good felloAv! 
and after many days I was one of a great congregation of his friends 
who left him where he now sleeps the last sleep in Stoneleigh Church- 

The fatalists may like this note. He was staying at Easton Lodge 
with beautiful lady Brooke a few days before he left England for 
the last time. His hostess said, 'Mr. Leigh, don't forget to write 
your name in my visitor's book; we have a legend that he who 
forgets that ceremonial observance fails to return to us. ' A couple 
of hours later a friend in the train said, ' Gilly, did you remember to 
write your name.' 'I clean forgot,' he said laughing, 'I suppose 1 
ought to go back'.'' 

The death of Gilly Leigh occurred in Tensleep Canyon, and high 
up on the south side one may see a monument marking the place from 
which he fell to his death. 

5 Some erroneously believe that this is ' ' Figure 8 ' ' draw, which 
is 12 or 15 miles from the old deserted fort from which Major Wise 
starts on his trip to the Big Horn Ranche, and he states that he had 
gone "hardly a mile." The gulch referred to is probably today known 
as Davis Four Mile draw. 

6 The Home Ranch: This was tlie headquarters, the then ultra- 
modern home, of the Frewen Brothers, Moreton and Richard, of the 
famous Powder River Cattle Company, or, as it was locally known, the 
76 Outfit. 


Big Horn Ranche 

"Wednesday, September 1. After breakfast Moreton and 
I got horses and rode out to look for his herd of horses, which 
were out loose on the prairie. After a long ride we returned, 
without having seen anything of them, having crossed Powder 
River twice. I amused myself learning to throw a lasso, which 
is by no means easy. In the afternoon the wagon came with 
our baggage and stores. We expect Capt. and Mrs. Ashton 
in from the mountains any day now, when we shall go off 
into camp. Horace Plunket,^ a neighbor 14 miles off came 
here about midday ; he seems a very nice fellow. 

Thursday, September 2. This morning the Ashtons came 
in from the mountains ; they have had some excellent sport. 
In the afternoon their outfit came in and the "trophies" 
which made by mouth water! He had some very good sheep 
heads and some good bear skins; he had killed five of the 
latter. Frank was not very well this morning. 

Friday, September 3. Frank was very unwell last night 
— nothing serious but he had the "ache" and we had to dose 
him with brandy. We were very busy all the morning select- 
ing and buying our horses and mules for our outfit. We are 

The Home Ranch was located on the left bank of Powder River 
just below the junction of the North and Middle Forks of that stream. 
The exact location would be very near the north line of section 13, 
T. 43 N., R. 81 W., and about on the line between the northwest and 
northeast quarters of that section. The main building, where the 
Frewens lived and entertained their distinguished guests, was made of 
logs obtained from the pine hills in the vicinity and shaped and fitted 
entirely by hand labor. It was of two stories and constructed at a 
cost of approximately forty thousand dollars. The main room was 
about forty feet square with a large fireplace in both the east and 
west ends. This room also served as a dining room on occasions when 
the regular dining room was inadequate for a large number of guests. 
Off from this main room was another large room which served as a 
library and office. Another room, not so large, served as a living room, 
all of which, together with the kitchen and pantry, completed the 
plan of the ground floor. In one corner of the main room and ascending 
to the second floor, a very handsome stairway of solid walnut had been 
constructed. At the time the building was demolished about 1912, 
these stairs were purchased by M. H. Leitner of Sussex who used them 
for many years in his home there. The second floor was divided into 
sleeping quarters and about half way up the stairs or perhaps a little 
more than half way, and extending along one side of the main room 
from the stairs, there was constructed what would now be known as 
a mezzanine floor, which overlooked the main room. All interior 
woodwork was of the best hard wood brought from England. And 
over what roads! 

And now for a bit of history of the 76 Outfit itself, condensed 
from tlie writings of Moreton Frewen. After crossing the Big Horn 


going to make a start tomorrow. A young fellow named 
Alston, a friend of Moreton, is going with us, so our party 
consists of: W. C. Alston^ and his hunter. Big Bill;^ Frank^^ 
and his hunter, Tex;^^ L. A. W. (Wise) and his hunter, 
Hanna;^^ Henry the cook;^^ Ed, horsekeeper and odd man;^* 
"Whitey" a mongrel dog belonging to Bill; 18 horses and 
'S mules. Total 8 men, 21 horses and mules, and 1 dog. 

The weather is delicious and we are all in great spirits — 
except poor Frank, who is far from well. I am not sure that 
he will be able to come with us just yet. Alston seems a nice 
young fellow, and likely to prove a pleasant companion. 

Big Horn Mountains 

Saturday, September 4. Alston and I with our outfit, 
left the Ranche this morning at 10. Poor Frank was not fit 
to come and by Frewen's advice went off to Fort McKinney 
to the Hospital where he will find a doctor; a long drive 
for him, poor fellow, of 70 miles. Hd is to join us as soon as 
he is able. We arrived without mishap at Nicol's^^ Beaver 
Creek Ranche at 6 p. m. having marched 30 miles. We saw 
some deer and some bear tracks on the way. During the 
march Henry, who is a German, and not a great rider, irri- 

Range in December of 1878 as related in a previous note, the brothers 
Frewen, Jack Hargreaves and the cattleman Tate, arrived somewhere 
on what Frewen terms the Main Fork of Powder Eiver but which is 
apparently the Middle Fork. Pushing northward along the eastern 
base of the mountains, they arrived at the North Fork of Powder 
Eiver, where it leaves the mountains, with Dick Frewen ill. Here 
they met one Bob Stuart, a beaver trapper, as glad to see them as 
they were to see him. From Bob Stuart, or ' Dirty Bob, ' as he was 
later known, they obtained information of the surrounding country, 
etc., and particularly that about fifteen miles lower down on that 
stream they would find a deserted cabin. They pushed on with the 
sick man and finding the cabin, moved into it. It wasn 't much but it 
was a shelter. Here they remained for two weeks awaiting Dick 
Frewen 's recovery. During this period ' Moreton Frewen and Jack 
Hargreaves rode northward to Fort McKinney on Clear Creek, some 
three miles west of Buffalo, for supplies, as the coffee, flour and sugar 
had run low. At the fort they observed a small herd of cattle kept 
there for beef and milk. These cattle were in excellent condition 
although wintered on native grass only, and Moreton Frewen became 
satisfied that this Powder Eiver country would be ideal for running 
large herds. But Powder Eiver itself, being nearer the railroad than 
Fort McKinney or Clear Creek, was finally decided upon as the right 
location for their future home. Much care was taken in the selection 
of the spot and the following spring the actual work of construction 

About the middle of February, 1879, Moreton Frewen left the 
Powder Eiver country and returned to New York. On the way he 
stopped over in Washington and secured the aid of ' Uncle Sam ' Ward 
in an endeavor to have Congress include the Wind Eiver Country in 


tated his horse, who promptly bucked him off and then pro- 
ceeded to get rid of his saddle and kit, which strewed the 
trail for half a mile. At last we collected the goods and put 
Henry on again, and resumed our march. We were joined, 
just as we started, by a newspaper correspondent who is 
traveling to the Yellowstone to write an account of it, and 
who asked to join our camp. He is a boy to talk and for a 
time was rather amusing, but he soon began to bore us. We 
pitched our little tent and soon had our first camp fire going 
and dinner ready. About 9 we turned in. We have War 
Office valises, on which we sleep on the ground, and very 
comfortable they are. 

Sunday, September 5. We struck camp and marched at 
8 to the head of Red Pork,^^ about 14 miles ; on the way we 
killed a rattle snake. We also saw some mountain sheep 
and Alston went to try and kill one, as we wanted some meat 
— the News Press Correspondent must needs go too, but did 
nothing but talk and fire off his rifle wildly. Alston killed 
one and Hanna shot another, an unnecessary proceeding for 
which I rebuked him. Further on, we saw a large herd of 
bison, some antelope, and some blacktail deer, all at the same 
time. We were ascending the mountains all the time, and 

the newly organized Yellowstone Park, but this venture in American 
politics was doomed to failure. Several weeks were spent in New York 
during which time he met Miss Clara Jerome, a daughter of Leonard 
Jerome of that city. In 1881 Miss Jerome became Mrs. Moreton Frewen 
and that year returned with him to the new home on Powder River. 
In April of 1879 Mr. Frewen again returned to the Home Ranch on 
Powder River from his trip east and upon his arrival there found 
that his brother Dick, supervising the work of a dozen men with 
broadaxes, had squared and faced many of the pine trees of the hills 
into logs ready to go into the new home. While in Chicago he had 
ordered the lumber and roofing shingles and had also purchased the 
furniture for the new home. By the latter part of autumn the Frewens 
were occupying the Home Ranch and the latch-string was out for the 
aristocracy of England and also America. 

A few lines will now be devoted to the 76 Outfit, the Powder 
River Cattle Company. There were stories as to how the seller of 
the 76 cattle handled the actual count of them when they were turned 
over to the 76, as related by Moreton Frewen in his book referred 
to above: 

"And that summer, (1879) we drove in a fine herd of cattle, 
buying the 76 brand from Tim Foley, a ranchman on the Sweetwater. 
There have been for forty years all sorts of stories about this purchase, 
of the cock-and-bull order, reflecting on Mr. Foley's integrity and our 
intelligence; that he had driven the cattle round and round a hill and 
sold the same beasts twice over — stories Avithout a vestige of truth. 
We had followed the general method of buying cattle in those days, 
which was to go carefully into the books of sales and of calf branding 
during the two or three years previously, and then buy at so much 


pitched our camp at some 8,000 feet above the sea in a very 
bear-y looking spot, by the side of the creek. We had dinner 
at 4; while at dinner three unfortunate bison appeared wan- 
dering over the hill towards the camp. The irrepressible 
press correspondent seized his rifle and went off in pursuit. 
We heard 10 shots but he had nothing to show when he re- 
turned ! We sat round the camp fire in the evening. Though 
the days are very hot, the nights are equally cold, and I 
sleep with two blankets and a 'possum rug over me. We 
chatted and smoked till about 9 and then turned in. Just at 
sunset a great wapiti came and stared at us from the top of a 
rock above us. 

Monday, September 6. Hanna and I were off soon after 
sunrise this morning. We rode for some time, seeing lots of 
blacktail deer and bison. At last we saw some wapiti in a 
wood so we tied up our horses and went in on foot. There 
was a grand band of them there, and I shot a bull of 10 
points, but I missed the "big one" of the herd. We cut up 
the bull I had shot, and brought the meat back to camp, 
which we reached about midday. I then had a bath in the 
creek while dinner was preparing. Meanwhile, the irrepres- 
sible press correspondent had discovered a harmless bison 
wandering near our camp and had promptly shot him. For 

per head, reckoning that in a state of nature a herd was five times the 
number (inclusive of the calves) which had been branded the previous 

"It was a fine herd of cattle, a heavy stocky shorthorn breed, 
and the following year we marketed the three-year-old bullocks, I 
think eight hundred head, the value of which refunded us considerably 
more than 50 per cent of the original purchase money for the 76 herd." 

The magnitude of the 76 Outfit is extremely interesting. We have 
seen one example in the Home Eanch built practically in a wilderness, 
for in 1879 Johnson County had not even been organized as a county. 
This occurred in 1881 and incidentally Moreton Frewen had a hand in 
it, too. The assessment roll of the county for 1883 lists several small 
holdings, perhaps ten that go as high as $20,000 with three or four 
reaching fifty thousand, two under a hundred and the Stoddard & 
Howard or LX Bar, managed by Ernest Coppss, assessed at $203,351. 
But the 76 topped them all. It was managed by F. G. S. Hesse and 
the 1883 valuation was $322,350.00 of whicli ' $305,700.00 was for 
17,100 head of cattle. The Home Eanch (no land) $5,000. A nice tax 
revenue for an infant county of the age of two years. 

7 Sir Horace Plunkett, an Irish nobleman, a man who did much 
for Ireland and for liis reward, his home bombed to ruins in his 
absence. When Major Wise met him he had embarked in the cattle 
business on Powder River and was living at E. K. mountain near the 
present town of Mayoworth. A close friend of Fred G. S. Hesse., 

8 Alston was a Scotchman, of the Cattle Company of Peters and 
Alston, Bar C Ranch, Hole in the Wall Country. 

9 Nothing further than as mentioned in the journal. 


no reason ! There is plenty of meat in camp and he only 
shot him for shooting sake. He cannot help letting off his 
rifle on every available opportunity. The consequence is, in a 
day or two we shall be stunk out of camp by the brute's 
carcass. We devoutly wish the P.O. would continue his re- 
searches towards the Yellowstone and leave us in peace. 
Alston went out with Bill and returned about 5 p. m. without 
game, but he had seen plenty and had had some shots. After 
dinner I had a pipe and then 40 winks till about 4 p. m., and 
then Hanna and I saddled a couple of horses and went out to 
look for bears. We returned just as it was getting dark, 
without having seen any. After some tea the evening passed 
with pipes and some yarns of Indians and hunting from the 
hunters round the camp fire, till 9, when we all turned in. 

Tuesday, September 7. We were all off about 6 this 
morning. Hanna and I soon found wapiti, and I shot a nice 
bull of 11 points^"^ after a long and hot stalk in a wood. We 
cut him up and put him on a pack horse, which we had 
brought with us. We saw lots of antelope, blacktails and 
bison, and also some bear tracks. We got back to camp about 
1 when I had my bath and then dinner. Alston and Bill did 
not return till 7 p. m., having had a long day after a big 
bunch of wapiti ; he had killed a fine bull. I did not go out 
in the afternoon, but remained in camp, and cleaned my two 
wapiti heads. 

10 "Frank" is F. E. S. Boughton, an Australian, who had been in 
the hospital at Fort McKinney, and with Hanna joined Major Wise on 
September 15. It is thought he stayed in this country and entered the 
cattle business on the Laramie Plains. His middle name was Rouse, 
after a British Admiral. 

11 Tex was not a Texan; he was an Englishman. He never talked. 
Fred Hesse told me he had been an officer in the heavy artillery at 
Woolwich Arsenal. Not further identified. 

12 Hanna, Oliver P. He was born in Metamora, Illinois, May 10, 
1851. When sixteen he came west, arriving on the headwaters of the 
Yellowstone August 11, 1867. In 1871 he was Avith the party of Dr. 
F. V. Hayden exploring the Yellowstone Park Country. Was with 
Colonel Baker's expedition down the Yellowstone, with Custer in the 
Yellowstone Country and in 1876 was guide and hunter for an English 
hunting party in Colorado. He was the first settler in Sheridan County, 
'squatting' on land above Big Horn on August 11, 1878. Mr. Hanna 
died in Calif oi'nia. (Manuscript, "Northern Wyoming in the Early 
Days," by Mr. Hanna; copy loaned by Mrs. J. C. Van Dyke.) 

13 Henry Harrington. "Black Hank," gambler and horsethief. 
Moreton Frewen tells of Black Hank's part in robbing a military 
paymaster en route to Fort McKinney to pay the troops there subsequent 
to Frewen 's securing his (Black Hank's) signature to a document 
petitioning for the organization of Johnson County. When questioned 
as to capital of the signers. Black Hank 'listed' the capital which 


Wednesday, September 8. We struck camp this morn- 
ing. On rounding up the horses we found that two were 
missing. Bill thought that they had gone on the back trail, 
so set off after them, while we marched 10 miles N.W. To 
our great delight we here left the P.O. behind, as his trail 
lay in another direction. On the march, we noticed a man 
on horseback a long way off, who appeared to be trying to 
hide himself. After an hour's marching we saw him again 
on the top of a ridge clearly watching us. I dismounted and 
had a good look at him through the glasses. I could see 
that he was a white man but that was all. I told Hanna 
about it, but he did not seem to think much of it, as we be- 
lieved that Lord Caledon's party were camped somewhere in 
that direction. (He afterwards turned out to be Lord Rodney, 
who had mistaken us for Indians!) We pitched our camp 
and turned the horses out to feed, while we had our dinner, 
keeping, only one back, as usual, to ride out on, to round the 
others in at night. After dinner Hanna went off for this 
purpose, and after a long time he returned alone, saying he 
could not find a trace of the horses, and was afraid that they 
had been stolen and that that man who had been watching 
us was a horse thief. Here was a predicament to be in ! 
Afoot, with all our campkit, etc. and some 55 miles from the 
Ranche ! Nothing for it, but to hope he was wrong and to 
turn in and make the best of it. Anyhow we had one quod left. 

he and his robber friends intended taking from the paymaster. Previous 
to his meeting with Frewen, it appears that Black Hank had been 
arrested in Dakota for rustling four span of army mules. His story 
to Frewen was this: "1 told the jedge at Cheyenne, 'Jedge, this time 
you have got quite the wrong man. I never did pinch any outfit of any 
Government mules. I twice got twelve, and now and again one span, 
and two, but never happened on four span; you are dead wrong'." 
Black Hank was released. 

14 Ed., horsewrangler, probably Ed Warmsly. No mention by Mr. 

15 Nichol. Probably the man after whom the N H Eanch and 
N H Trail were named. The ranch was that now known as the Condit 
ranch on Beaver Creek, the present Barnura, Wyoming. The old X H 
trail was really an old Indian trail crossing the Big Horn Mountains. 
It left Beaver Creek at the N H ranch and followed up the south side 
of the stream, crossed the mountain and came out on No Wood Creek 
at the old Eed Bank post office, the ranch of George McClellan or 
'Bear George.' It was one of the oldest trails across the mountains 
and during the early eighties was the route of travel between the Big 
Horn Basin and Buffalo, county seat of the then larger Johnson County. 

16 One of the principal mountain tributaries of Powder River. It 
flows into the middle fork some five or six miles below Barnuni. 

17 Major Wise apparently counts the points of both sides of the 


Thursday, September 9. Last night we had a heavy 
squall of wind and rain and I had to get up in the middle of 
the night and go round our little tent and loosen the tent 
ropes. Hanna went off at daybreak on our only horse to try 
and track the rest of the horses. He returned about 10 hav- 
ing seen nothing of them; he tracked them by their trail 
ropes for about 3 miles, and then the long grass concealed the 
tracks and he could see no more. We had now no doubt that 
rascal watching us yesterday had got them safe enough. I 
lose 6 horses ; Alston 3 ; Henry 1, and Hanna 1. We now 
think that the two horses missing on Tuesday night have also 
been stolen. In the afternoon Alston and I went out with 
Hanna, all on foot, much to our disgust. We climbed a ter- 
rible hill, and when we arrived at the top, we were rewarded 
by the sudden appearance of a blacktail buck, which I prompt- 
ly shot ! He had 10 points. Further on we saw signs of bear, 
so Hanna suggested that we should shoot a bison bull as bait. 
We soon found one in a good place, as they swarm about here, 
and Alston and I shot him between us. We then returned to 
camp, and while washing our hands before supper, to our 
huge delight we saw Bill returning with his two runaway 
horses and all ours! He had come across the latter quite by 
chance, on his way here, some miles from camp. We can only 
conclude that they were stampeded that night by a bison or a 
bear. All 's well that ends well ! And we were mightily 
pleased to get back our quods ! 

Friday, September 10. We were off this morning as 
usual soon after sunrise. I soon saw four wapiti and stalked 
them but they were in velvet. I got within 30 yards of them 
and stood behind a tree for a long time watching them. We 
saw lots of blacktail and antelope, but no fine heads, and as 
we do not want meat, I let them alone. I saw and shot at a 
black fox, but I shot carelessly and missed him! We soon 
came on a bison bull lying down, and I thought I would have 
a gallop, so I handed my rifle to Hanna and rode at him. Up 
he got and w^ent off at scare and we raced for a mile over 
some rather rough ground, till I got within 20 yards of him, 
when suddenly, having I suppose had enough, he stopped, put 
down his old head, and charged right at me ! I fired my re- 
volver at and hit him, as he came and then whipped my pony 
round and bolted. He did not came far, and then we again 
resumed our former positions. I got within 8 or 10 yards of 
him and fired 3 more revolver shots, but I don't think I hit 
him. It is not very easy to use a revolver effectively when 
going at full gallop ! Just then I noticed that my picquet rope 
had become loose and fearing a cropper if the pony got his 


leg through it, I reluctantly pulled up, and old Bully pur- 
sued the even tenor of his way, noti much the worse, 1 fancy! 
We then turned towards camp, and on the way I had two 
long shots at an antelope buck, but missed him. In camp I 
found Alston had returned without any luck. After dinner 
and customary pipe and forty winks, we went out about 3 :30 ; 
I did not see anything with a head good enough to shoot. When i 
returned I found Alston had killed an antelope buck, with a 
very good head. 

Saturday, September 11. It was awfully cold last night ; 
the tea in our camp kettle, and the drinking water in the pail 
were frozen I/2 inch thick. It had also snowed a little during 
the night ; it is a curious climate — so cold at night, and yet 
our noses, ears and necks are all peeling with the heat of the 
sun by day. I went first this morning to the carcass of the 
bi^on we had killed for bearbait ; I found a bear had been there, 
and had already had his breakfast. We then went a long round, 
but saw nothing worth shooting. On returning to camp for 
dinner I found that Alston had killed a fine wapiti with a head 
of 18 points. In the afternoon, Hanna and I started on foot, 
intending to visit the bison carcass about sundown — hoping 
to find Bruin having his dinner. We got there about 6 p. m. 
but found nothing. We were just starting back for camp, 
when over the brow of the next hill appeared two bears, 
making straight for us. We turned and had just time to rush 
out of sight behind a rock ; the bears came right up to the 
bison, and began to eat. I crawled up to within 120 yards: 
T could not get nearer, without their seeing me, and if they 
had, they would probably have made off, without giving me 
a good chance at them. I fired a ban'el at each and knocked 
both over ; both got up again and began to go up tlie opposite 
hill. The first seemed so badly hit, that we thought he could 
not get away, so we pursued the second. I never saw a bear 
die so hard; we hit him four or five times and had a most 
exciting chase and fight before we killed him. This was my 
first introduction to a grizzly; there is no doubt there is much 
m.ore life and fight in them than in the black bears I used 
to kill in India. Meanwhile No. 1 bear had crawled up the 
hill and disappeared over the brow. It was now getting dark, 
so we went l)ack to camp, hoping to find bear No. 1 dead 

Sunday, September 12. It froze very hard last night — 
everything freezable was frozen — even Alston's sponge close 
alongside him in the tent. We had intended this to be a 
''dies non," but we had to go to skin the bear, so I took my 


rifle with me, in case bear No. 1 was not dead. We tried to 
track him but could not make out his trail, the ground was 
so rocky. He must have gotten into a hole in the rocks some- 
where. It is a great pity to lose his skin, as he is probably 
dead by this time, if we could only find him. We skinned 
No. 2 and came back to camp. I then washed two flannel 
shirts, 4 handkerchiefs and a pair of stockings ! and then 
made myself a pair of mittens out of a horse rug, as the morn- 
ings are so cold before the sun is up that my fingers become 

Monday, September 13. We struck camp this morning 
and marched 8 miles N. and camped on a nice stream — the 
north fork of Powder River. We arrived at I, and the sun 
was so warm, and the river looked so nice that Alston and 
I had a bathe, and enjoyed it immensely — though the water 
was cold. After we had pitched our tent and had dinner we 
went out shooting. I saw a silver gray fox and a lynx and 
some deer, but did not get a shot at any. Alston saw the 
tracks of a bear, so shot a bison bull as a bait. 

Tuesday, September 14. A sharp frost last night. We 
sent Hanna down for more stores this morning ; he has about 
70 miles to go, and ought to get down in two days. Alston 
and I went out to get some meat, as we had none in camp. 
After a long ride we came across some blacktail, and Bill 
got a shot and killed a doe, which we cut up and carried 
straight off to camp for dinner. In the afternoon Ave went to 
the bison carcass to look for a big bear, whose tracks we had 
seen. We waited till dusk, but he did not come. A silver 
grey fox however, put in an appearance, and Alston made a 
good shot at 80 yards and killed him. We skinned him and 
returned to camp. 

Wednesday, September 15. A very sharp frost last 
night ; some parts of the river were frozen over this morn- 
ing. Alston and I went out in the morning, but had no sport. 
In the evening we walked up to the bison carcass and sat there 
in hopes the bears would come. We waited till after dark, 
as there was a moon, but without success. 

Thursday, September 16. Alston and I went out for a 
long round, but saw very little game. I killed a blacktail, 
ax we wanted meat in camp ; on our way back we saw a great 
many bear tracks. We went in the evening again to the bison 
carcass. A bear came near, but unfortunately the wind was 
shifting about, and he winded us, and went off, without 
giving us a chance. 


Friday, September 17. We got up very early this morn- 
ing so as to get the bison carcass by daybreak in hopes of 
catching bruin, but he is too clever for us, and we saw him 
not ! We went out in the afternoon, but did nothing. 

Saturday, September 18. Alston and I with Bill started 
after breakfast, and after a long ride we heard some wapiti 
calling. We had a long stalk through a big wood, and, even- 
tually, Alston and I got a bull each, both 12 point heads. 
AVhile we were cutting off the heads, a terrific thunderstorm 
came on and in a few moments we were drenched to the skin. 
No sooner was this over, than the wind suddenly changed, 
and it began to snow and freeze. Our plight was piteous ! 
My Kackee clothes, well soaked with rain, soon froze hard 
as boards ; it was too bitterly cold to ride, so we set to work 
to walk back to camp, some 7 or 8 miles over the mountains 
dragging our unwilling steeds after us. It snowed heavily 
the whole time, and we got back to camp about 6 p. m. half 
frozen. We had dinner, and then went to bed to get Avarm. 
We found that Hanna had returned with our stores and Tex 
had come with him, as a hunter for Prank who is on his way 
to us. I got two letters from home. 

Sunday, September 19. It froze like mad during the 
night, and more snow fell; everything was covered up in 
snow and we, none of us, could find our things ; one man had 
lost his bridle and another a spoon or fork and we were all 
poking about with sticks in the snow. Luckily, in the morn- 
ing the sun came out and we were able to dry our soaked 
clothes — a necessary proceeding when one has only two suits, 
one on and one off. I sent Hanna off about midday to guide 
Frank to our camp. He has Ed with him and is about 12 
miles away. In the afternoon we found that we were short 
of meat, so I went out with my rifle for an houi", and killed 
a blacktail buck of 11 points. Frank and Ed had arrived 
in camp when I returned, Frank looking much better and quite 
himself again. It was bitterly cold at night. 

Monday, September 20. It froze awfully hard last night. 
Bill said we had at least 30 degrees of frost. We three were 
all stowed in our small tent, so close that our valises touched ; 
locomotion in the tent is impossible because our valises cover 
the whole floor, but we keep each other Avarm. I went out 
with Hanna and killed a fine wapiti of 12 points, a long shot 
of about 250 yards. Coming home I found a splendid head of 
a wapiti, which I suppose, had been Avounded last year and 
had died. It is a fine head of 15 points and Avell presented 


SO I quickly appropriated it. Frank went out with Tex and 
killed a bull bison. Alston was out with Bill, but did nothing. 
We spent the afternoon cleaning deer heads. 

Tuesday, September 21. We heard last night that the 
Crow Indians were camped about 8 miles off and were hunt- 
ing in the Big Horn Canyon, which was where we had in- 
tended to go, so we determined to change our route, as thej' 
will have scared all the game away from the Canyon. Ac- 
cordingly, we struck camp and marched 18 miles south. We 
amused ourselves on the march by shooting at the sagehens 
running among the sage brush, with our revolvers, but with- 
out much success. We got to our camp for the night about 
5, and soon had our little tent up and the fire going for din- 
ner, and all snug for the night. 

Wednesday, September 22. We struck camp and were 
off early, marching south. We saw great numbers of sage- 
hens and had many shots at them, but they are not easy to 
hit with a six-shooter ! At last, as Frank wanted a mouth- 
piece for his pipe, I killed one with my rifle. We three rode 
on in front, when nearing our camping ground, to choose a 
nice camp, as we expect to stay here some tiihe. We chose a 
beautiful spot, on the edge of a pine wood, close to the creek 
and with plenty of grass for the horses close by. Close to 
camp we saw four bears, rooting, who made off on seeing us, 
without giving us a chance of a shot. We soon had our tent 
up, and after dinner we sat around the camp fire and had 
songs ; Henry the cook, who is GTerman, being very great with 
Die Wacht am Rhein ! 

Thursday, September 23. AA^e were all off this morning 
with our respective hunters in different directions. I soon 
found some blacktail and shot a nice buck of 11 points. Soon 
after. I killed a bison bull as a bear bait, and coming home, 
we came suddenly on a herd of antelope. There was one 
buck with a very fine head, which I killed at about 130 yards. 
When I got back to camp I found that Alston had done 
nothing, and Frank had killed a bull bison for bait, in a very 
good place for bear. We were employed all afternoon in 
making a log shelter to keep off the wind and possible snow 
round the camp fire. The nights lately have not been nearly 
so cold, and the days are very warm. 

Friday, September 24. We all went out as usual this 
morning. I found a wapiti, a small bull, and as I wanted 
a bait for bear I shot him. He was in poor condition and his 
horns were small and broken and not worth taking. We 


went on and soon came to an immense band of wapiti. I 
never saw such a sight, there were at least 400 in the band, 
and some 70 or 80 fine bulls. Here was an opportunity to get 
what heads I wanted at once and have done with it, as I 
wished to devote myself to bear hunting — so I shot three ! 
All fine heads 13, 13, and 12 points, respectively. Frank 
killed a wapiti, a small one ; Alston did nothing. In the 
evening we all went out to look for bear; Frank was unlucky 
enough to drop his rifle and break the stock. I saw nothing, 
but Alston came on a family of four bears — cinnamon — 
m.other and three cubs. He shot on.e of the cubs and badly 
wounded the mother. It got too dark for him to look for her, 
but he hopes to find her tomorrow. These are probably the 
four we saw when we came to this camp. 

Saturday, September 25. I went out early to fetch in 
my three wapiti heads. It was very cold, having snowed a 
little during the night. We had a long cold job. cutting 
off and cleaning the heads. Alston went out to look for his 
wounded she bear, but could not find her. Frank shot a black- 
tail buck. We were all busy in the afternoon, pegging out 
the bearskin, cleaning the heads, etc. The sky was cloudy 
and we had no sun, consequently it was very cold. 

Sunday, September 26. A very cold night, with hard 
frost, but the clouds have cleared off and we have bright 
sun. We cleaned our rifles, washed shirts, etc., during the 
morning. In the evening, Frank asked me to go with him to 
look at the bison carcass that he had shot as a bait. We 
rode out, and for some time could not find it. At last, we 
found it at some distance off. I thought it looked an odd shape, 
and pulled out my glasses and had a look at it. I saw 
directly that there was a bear having his dinner. We dis- 
mounted and tied up our horses and ran across the valley 
to leeward of him. We got to within about 120 yards of him 
and then we sent at him. We knocked him over, and then 
he got up and made for some covert not far oft'. We bolted 
after him shooting every now and then, and soon he dis- 
appeared in the covert. I had some difficulty in restraining 
Frank's impetuosity, as nothing is more dangerous than to 
follow a wounded bear into covert. However, we halted 
about 25 yards from the edge, and there sure enough was 
my friend about 20 yards inside sitting up. and looking about 
to see some one to "come for," when a lucky shot from 
Hanna who was with us, finished him. He was a fine big 
bear, a grizzly, and his skin measured 7' 6" by 8'. 


Monday, September 27. Hanna and I went off to look 
at my bear baits. "We found one nearly eaten up by bears, 
and the ground around well padded with their footmarks. 
We then went on to the wapiti bull I had killed on Friday. 
He lay just inside a thick covert of quaking asp, so we dis- 
mounted and tied up our horses and went down to look at 
him. We could not see him till we were within 15 yards of 
him, and when I got there I saw a big bear busily engaged 
in burying the carcass. I think we saAv each other simul- 
taneously, for as I dropped on the knee to shoot, he sat up 
and looked at me. I fired both barrels and knocked him 
over, and then he got up again with a loud roar, and bolted 
through the bush. We followed, and tracked him by his blood 
for a long way. Meanwhile the bush got thicker and thicker, 
and more than once, we had to crawl on our hands and knees 
to follow w^here he had gone. Here we ought to have stopped 
no doubt, as had he come for us there we should have been 
at his mercy, but the bear was a big one, and we were keen 
to get him, so we determined to follow him. At last, all of 
a sudden, I saw him quite close, about 8 yards off; he was 
sitting up looking about him. I told Hanna, who was close 
beside me, and he told me to shoot. I fired and knocked 
him down, and the next moment, with a loud roar, he came 
straight for us. Hanna and I both fired as he came and 
both hit him, but nothing but a cannon would have stopped 
such a charge. I took a step to one side, reloading as quickly 
as I could, but poor Hanna lost his head and turned and ran. 
The next thing I remember was feeling the bear pass me, 
touching my legs and then I saw Hanna flying for his life, 
the bear close behind him. The ground here was a little more 
open, and Hanna disappeared over a brow, and as the bear 
topped it, I sent at him and hit him on the stern. Both 
then disappeared and I rushed after them, reloading as 
I ran. The next moment I heard a fearful scream 
and on reaching the brow, I saw the bear worrying at some- 
thing — growling furiously. Hanna, I could not see. Of 
course under these circumstances I dare not shoot for fear 
of hitting Hanna, so the only thing I could do, was, to rush 
up to the bear and try and blow his brains out. He looked 
up at me, when I was within 6 feet of him, and then to my 
surprise, the cowardly brute bolted ! I put two bullets into 
his back as he went; he then stopped in some bushes about 
20 yards off, and sat up and looked at me. I shot him again, 
on which he gave a loud roar and appeared to collapse, but 
the bushes were so thick I could not see plainly. Anyhow 
he remained quiet, which contented me ! I then looked to 


Hanna ; he had got up but said he was badly hurt. I had 
almost to carry him up out of the scrub, not without many 
qualms that that brute of a bear might come for us any min- 
ute ! At last I got him out and set him on a rock and then 
went for the horses, which were about a mile off. Hanna 's 
nerves were quite gone, and he was in a dreadful fright lest 
I should not find him again. While taking Hanna out, I 
luckily remembered to blaze the trees, as I intend going for 
that bear tomorrow, and I should never find the place with- 
out some sort of signpost ! I got Hanna back to camp in 
time, but the poor felloAV was in great pain. When we 
stripped him, I found his arm was badly bitten in two places, 
also the thigh and calf of the leg and he was badly clawed 
on the head and neck, but nothing broken ! Thank God ! 
It might have been worse. Frank did nothing. Alston^^ 
was out in the evening and shot a skunk, which he brought 
into camp, and nearly stunk us all out ! I bound up Hanna 's 
wounds and made him as comfortable as possible, but he is 
in great pain, poor fellow. 

Tuesday, September 28. After I had washed and bound 
up Hanna 's wounds Frank and I went off to look for the 
bear that we had killed on the 26th. Frank had gone out 
yesterday to skin him, but had been unable to find him. We 
soon found him, and took off his skin and got back to camp 
with it in time for dinner. In the afternoon, Alston, Bill 
and I went to look for my antagonist of yesterday. We 
went very cautiously to the spot, which bye the bye, I should 
never have found, but for my blazed trees. We first found 
poor Hanna 's rifle, which he had thrown away in his flight. 
We looked carefully about, there being a strong smell of 
bear. At last we found him dead close to where I had last 
shot at him. He proved to be an old and huge grizzly weigh- 
ing. Bill said, not less than 1100 or 1200 ^llis. He had 9 
bullets in him, so all my shots had hit him. We took off his 
skin and skull in triumph and returned to camp to tell Hanna 
his enemy was dead! We found that this bear's tusks on one 
side were broken and blunt, but for this Hanna would have 
been very much more hurt. I found that my two first shots 
were direct for his heart, but the bullets had not peneti-ated 
so far ! The fact is, these small express bullets, a.s made by 
EJey, are not heavy enough, and have not substance enough 

19 Alston, together with the Peters of Note No. 24, became partners 
and started what is still known as the Bar C Eanch on the Middle Fork 
of Powder Eiver directly south of Barnuni. During the nineties it 
figured much in troublesome times of the Hole-in-the-Wall country of 
which it is a part. 


for such a big beast — and their velocity is so great, that they 
go to pieces, without penetrating. With my old 12 bore rifle, 
that I used in India, those two first shots would have ended 
the days of that bear on the spot. 

Wednesday, September 29. A very sharp frost last night. 
Hanna is much better this morning. I have made some 
bandages out of flour bags, torn into strips and stitched to- 
gether and luckily I have 3 or 4 more handkerchiefs than T 
want. I have used nothing but cold water changed three 
times a day, and his wounds are doing well. I went off in 
the morning with a pack-horse to bring my bear skin and 
skull into camp, and got back in time for dinner. Hanna 
was much pleased to see the skull of his enemy and seemed to 
take a curious pleasure in feeling his teeth ! Frank went 
out in the evening and came across a bear, which his hunter 
Tex fired at; but whether hit or not is uncertain. Anyhow 
it got away. I think our adventure has established rather a 
scare ! 

Thursday, September 30. Hanna being now "hors de 
combat," Alston and I have agreed to shoot together with 
Bill as our mutual hunter. We Avent out in the morning and 
I killed an antelope buck. I hit him in the head and broke 
his skull, so had to take off his horns separately. We left 
them there to pick up on our way home. We had a long ride, 
but saw nothing, except a fox, which Bill shot. On returning 
to the antelope, on our way home, we found the horns gone ! 
I suppose the foxes or eagles had carried them off to pick ! 
In the evening, Alston and I went to look for bear, but had 
no luck. Frank also went to his bison but bruin was not 
there. During the afternoon I pegged out by bearskin. (Here 
in the original diary appears a rough sketch of the bear skin 
with notation: 8 feet long, 8 ft. 6 in. wide.) 

Friday, October 1. It was very cold last night, and a 
very sharp frost; lots of ice in the river in the morning. 
Alston and I went out to get some meat. We soon found 
some blacktail, we shot together, and bagged a buck each. 
I afterwards shot a very fine buck of 16 points. Hanna is 
getting on very well. I have given up the cold water applica- 
tion, and now dress his wounds with raw marrow from the 
bones of deer. It keeps his wounds cool, and they are now 
healing rapidly. I am quite proud of my surgery ! He is also 
recovering the severe shock to the nervous system, which is 
sure to follow such a mauling — poor fellow ! His gratitude 
to me is unbounded. In the evening, Alston and I went to 


my bison carcass to look for a bear, but without luck. There 
were about 20 wolves there, and we had a shot each, but it 
was getting dusk, and it was rather drawing a bow at a 
venture. It was very dark coming home, and we blundered 
about over the rocks much to the detriment of our shins ! 
Frank did not go out. 

Saturday, October 2. Last night Ed put some poison 
into the carcass of an antelope I had shot, and this morning 
found five wolves and 2 fox'es dead. Alston and I went a 
long ride without seeing anything ; the game seems to have 
cleared out, though there are lots of bears about. We see 
their footmarks all about, but cannot come across them. We 
have worked harder for bear, than for anything else. Frank 
went out for the whole day, taking his dinner with him. He 
saw and shot at a blacktail with a very fine head, which he 
had shot at before ; but missed him. The weather is very 
fine just now — not quite so cold at night. 

Sunday, October 3. We remained in camp this morn- 
ing examining skins, horns, etc. I gave Hanna's wounds a 
good washing and doing ! He is getting on famously, and can 
now walk slowly about. In the afternoon we cleaned our 
rifles, etc. Frank went to his bison carcass, but found no 
bear, though they had eaten it nearly all up. 

Monday, October 4. A sharp frost, and very cold in 
the night. Hanna much better ; Frank not very Avell ; he com- 
plained of signs of mountain fever, and remained in camp all 
day. I dosed him with quinine. Alston and I went out and 
found a large bunch of wapiti. Alston killed one of 12 
points, and Bill shot a heifer for food. There were a great 
many in the band and I could have killed several, had I 
been so inclined, but I have already got all the heads T re- 
quire. On our way back we bombarded an antelope buck at 
long range, but missed him, though he had more than one 
narrow escape. We agreed in the evening to shift our oanqi 
on the morrow. 

Tuesday, October 5. We moved camp this morning, and 
marched N. W. about 5 miles. We were in camp and "tixed 
up" by midday, and after dinner took our rifles and had a 
look round. We soon found a large band of wapiti and 
Frank killed a very fine bull — 21 points. Alston and I did 
not shoot as we have already got all the heads we want, and it 
is a sin to waste good meat. However, it is a great pleasure 
to look at these great beautiful creatures, so we stalked up 
to the herd and had a grand view of the whole band, some 


30 bulls and 80 or 100 cows and calves. There was another 
band in the wood close by, which we could hear, but were 
out of sight. Alston and I went out in the evening after 
bear, but without success. We are certainly very unlucky 
about coming across bears. 

Wednesday, October 6. Alston and I went hunting for 
bear. We have killed all the deer we want, so confine our- 
selves almost entirely to hunting bear. We saw much bear 
"sign" but no "Simon Pure"!^^ Frank went to skin and cut 
ofi. his big wapiti head, and in the afternoon he got a good 
blacktail of 10 points. There is a new moon and the weather 
just now is splendid, so we hope to have a fine fortnight to 
finish up. 

Thursday, October 7. Alston and I got up before dawn, 
and went to our bearbaits to see if these invisible gentlemen 
take their food early, but we had no luck. It is really extra- 
ordinary, and most provoking, how these bears manage to 
keep out of our sight. There are some about, and by no 
means few as we can tell by the "sign." We sent Bill down 
to Barton 's^^ Ranche for some stores this morning. I amused 
m.yself all day making a "travois, " on which to carry our 
many horns ! It is simply two long poles, fastened like shafts 
to a pack saddle, the other ends dragging on the ground, with 
two cross bars, firmly tied on with rawhide to keep the poles 
in place. Something of this sort, but I am not a very good 
draughtsman ! 

(Sketch of horse and "travois" appears here in original 
diary. ) 

The Indians carry their goods and chattels on these 
' * travoises, ' ' babies and all ! The poles are young pine trees, 
and as they spring a good deal, the "carriage" is far more 
comfortable to ride in, than it looks ! Hanna is getting on 
very well ; his wounds are healing very fast. We propose 
going down to Trout Creek^^ tomorrow for a day or two, trout 
fishing. We hear the trout are very numerous, and average 
1 lb., to 1% lbs. each. 

19 No apparent connection. Perhaps the Major was using one of 
the leading American packers 'Simon Pure Leaf Lard'! Probably 

20 1 am unable to identify Barton 's Eanch. He may have been 
some temporary squatter in the vicinity of Trout Creek, a small stream 
flowing into the No Wood near the northeast corner of T. 41 N., R. 89 
W. See note 21. 

21 A small stream rising in the northwest corner of Natrona county 
and flowing north across the Washakie-Natrona County line and into 
the No Wood. In the early eighties many of the streams on the 


Feiday, October 8. Alston and I stayed in camp in the 
morning washing some clothes, etc. Frank went out and 
found some wapiti, but did not get any. Bill turned up about 
noon, with some stores. With him came a "cowpuncher" 
who has a ranche near Trout creek, and he told us, for some 
unknown reason, the trout had not come up the river in any 
great quantities this year, and though there were many, there 
were nothing like the enormous quantities usually there. 
This being the case, we thought it hardly worth while going, 
and decided not to go. In the afternoon we made another 
"travois" for the rest of the horns, as one won't carry them 
all! Frank went out in the afternoon but did nothing, and 
Bill killed a cow wapiti for meat. A very cloudy and un- 
settled looking evening, and Bill fears we are going to have 
a storm. 

Saturday, October 9. Bill proved a true prophet, for, 
when we woke this morning, we found the ground covered with 
snow and snowing fast. Under the circumstances we remained 
laced up in our valises ! And got Henry to bring us some break- 
fast. About 9 it stopped snowing for half an hour and we turned 
out, but soon it began again worse than ever, and we retreated 
to our tent. Tliis was not lively, but we made the best of it, and 
congratulated ourselves that we had not started for Trout 
Creek yesterday, as we had intended going in the lightest 
possible marching order, that is, with no tent or change of 
clothes, and only a couple of blankets each. "We lighted a 
big fire close to the tent door, and there we sat in our great 
coats on our valises, like three disconsolate crows on a rail ! 
It snowed the whole day without ceasing. We had no books 
or papers, and there we sat doing nothing. We kept a good 
fire going, but had to sally forth every now and then to fetch 
wood ; by night there was nearly a foot of snow on the ground. 

Sunday, October 10. On waking this moniing, we found 
to our dismay that it was still snowing, and had evidently 
been so doing all night. The snow was over kneedeep, and 
the canvas of the tent was frozen hard and stiff as a board. 
We soon started a fire, and made up our minds to pass an- 
other day, making up the fire and watcliing the snow fall! 
Had we gone to Trout Creek we should have been out in all 
this, and unable to get back to camp, as it was impossible to 

eastern slope of the Big Horn Mountains had no trout in them. Trout 
Creek and Deep Creek, tlie next stream of any size do\vn No Wood 
from Trout Creek, both had an abundance of nice trout in their waters. 
This Trout Creek is apparently the same stream as mentioned by 
Major Wise, and Mr. T. F. Carr is my authority that the name was 
Trout Creek in 1887. 


see more than 30 yards ! And we should only have taken food 
for 48 hours with us. So, altogether, we are very well out of 
it I To add to our troubles, our tobacco is nearly all done, 
and when that great solace is gone we shall indeed be miser- 
able ! I am chiefly concerned for the horses, who are having 
a bad time of it picqueted out in the open. The snow ceased 
falling about midday for half an hour, but fell more or less 
all afternoon. Towards evening, however, there were signs of 
the cloads breaking and we turned in with great hopes for 
the morrow. It is very lucky we happened to have a good 
stock of meat in camp. 

Monday, October 11. It did freeze last night and no 
mistake ! The men all agreed it had been below zero. The 
meat was so hard we could not chop it Avith an axe ! We Avere 
much cheered by seeing a bright sun and blue sky. We set 
to work to clear away the snow from around the tent, before 
the sun began to thaw it, and to un-earth our saddles, skins, 
etc., and hang them all up to dry. We did not go out shoot- 
ing at all as we feared becoming snow-blind. This delay is 
very annoying, as we have stores only for 7 or 8 days more 
and we want to get some mountain sheep. The suii shone 
all day and much snow went, but a great deal remains, as it 
was freezing hard all day in the shade. We kept up a big 
fire and amused ourselves cleaning our rifles, cutting fire- 
wood, etc. 

Tuesday, October 12. The frost was very severe again 
last night — about zero, the men said. We had a bright sun 
again, and the snow is going fast, but there is still too much 
to permit us to shift camp yet. Five of the horses, too, had 
strayed ; small blame to them, in search of pastures new, or rath- 
er not covered with snow ! And Ed had to go after them fol- 
lowing up their tracks in the snow. Hanna is so much better, 
that he has today gone down to Frewen's Kanche. His hurts 
are now practically well, and wonderfully quickh^ they have 
healed. Ed returned about midday with our truant horses. 
In the afternoon, Alston and I rode out to the camp of one 
Bob Stuart, ^^ a trapper, about 3 miles from our camp. I got 
some beaver and fox skins from him for the wife and chicks I 
It was awfully cold riding back in the evening. 

Wednesday, October 13. Hard frost again last night 
and very cold, but the snow having a good deal gone, we de- 

22 The same as mentioned in Note 6. One of the signers of tlie 
original petition for the organization of Johnson County. Also men- 
tioned in Note 4. 


termined to strike camp and march to Sheep Canyon about 
8 miles. We carried the horns on the '^ravoises, " and they 
travelled very well — especially over the snow. We got to 
onr new camp about 3 and were soon snug. Here we hope to 
get some mountain sheep. 

Thursday, October 14. It was cold last night so we had 
a fire in front of the tent, but before turning in, I poured a 
bucket of water over the fire, as there was much dry grass 
all round and I feared it would catch fire. Just as I was going 
to sleep, I was horrified to see the fire blazing up again and 
some of the grass on fire, so up I jumped and had to run 
down to the creek for water, just as I was in pyjamas I It 
was freezing hard, and wasn't it cold! This morning it was 
fine, and Alston and I went out after sheep. We soon found 
a fine ram and after a long stalk, Alston had a shot at 200 
yards but missed him. Soon after, it clouded over and our 
old enemy, the snow, began again and pretty well we caught 
it before we got back to camp ! I had no chance of nether 
garments my other pair being worn out, so had to dry them 
on me ! It snowed for the rest of the day. Our stores are 
getting very low— tobacco nearly all done and scarcely any 
meat in camp, so altogether we are in rather low spirits in 
this bad weather. Frank was out in the morning, and saw 
some wapiti, but did not get a shot. In the evening a regular 
gale commenced, and when we turned in, it was blowing and 
snowing like mad ! We only hope the tent will stand up ! We 
all find great difficulty in breathing when walking up hill, 
owing, I suppose, to the altitude of our camp and hunting 
ground some 10,000 feet above the sea. 

Friday, October 15. The gale last night was awful. Sev- 
eral times I thought the tent must go, but it stood up bravely. 
It Avas still snowing heavily this morning but the wind was 
less. We had coffee and bread for breakfast ; we have nothing 
else. In a very short time the dregs in my coft'ee cup were 
frozen in the tent. The creek is completely frozen over and 
nearly buried in snow. We sent out Tex, as we must have 
some meat ! The snow is very deep in some places, as the gale 
has drifted it. This is most unusual weather for the time of 
year. It ceased snowing in the afternoon, and we determined 
to send Bill down to Barton's Ranehe about 8 miles off for 
some flour, bacon and tobacco. So he started off about 2. 
Soon after he was gone, it began to snow again heavily. Tex 
came back about sundown having killed an old ewe ; but the 
fool only brought 2 or 3 lbs. of meat back with him ; he was, 
of course, wet through, and half frozen, but we are all very 


glad to get even a mouthful of meat — and wasn't it tough! 
But it went down all the same. It was bitterly cold and we 
soon turned in. We each heated a stone in the fire and then 
put it into our valises to warm our feet ! 

Saturday, October 16. Worse and worse ! It snowed 
and blew great guns all night, and this morning the snow was 
falling heavier than ever. It was so bad that we determined 
to stay in bed till it stopped. Henry managed to heat some 
coffee — how he did it, I cannot imagine — which we had about 
11. It never ceased snowing all day, and in the evening we 
had some chocolate and bread, which is all we now have to 
eat ; and only two loaves left of that. Bill did not return ; it 
is impossible for him to travel in such a storm, but he knows 
how hard up we are for food, and will get back the first 
chance he has, I feel sure. If this goes on much longer, our 
position will really become rather serious. We amused our- 
selves all day singing songs, and telling stories, but we were 
all heartily sick of bed by the evening. The ground too, is not 
the softest couch to lie on for so long! 

Sunday, October 17. Last night the wind blew, and the 
snow fell unceasingly, and when we looked out this morn- 
ing it was still at it ! The snow is now quite 2 feet deep 
everywhere, and where it has drifted it is many feet deep. 
Between the men's tent and ours, only a few yards apart, 
there is a drift quite four feet deep. We could not stand 
another day in bed, so we turned out about 9 in spite of the 
snow. However, to reward us about 11 the wind fell, and the 
snow stopped. We had only bread for breakfast. Our bread, 
with care — it is all divided into equal rations — will last till 
tomorrow morning. After that we have absolutely nothing to 
eat. We have sent Tex to look for the sheep he killed on Fri- 
day, but I much doubt his finding it, even if he can get to it. 
To our huge delight, about 2 p. m.. Bill hove in sight bring- 
ing flour, bacon and tobacco ! He had had a terrible journey, 
but had determined to come. He tried to come yesterday, 
but the storm was too much for him, and drove him back. 
Soon after, Tex came in with part of another sheep, which he 
had had the luck to meet with and kill near camp. He said 
he had been up to his waist in snow ! We soon had a square 
meal and did not we pitch into it! This evening the sky 
seems to be clearing, and we hope the storm is over. 

Monday, October 18. Last night we had a clear sky and 
bright moon with hard frost, and this morning the sun ap- 
peared, the wind changed, and altogether it looked more hope- 
ful — so much so, that we determined to go out shooting, in 


spite of the deep snow. We all smeared our eyes round with 
wet g-unpowder, to prevent snowblindness. I don't remember 
ever having had such a walk I We were out from 9 till 3 
walking all the time in snow varying from 1 to 4 feet in depth. 
Two or three times I was up to my waistcoat, and this up and 
down awful hills, and over very steep rocks, etc. We saw 
some sheep but did not get a shot. Coming home, we saw a 
fine blacktail buck, and as Alston wanted a good head, he 
shot him. He had a fine head of 13 points. Bill shot a lamb 
for meat. It was wandering about alone and probably be- 
longed to one of the ewes that Tex had shot. It continued fine 
all day, and was very cold and frosty in the evening. The 
storm is now over I think, but the snow will take a long time 
to go — in fact, the drifts will not go till next summer. 

Tuesday, October 19. A splendid morning; bright sun, 
a clear sky and a hard frost. The storm is clearly over, but 
the snow that has fallen is a great nuisance, as Ave cannot 
get about, and riding is out of the question. Alston and I 
started after breakfast, and we certainly had a most tre- 
mendous walk. No one can tell the extreme fatigue of walk- 
ing in deep snow over rough rocln^ ground, until it has been 
tried. After a terribly hard walk through the canyon we got 
back to camp soon after -4, having seen and pursued many 
sheep, but without getting a shot. These sheep are the most 
wary and wide awake animals I have ever stalked. The 
canyons are awfully rough and bad to travel over, and now 
with the snow, the work is simply killing. We saw and stalked 
oue band of over 20 sheep with 4 or 5 fine rams — one in par- 
ticular a splendid fellow — but just as we thought Ave had got 
within shot, a brute of a fox scared the sheep, and off they 
Avent for 3 or 4 miles. We tracked them in the snoAV for that 
distance and intend folloAving them up tomorroAV. We Avere 
very tired Avlien Ave got back to camp, and of course Avet 
through, as to our loAver limbs ! While Ave were out, Bill, 
who was leading, suddenly sank up to his middle in snow. 
AVithout moAang, he turned his head, and said A'ery graA^ely — 
"Wal! if a man calls this sport, he don't love his Jesus!" 
The remark, though blasphemous, Avas not meant as such, 
and Avith the absurd position, and the gravity of his face 
sounded so ludicrous, that Ave yelled ! 

Wednesday, October 20. Hard frost, and a bright fuie 
morning. Alston and I started oft' after our band of sheep. 
After another fearful grind up the canyon, Ave saAV them all 
on top of the rocks far aboA'e ns. We Avatched them for some 
time, and saAV them move to a plateau of grass, Avhere there 
was no snoAV — just below a small precipice. Here Ave felt 


sure they would stay, so we had to retrace our steps, all along 
the canyon, then ascend to the top, and then go up the 
canyon again along the top, so as to get above the sheep. "We 
had an awful walk, as the snow was very deep among the 
rocks. When we got to within half a mile of the place where 
we had left the sheep, to our intense disgust, we saw fresh 
horsetracks in the snow, and found that that fool Tex had 
taken Ftank that way. Of course, when we got to the place, 
the sheep were gone, and our chance of a shot, after two 
days stalking, was gone, too! The sky shows signs of snow 
again and the men fear that we may be snowed up, if another 
heavy fall comes — to say nothing of being starved ! So that 
we have determined to give up the sheep and start down to- 

Thursday, October 21. It was bitterly cold this morn- 
ing, and I am sure another snow storm is coming. We struck 
camp after breakfast. The day proved fine, though cold, 
and we marched 18 miles down towards the Ranche, and 
camped for the night on Powder River. On the way doY^n 
Y^e came across a big band of Y^apiti, and as we wanted meat, 
Frank and I went after them and shot a cow, after a good 
chase. As we sat round the camp fire for the last time, I think 
Y'e all regretted that our hunt Y^as over ! I, for one, have 
enjoyed these seven weeks immensely. 

Friday, October 22. After a cold frosty night we struck 
camp early, and directly after breakfast, Alston, Frank and 
I got on our ponies and started for Big Horn Ranche 22 miles 
distant, leaving our outfit to follow more slowly. The trail 
being fairly good, we rode a good pace and arrived at the 
Ranch about 1, in time for luncheon. Both the brothers 
FrcY'en were at home and gave us hearty welcome. Curiously 
enough, we had not arrived half an hour when Lords Caledon 
and Rodney and their outfit arrived, also on their way down 
to Rock Creek. They too had been driven out by the snoY^ 
and had only got one ram — otherwise they had had good 
sport and had had more luck with bears than us, having 
bagged 15. They went on after lunch, as they are going to 
march down to Rock Creek, camping by the way. Our outfit 
arrived about 4, all safe. It seemed so queer and hot, getting 
into a house again ! But I expect we shall all appreciate 
a nice clean bed tonight. It is much warmer here than in 
the mountains, and no snow, but there was a heavy fall when 
we had that storm, and as the thermometer was 10 below zero 
here at the Ranche, it must have been considerably loY^er 
Yhere we were, 2000 feet higher up. 

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Big- Horn Ranche 

Saturday, October 23. We all slept well in our nice clean 
beds, but I found the house hot, in spite of the sharp frost, 
and had to keep my windows open. We packed off our skins 
and horns on a wagon for Rock Creek in the morning. In 
the afternoon we three went with Moreton Frewen on horse- 
back to look at some of his cows. It is certainly a luxury to 
eat at table again, and to get some vegetables and change of 
food from the everlasting bread and meat of the last two 
nionths, and a glass of bottled Bass does taste very good after 
our long teetotal ! 

Sunday, October 24. A bright fine day. We had a good 
go in at accounts this morning and a general squaring up. 
I find our seven weeks shoot has cost us about £90 apiece ! 
Not a great sum considering all we have done, and how com- 
fortably, taking everything into consideration, we have done 
it! Alston and Moreton Frewen went off to "Crazywoman"^^ 
Ranche to see how the cow business is carried on, as Alston 
has some thoughts of investing. Dick Frewen, Frank and I 
rode in the afternoon to see the coal mine they have here, 
within a couple of miles of the Ranche. The coal crops out 
on the prairie in a big seam some 12 feet thick, and very 
good coal it is. They just take a wagon there and pick out 
a load of coal and bring it to the Ranche. Mighty con- 
venient, and worth a mint if it was in England ; here it is 
v/orthless, at all events at present, except for their own con- 

Monday, October 25. In the morning Dick Frewen, Frank 
and I and three of the men, went off on horseback to find 
and collect the herd of horses. We got together nearly 100 
and picked out some to drive back to the Ranche. These we 
had to "rope" or lasso, and we had plenty of galloping about 
after them. We got back to lunch, and in the afternoon we 
went to the river with our gans, again on horseback, to try 
and find some ducks — but they were not at home, and we did 
not see any. In the evening, a neighbor, one Peters,^^ a 
young Ranche-man came in. He had a very good voice, and 
we had a pleasant evening with some good songs. 

23 The Crazy Woman Fork of Powder Eiver. Here, on what is 
now known as the Billy Hayes ranch, the Powder River Cattle Company 
located another ranch. Just below it was the ranch, in later years, of 
Fred G. S. Hesse. The Hesse ranch, together with the 76 brand, is now 
owned by George S. Hesse. 

24 A partner, later, of Ashton's. Peters, T. W., was called, "Twice 
Wintered," to distinguish him from H. W. Davis who was "Hard 
Winter." Afterwards a U. S. Consul to Germany; a Philadelphian. 


Tuesday, October 26. This morning I was idle and 
loafed about the Ranche while Dick Prewen and Frank went 
out on horseback to see about a telephone-^ that the Frewens 
are putting up between the Ranche and the Old Post at Powder 
River. In the afternoon we rode out to see a horse corral 
they are making a few miles from the Ranche in which to 
round up the horses from time to time. We had a jolly ride, 
and on returning found that Alston and Moreton Frewen 
had come back. The former is thinking of becoming a part- 
ner with Peters^^ in a Ranche near this. 

Big Horn Ranche — Powder River 

Wednesday, October 27. This morning we packed up 
our small kit, and after lunch we started in the buggy for the 
old Post, Dick Frewen driving. We had a young horse, 
almost unbroken, as one of the pair. He was very unsteady 
and I fully expected a smash. However, we got on fairly well, 
till about halfway, w^hen in going over one of the numerous 
"gulches" the young one's trace broke, and we nearly had 
a mess, but we got hold of his head and prevented further 
mischief. We mended the trace as well as we could, but soon 
after it broke again ; this time luckily near the Old Post, so 
at last we got in safely. This is one of the charming animals 
I am to drive tomorrow and next day some 90 miles to Fort 
Fetterman ! I hope we shall arrive in safety. The Frewens 
have lent us the buggy to go down to Fetteiinan in. It saves 
us our coach fare anyhow and is much more comfortable, if 
only the young one will behave himself ! We sleep here to- 
night and start early tomorrow. 

Old Post Powder River 

Thursday, October 28. We were up early, Frank and I 
and Ed, who comes with us to take back the buggy. We 
started about 7 :30 having said farewell to Dick Frewen and 
Alston. The "young one" Avent better than I expected. I 
took the precaution last night to have the traces properly 
mended, so all went well and we arrived at Antelope Spring,-" 
40 miles, about 4 P. M. This is a roadside Ranche, merely a 
log hut with mud stuffed between the logs, but we are not 

25 A few of the insulators of this line are today, 3till in position 
on trees along the river bottom just above the old site of Depot Fort 
McKinney at the Powder River crossing. 

26 Notes 18 and 24. 

27 Near the present Ross, northwestern Converse County, on Ante- 
lope Creek. Later a stage station on the Rock Creek- Junction City 
(Montana) stage route. 


particular now ! At the Post last night a trapper offered to 
sell me a teepee or Indian lodge made of buffalo hide. A few 
trappers and cowboys had a fight this spring near here, with a 
band of Sioux. Two white men were killed, but they whipped 
the Indians and took their goods from them — among other 
things, this teepee. Besides being a curiosity to have at home, 
its history makes it rather interesting, so I bought it. The 
fight took place in the Big Horn Mountains within a few miles 
and within sight of the place we were camped on October 5 
and following days. 

Antelope Springs — Fort Fetterman 

Friday, October 29. We were up by daybreak, and were 
much disgusted to find it was snowing. We had breakfast at 6 :30 
and by 7 were under way. We had a fresh pair of horses 
today, leaving "Yank," the young one, and his mate here for 
the return journey, at which I was rather relieved! About 
10 it stopped snowing, but was cloudy and cold all day. We 
arrived at Fort Fetterman at 5 p. m., just 50 miles, the horses 
having come through wonderfully well, and these qaods live 
on grass ! We got some supper, and then took our places in 
the coach which arrives here anytime between 11 p. m. and 
2 a. m. for Rock Creek.^^ We only hope we shall be alone, as 
a night journey with 3 or 4 in these little coaches is no joke ! 

Fort Fetterman 

Saturday, October 30. We lay down in our clothes last 
night, having given directions to be routed out when the 
coach came in. We both slept well, nevertheless, and I did 
not wake till 5 a. m., when the morning gun in the Fort woke 
me, and I went out to see what had become of the coach. I 
then found that it had arrived about 4, but that it was full 
and therefore we could not have gone on, had we been awake. 
After breakfast we found that some of the soldiers were going 
to target practice so we went to look on. We soon began to 
chat with the officers, who were exceedingly civil and invited 
us to have some shots, which we did. Frank shot very well, 
but to my disgust, I could scarcely hit the target. They after- 
wards asked us into their mess hut, where they had a billiard 
table, and we played billiards and poker all the afternoon. 
They seemed very decent fellows, indeed, and were very kind 
and hospitable to us. The coach arrived in the evening about 
10:30. Alston and De Bunsen, who is Secretary of our lega- 
tion at Washington, were in it, so there was a very consider- 

28 A station on the Union Pacific R. R. On Eock Creek east of 
Medicine Boav. The R. R. has since changed and it is no more. 


able squash ! However, the night was very cold, so we kept 
each other warm. 

Fort Fetterman — Rock Creek 
Sunday, October 31. We had not, as may be supposed, a 
very comfortable night of it. We got so fearfully cramped, 
tJiree out of the four being big men. About 2 a. m. the coach 
stopped and we found the horses were jibbing up a very steep 
hill, so we all had to turn out and push ! Presently we 
jogged on again, and after a time the coach stopped once 
more. This time, we found that the coachman, who is a new 
man, had lost his way! The road such as it is, is nothing 
more than a track, and he had gone wrong. We drove about 
for some time over the prairie, crashing through the sage 
brush, and soon came to a creek which we had to cross. The 
banks were quite perpendicular, about 3 feet high, but there 
was no help for it, and down we had to go. Frank and Alston 
preferred their own legs, but De Bunsen and I were too idle 
to move and just took our luck. The horses for a long time 
refused to jump, but at last they went at it with a rush and 
down we went with a bang and a crash into the creek. How 
we did not get upset is a wonder. I believe we were rather 
near it ! We soon after struck the road again. We arrived 
at Rock Creek at 5 :30 p. m., after 19 hours squash ! We found 
that Caledon and Rodney had also just arrived, so there was 
quite a party of us at Thayer's Hotel, so much so that there 
was very little room. Fi'ank and I could only get one room 
so we had to sleep together ! Our horns and skins have ar- 
rived here. 

Rock Creek 

Monday, November 1. I cannot say that I slept very well ! 
Frank's ideas of "meum and tuum" in bed, are somewhat 
vague! And our bed was none of the Avidest. After ])reakfast 
we set to work to unload our wagons and tied up our horns 
and skins ready for transport tomorrow to Cheyenne, where 
we are going to have them put into boxes and sent home. 
Caledon and Rodney were doing the same, so there was quite 
a display of horns and bearskins, and when the train for the 
west came in, the passengers all came and stared at them. 
It cost us £10 each to get the Iuhmis, etc. down from Powder 
River to Rock Creek ! So expensive is road traveling in the 
country ! And they took 8 days to do 175 miles ! 

Rook Creek — Cheyenne 

Tuesday, November 2. Frank surpassed himself last night ! 
He bounds about in his sleep like a pea in a shovel ! I am 
sorry for the future Mrs. F. ! We were ready for a start after 


breakfast, the train being due at Rock Creek at 9 a. m., but 
we heard that there had been an accident to a goods^^ train 
W. of Rock Creek, and that our train was in consequence 
delayed three hours. Accordingly about 12 it came in and 
we started, horns, skins and all. We got to Cheyenne at 
8 p. m. and got rooms at the Station Hotel, one each this time, 
I am thankful to say ! ! "We here parted with Alston, who is 
going straight home. We met here. Cowan and young Glynn,^° 
who went with us from Brindisi to Alexandria in the spring! 

29 A freight train. 

30 Glynn. A London banking family. 

NOTE — This, the final note of the Major Wise hunt in the Powder 
Eiver country, gives a probable route taken by the party in the hunt after 
leaving the Home Ranch and has been contributed by Mr. Mart Tisdale, 
sheriff of Johnson County, Avho is probably as well acquainted with the 
topography of the entire southern portion of Johnson County as any 
man today. It has been prepared after a close study of the various 
marches as recorded in the Diary and, while definite information as to 
direction and distance traveled is lacking in two important places, i* 
is believed to be, in the main, correct. 

The camp of September 4th was, of course, at the N H Ranch on 
Beaver Creek, the present Condit place at Barnum. On the 5th the 
party ascended the mountains on the old N II trail to the head of the 
South prong of Red Fork of Powder River, or Cheever 's Flats. Here 
they hunted till the 8th and that morning 'marched' 10 miles N. W. 
which would bring them into the Saw Mill Creek country. After about 
a four-mile march of this 'march' the 'P.C. ' newspaper correspondent, 
left them, much to their relief, and went off to the mountains by way 
of the Red Bank Trail (Red Bank being the ranch of former Governor 
Richards on the No Wood about midway between the present towns of 
Big Trails and Nowood). On the 13th they marched 8 miles N. to 
the North Fork of Powder River, the present crossing in T. 47-85, being 
the same as used at that time. 

Here they heard of the Crows as being camped not in Big Horn 
Canyon itself as stated in the Diary but in Creel Canyon, a tributary 
of the Big Horn. Marching again on the 21st for a distance of 18 
miles south should have placed the camp of this night near the South 
prong of Red Fork of Powder River again. On the 22nd they again 
marched south, distance not given, but very likely to the Middle Fork 
of Powder River. Here Hanna and the bear staged their battle and 
the camp remained till October 5th when they again marched N. W. 
a distance of 5 miles which should put them on the west slope to the 
south of Red Bank. Here they remained till the 18th during which 
time it was proposed that they go to Trout Creek on a fishing trip. 
At this camp they would have been within 8 or 10 miles of that stream 
(See note 21.) This plan, however, was not carried out and on the 13th 
they again marched 8 miles to the Sheep Canyon of the Diary, probably 
the Canyon of the present day Sheep Creek, which empties into the 
Middle Fork of Powder River where that stream makes a bend to the 
east after passing the ranch house of the Bar C. It is between Beaver 
Creek and the Middle Fork of Powder Eiver. On the 21st a march 
of 18 miles was made in the direction of the Home Ranch, and this 
would place the camp of that night on the Middle Fork of Powder 
River near the mouth of Sheep Creek. On the following day the 
remaining distance of 22 miles to the Home Ranch was accomplished, 
thus ending the hunt. 





(Front Cover) 

The old street scene in Buffalo, Wyoming, "which provides 
the cover illustration for the ANNALS this quarter, is graph- 
ically representative of an early and colorful era in the 
history of Johnson County. Citizens were not harassed by 
parking problems, and the city council had no worries over 
street improvements. The beasts of burden found peace and 
comfort in this serene atmosphere. 

This view of the east side of IMain street in 1883 brings 
to mind two of the town's pioneer business men, S. T. (Uncle 
Steve) Farwell and Robert Foote. From Howard B. Lott, of 
Buffalo, comes the following detailed information : 

The store of Mr. Farwell, a frame building with shingle 
roof, was located directly opposite the southeast corner of 
the present court-house grounds. It was constructed in 1883, 
and is still standing in practically its original form. Owned 
bj' Mr. W. P. Keays, the building is occupied by the WPA 

Mr. Farwell was an old-time bull-whacker, freighting in 
the Black Hills in 1875 and '76. Forsaking that work to 
open his store in Buffalo, he later (1884) was elected treasurer 
of Johnson County and upon completion of his term of otfice, 
resumed proprietorship of his business. Afterward he moved 
to Spokane, Wash., where he died. He was born in Cambridge, 
Mass., in 1836. 

The Robert Foote store opened in 1882 on a site directly 
south of the Farwell place of business, where the dental office 
of Dr. Elza L. Misner is now located. In the fall of 1883 Mr. 
Foote moved his business into new quarters on a site about 175 
feet north, now occupied by the Texas Service Station of 
Jack Meldrum. 

Mr. Foote, a tailor b3' trade, was born in Scothmd and 
worked in London for nine years lief ore coming to America. 
He came to Buffalo from Fort Halleck, M'hich was established 
in 1863 just west of the Medicine Bow ]\Iountains on the 
route of the Overland Mail. He enjoyed prosperity in Buffalo 
and accumulated considerable wealth, but afterward met with 
financial reverses and removed to Phoenix, Arizona, where he 
died. He had two sons, one of Avhom, Robert Foote, Jr., is 
still living at the age of 72, in Heflin, Alabama. 

*The picture was reproduced by Mr. E. E. Dagley, of Cheyenne, from 
a faded photograph found in the files of the Wyoming State Historical 


(Left to right, top) : DeForest Richards — January 2, 1899- April 28, 

1903; Fenimore Chatterton (Acting) — April 28, 1903- January 2, 1905; 

(Lower): Bryant B. Brooks — January 2, 1905- January 2, 1911; Joseph 

M. Carey — January 2, 1911-January 4, 1915. 


By Harry B. Henderson, Sr.* 

Article III 

DeForest Richards 

DeForest Richards, Governor of Wyoming from January 
2, 1899, to April 28, 1903, was born August 6, 1846, at Charles- 
town, New Hampshire. He was of Puritan and Hugenot an- 
cestry, the paternal and maternal families having arrived in 
America in 1630 and 1640 respectively. His father was a 
Congregational minister and college president. 

Mr. Richards was educated in the common school of 
Charlestown, Kimball Union Academy of Meredith, N. H. 
and Phillips Andover Academy. 

After the Civil War, the family moved to Alabama where 
the father had been chosen President of Alabama State Uni- 

Mr. Richards was elected to the Alabama State Legisla- 
ture, Sheriff and Treasurer of his County under the recon- 
struction program of the State. He retired from politics and 
engaged in business in which he was unfortunate financially, 
but he determined his debts should all be paid. This was 
accomplished by the labor of his brains and hands. He then 
oj'cned a merchandising business in Camden, Alabama, and 
this was a profitable venture. 

Mr. Richards and Elise Jane Ingersol, a member of an 
Alabama Puritan family, were married in 1871. Mrs. Rich- 
ards was a lovable woman, keen of intellect and during the 
lifetime of her husband was his helpful partner in business 
and politics. Two children, Inez and J. DeForest. were bom 
to the family and survive their parents. 

In 1885, Mr. Richards closed out his business and moved 
north and west. The townspeople of Camden tendered him 
a banquet at which time a beautifully carved statuette was 
presented, indicative of the high esteem in which Mr. and 
Mrs. Richards was held by the citizenry and its sincere regret 
of their leaving the State. 

Mr. Richards and his familv located at Chadron. Xe- 

*A biographical sketch of Mr. Henderson appears in the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 1939, with the first of this 
series of five articles on Wyoming Territorial and State Governors 
being written especially for this publication. 

As Mr. Henderson has watched and participated in the progress 
of the development of Wyoming, he, himself, has become a part of its 
fascinating history. 


braska, where with his brothers, Bartlett and Jarvis Rich- 
ards, he engaged in merchandising and banking. Later he 
moved westward with the extension of the Northwestern 
Railroad, establishing his home at Douglas in 1887, where he 
organized the First National Bank and was its executive 
officer until his death. He also engaged in banking, mer- 
chandising, and transportation at Casper. 

The heavy cattle losses in AVyoming occasioned by the 
winters' storms of 1886-1887 prostrated both business and 
development. It was then that Mr. Richards conceived the 
idea of bringing sheep into the Platte Valley District, (his 
grandfather, William Jarvis, imported the first Merino Sheep 
into the United States) trailing them from Oregon and selling 
them to the ranchmen. It was a new industry and a new 
prosperity for Converse County. The income from the ranges 
now belonged to people actually living in the County. 

Mr. Richards had the confidence of the people of Central 
Wyoming. His counsel and good judgment was sought by 
the live stock interests. Frequently, it was necessary for 
him to go the additional mile with his borrower to save him 
from financial ruin, but if there was honesty and ability on 
the part of the customer, Mr. Richards would befriend him 
even at his own peace of mind. He not only saved his bor- 
rowers but his institutions and they both prospered. 

He was active in the development of Converse County 
and the town of Douglas. He was elected a member of the 
Constitutional Convention and served in that body during 
the framing of Wyoming's greatest law. 

He was Mayor of Douglas and Commanding officer of 
the Wyoming National Guard. 

In 1898, Mr. Richards was nominated for Governor on 
the Republican ticket and elected to that office at the general 
election. He was inducted into office January 2, 1899, and 
served a full four year term. He was again elected in No- 
vember, 1902, reinaugurated in January, 1903, and continued 
as Governor until April 28, 1903, when he passed into the 
great beyond. 

Governor Richards had a personality that was particu- 
larly adapted to the position of Governor. He was physically 
and intellectually a large man. He was not a politician but 
rather the safe and conservative business man, who had been 
chosen to direct the State's affairs. 

Governor Richards' message to the Legislature of 1901 
and 1903 are really reports upon the condition of the State. 
They present to the Legislature facts concerning every State 
Officer, institutional board or commission. The statements 


were not merely the re-utterance of those made in biennial 
reports, but were in a large measure the observations of the 
Governor from personal visitation to the offices and institu- 

In one message he says "The State and Counties are upon 
a cash basis and public expense reduced." 

"Let us take the lead among our sister states and pay 
our bonded indebtedness." We did! 

"The State is in good condition: by your acts keep it 
so, or make it better." 

"To the prevailing party, I would ask that in all things 
you act with deliberation and prudence, remembering that 
you and you alone will be held responsible for extravagances 
in appropriations." 

"Hoping that Divine Providence may guide you in the 
path of wisdom and that He may continue to shower His 
blessings upon our people," is the closing paragraph in one 
message while in his last message, this paragraph : 

"The blessings of a beneficent Providence have rested 
upon our people since your last meeting : prosperity, peace 
and happiness prevail within our borders, and I trust that 
His hand may guide you in your councils and deliberations 
to the end that wisdom shall be shown in all your acts." 

Governor Richards became ill shortly after the adjourn- 
ment of the Legislature in 1903 and died April 28tli of that 

He was a man among men. 

Fenimore Chatterton 

Fenimore Cnatterton, Acting Governor of Wyoming from 
April 28, 1903, to the first Monday in January, 1905. was 
born at Oswego, New York, July 31, 1860. His father was 
G. H. Chatterton, then of Rutland, Vermont, while his mother 
was Anna Mazuzan of Brandon, Vermont. Mr. Chatterton 's 
father was a lawyer and an ordained Presbyterian minister, 
doing missionary work in Iowa for several years. 

As a lad and youth, Mr. Chatterton received a common 
school education, a Normal School training, and later he 
graduated from the law department of the University of 

Mr. Chatterton came to Iowa with the family, and upon 
the family returning East, he proceeded West to Wyoming 
Territory. Fort Fred Steele was a military post at the time 
and he stopped at the fort. He found employment in the 
mercantile house of J. W. Hugus, who was post trader, en- 
gaged in general merchandising and banking. He made 


himself valuable to Mr. Hugus and after a few years, a part- 
nership in the business was effected. A branch store and bank 
was established at Saratoga, then a thriving town on the 
Platte River some thirty miles south of the railroad. 

Afer the abandonment of the military post, the business 
at Port Steele was sold, Mr. Chatterton giving his attention 
to the Saratoga branch. 

Mr. Chatterton was nominated on the Republican ticket 
in 1888 to the office of County Treasurer of Carbon County, 
and elected at the general election of that year. He served 
the county as he served his former employer and associate, 
with fidelity. He collected the taxes levied and the tax-pay- 
ers knew they had to pay. There was no favoritism. At the 
first State election in 1890, he was elected to the position of 
State Senator for the four-year term. Having receive his LLB 
degree in law at Ann Arbor in the class of 1892, he opened a 
law office at Rawlins. He was elected County Attorney of 
Carbon County for the years 1894-1898 inclusive. In 1898 he 
was elected Secretary of State on the Republican ticket and 
again, in 1902, he was renominated and elected to that high 

Governor DeForest Richards died April 28, 1903, where- 
upon by reason of constitutional provisions Mr. Chatterton 
at once became Acting Governor, which office he ably filled 
as well as discharging the duties of Secretary of State until 
the first Monday in January, 1905. 

It was during this period that Acting Governor Chatter- 
ton was called upon to determine the appeal of Tom Horn 
for a reprieve or commutation of sentence. He reviewed all 
the proceedings of the trial in the courts of the state, wrote 
an exhaustive report of his findings, and denied the petition. 

Governor Chatterton 's term as Secretary of State ex- 
pired the first Monday in January, 1907. He again directed 
his energies to the development of "Wyoming resources. Al- 
ready he had promoted the construction of the Saratoga and 
Encampment railroad. It was his judgment that a railroad 
should be constructed from Casper to Lander; that the possi- 
bilities of development of the great agricultural area in 
Central Wyoming should be a reality. It was largely through 
his efforts that the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad was 
extended to Lander, and that the agricultural possibilities 
of the Wind River Valley were made known to the public. 
He became the attorney for the Wyoming Central Irrigation 
Company, its General Manager, and built the large irrigation 
ditch on the West side of Wind River, making possible the 
irrigation of more than 4000 acres of land that had thereto- 


fore grown only sage-brush and greasewood. This was the 
beginning of a development in a district that eventually will 
be Wyoming's most productive area. 

Governor Chatterton believed three things Avere essential 
to Wyoming's groAvth: Population, Transportation, Produc- 
tion. We have the transportation, we are developing pro- 
duction, but are in need of population to place development 
on a profitable basis. 

Governor Chatterton was again called to public service 
in March 1927, when he was appointed to the State Board of 
Equalization, becoming its President and legal counsellor, and 
serving for a period of six years. He brought to the public 
service a wealth of experience in business and to the people 
of the state, reduction in electric light, gas, and telephone 
rates. He was alwaj^s primarily interested in his state and 
the people who were making it productive of mineral and 
agricultural wealth. 

He married Miss Stella Wyland on October 15, 1900. He 
is a member of the Episcopal Church, the several bodies of the 
Masonic Organization, and the American Bar Association. 
Two fine daughters have graced his home. His record of 
business integrity and honesty covering a period of approxi- 
mately sixty years, is outstanding and most creditable. In 
life's evening time he has retired from the strenuous activi- 
ties which have characterized his life. He is one of the few 
pioneers who could write an interesting history of Wyoming's 
pioneer days. 

Bryant B. Brooks 

Bryant B. Brooks, the seventh Governor of the State of 
Wyoming, was born in Bernardston, Massachusetts, February 
5, 1861. Of the first seven Governors of the State, five were 
born in the New England states. Mr. Brooks' ancestor. Cap- 
tain Thomas Brooks, arrived in America in 1631 and settled 
at Concord. Silas Newton Brooks, father of Bryant B. Brooks, 
was born at Bernardston and resided there until 1871 when 
he moved to Chicago where he believed the opportunities 
were greater for his manufacturing business. 

Of his father, Mr. Brooks says in his Memoirs. ''Father 
was a farmer and business man. He was not particularly 
religious, though his father was a preacher as well as a phy- 
sician. However, our family was gathered into the parlor 
each evening to read a chapter from the Bible and have 
prayers in keeping with the wholesome influence that bred re- 
spect for family and tradition." Mr. Brooks, in writing his 
memoirs some seventy years later, points with pride to his 
early training in the family home. 


Mr. Brooks was graduated from the Chicago High School 
in 1878. During the vacation periods while at school he lived 
at the home of Tom Alsop, a Wisconsin farmer from whom 
he learned how to be frugal and to apply himself toward 
bringing in an income for his employer. In referring to his 
boyhood recollections he says, "The best education I received 
was from my father. He advised, 'If you have something 
good to say, say it and stop there'." 

At the age of eighteen, Mr. Brooks arrived in Nebraska 
where he worked on a farm owned by the man who subse- 
quently became his father-in-law. His wage was $16.00 per 
month during the summer and in the winter following, $5.00 
per month. He arrived in Wyoming in April, 1880, and hired 
to N. R. Davis, a cattleman of Cheyenne. In 1881, he started 
in business for himself and in 1882 purchased a squatters 
rights on the head of Muddy Creek, then in Carbon County, 
which location became his home and continues to be the 
headquarters for his large live stock interests at the present 
time. In 1883, Mr. Brooks acquired his first bunch of cattle 
and that was the beginning of a successful live stock busi- 

Mr. Brooks and Mary Naomi Willard pledged their faith 
in each other March 11, 1886, at the home of Mrs. Brooks' 
father, the ranchman Mr. Brooks had worked for in Nebraska 
when he first came West. They departed for the ranch home, 
traveling by the Union Pacific Railroad to Rock Creek, Wyo- 
ming, thence by stage to Fort Fetterman where they arrived 
March 19, 1886, and on the eve of the following day arrived 
at the V-V ranch. This was the actual place of residence 
for the ensuing twenty odd years. At this ranch the children 
v/ere born and as they grew up received their primary educa- 
tion in the country school. They, like father and mother, 
have established their homes in Natrona County and are suc- 
cessful in their line of endeavor. 

In 1888, the railroad was built to a point formerly known 
as Fort Casper on the Platte River. The district was part 
of Carbon County. It was several days' ride or drive to the 
County Seat at Rawlins. The Territorial Legislature of 1888 
passed an Act creating Natrona County, embracing the north- 
ern half of Carbon County. Mr. Brooks was appointed as 
one of the organizing commissioners. He was elected County 
Commissioner and served for the years 1891-1892. He served 
as a member of the Legislature of 1893, and was a Presiden- 
tial Elector in 1896. In the year 1904, he was nominated 
for and elected to the Governorship for the unexpired term 
of Governor Richards deceased. He was again nominated in 


1906 and elected to the high office for the ensuing four year 

During his six years of service as Governor there was 
large development in the production of oil in the State. By 
reason of the increased valuation of assessed properties, the 
State was enabled to provide new^ and needed institutions and 
to provide more adequately for the administration of those 
already created. 

In his several messages to the Legislature the Governor 
presented everything incident to the progress of the State. 
He had vision to see the things that vv^ould effect development 
and called attention to them. He stressed the appropriation 
of the vraters of the state and their application to irrigation. 
He says, "Engineers have been investigating the feasibility of 
storing the water of the Green River and carrying it to a large 
tract of land in Southern California. There are smaller 
streams worthy of consideration, the Fontanelle, La Barge, 
Big Sandy, Powder River, Cheyenne River, the waters of 
which if impounded would irrigate 200,000 acres of land." 
All this was said in 190'5. Again he said, "Our water power 
resources have an enormous value and should be developed 
for the whole State. There is no reason in economics or gov- 
ernment why the State should give away property of such 
inestimable value. ' ' What has happened ? California has 
captured the water and power of Green River. Nebraska, 
Colorado and Idaho are claiming the right to come within 
our borders and carry away the water run off. Montana 
and Utah are seeking to improve their irrigation facilities by 
demanding a share in Wyoming's waters. The counsel of the 
Governor thirty or more years ago was for the benefit of the 
State, but unfortunately, was not heeded. 

The Governor also said, "The National Government is 
considering the problem of regulating the grazing of live 
stock on the open range. Any system which contemplates 
leasing of the open range and the consequent interference 
with our present land laws will check our natural growth 
a]id progress." We now have the leasing system. The game 
and game birds of the State are referred to by the Governor 
as an asset of great value. 

Upon retiring from Office, Governor Brooks retired from 
active participation in politics. He has directed his energies 
and ability towards developing and building the business 
interests of the State in which he has been eminently suc- 
cessful. He is President of the Wyoming National Bank of 
Casper, the Consolidated Royalty" Company and other indus- 
trial organizations. 


Governor and Mrs. Brooks now live in a palatial home in 
Casper and are, in the afternoon of life, enjoying health and 
the good will and friendship of the people of the State. 

Joseph M. Carey 

Joseph M. Carey, Governor of the State of Wyoming from 
January, 1911, to January, 1915, a native of Delaware, came to 
Wyoming Territory in 1869, as United States District Attor- 
ney for the Territory. He was appointed to the position of 
Judge in the United States District Court for Wyoming in 
1871, resigned in 1876, and in 1884 was nominated and elected 
on the Republican ticket as Delegate to Congress, continuing 
in that office until he secured the enactment of the Act of 
Admission of the Territory into the Sisterhood of States. 

Mr. Carey was Wyoming's first elected. United States 
Senator, serving until 1895. He was during all these years 
of service a staunch Republican and an earnest advocate of 
the continuance of the gold standard in finance. He always 
maintained he would not have to apologize either to himself 
or the people whom he so ably served because of his monetary 
views. He was opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of 
silver and met senatorial defeat because the subject had been 
a controversial one during the campaign. 

Senator Carey was not only keen in politics but he was 
a businessman as well. He early began to acquire desirable 
and strategic properties in Cheyenne and to improve them 
with revenue producing buildings. Reorganized the firm of 
J. M. Carey & Bro. and under this name took title to town 
property and ranch lands. He acquired some of the most 
strategically located lands in the state, builded large cattle 
growing ranches, developed the lands so that they produced 
ample to carry his stock during winter months and was known 
as one of the great stockmen of the State. 

In 1885, Mr. Carey organized the Wyoming Development 
Company. The Cheyenne and Northern Railroad was being- 
constructed from Cheyenne north to the Platte River. The 
line of railroad was down Chugwater Creek and across the 
east bench of the flats westerly of that creek. Mr. Carey 
saw the opportunity to make this great tableland productive 
and at once developed a plan for the diverting through a 
tunnel in the mountains, the waters of the Laramie River 
and bringing them to what is now familiarly known as the 
Wheatland Flats — today watered through the development 
company's canal, and one of the richest agricultural districts 
of the State. A district where the irrigation costs and ex- 
pense of maintenance have not scuttled the enterprise. The 


promotion of this development company and the irrigation 
canal construction is probably the monument to Joseph M. 
Carey that will last on through the ages. 

During the time Mr. Carey was developing ranches and 
building structures in Cheyenne, he was active in politics, 
serving in public office in 1869-70 as U. S. District Attor- 
ney; in 1871-76 as U. S. District Judge, resigning the posi- 
tion in 1876. He was Republican National Committeeman 
for Wyoming from 1876 to 1896 ; thrice elected Mayor of 
the City of Cheyenne ; a member of the Board of Trustees 
of School District No. 1 in Laramie County : Delegate in 
Congress 1885-1890; United States Senator, 1890-1895; Vice- 
President of the Federal Land Bank of Omaha for several 
years. His desire to render public service was yet unsatisfied ; 
there was one office in which he had not served. He desired 
to be Governor of his State and was mentioned for nomination 
b.y his party in 1910 but was not nominated by the Repub- 
lican Convention. Immediately following, the Democratic 
Party in convention, believing that Senator Carey's uttered 
policies were in harmony with those of the party, nominated 
him for Governor on the Democratic ticket. He accepted 
the nomination and was elected, taking on the duties of 
Governor on the first Monday of January, 1911. 

Governor Carey brought to the State government his 
legal and business ability, coupled with his broad experience 
in public life. Elected on well defined views, he expresses 
himself in his first message to the Legislature as follows : 

"I strive not to build a party machine. I have no other 
object than advancing the growth of the state and the honor 
of her people. That which interests me most is an industrial 
constructive policy relating to the development of the material 
resources of the State — new home building, honest money 
making enterprises." He recommended the enactment of 
the Direct Primary Law ; he urged the popular election of 
United States Senators and favored initiative and referendum 
consideration. The values of property as fixed by the Board 
of Equalization were condemned because of the resulting dis- 
parity of taxes. Agricultural development was pointed out 
as the basis of creating a prosperous state. 

The Governor, in his message of 1913, congratulates the 
state upon being the first of all American Legislatures ex- 
tending to women, suffrage, and full political rights. "'Seven 
great states have now clothed women with the same rights 
as those granted by Wyoming." He directed the attention 
of the Legislature to the allotment of the expense of con- 
struction of the Wyoming-Nebraska Interstate Canal and 


says, "The cost of this project has been prorated between the 
states at the rate of 30% for Wyoming and 70% for Nebraska. 
In other words for 3% of the lands reclaimed, Wyoming is 
charged with 30% of the cost." In many instances the Rec- 
lamation Service has taken the attitude of disregarding the 
laws of the State and the rights of individuals and communi- 

In closing his 1913 message the Governor said "The Legis- 
lature as well as mj^self has been trusted by the people. They 
expect much of us. Let us do that which will be for the 
common good." 

Governor Carey died February 5th, 1924. His wife and 
sons have since followed him to the Great Bevond. 


Wyoming and her vast undeveloped resources as visual- 
ized nearly fifty years ago by Col. Stephen W. Downey, Presi- 
dent of the State Board of Mines, ^ is an optimistic and colorful 
story correlated into his report which appeared in the December 
5, 1891, issue of the "Wyoming Commonwealth, "^ official organ 
of the State Board of Mines which was published weekly at 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, under the heading WONDERFUL WYO- 
MING, which is the slogan popularly used today, forty-nine 
years later. 

The report as it appeared in the newspaper follows in part : 

"A Grand Showing for the Grand Young- State, Covering 
Every Class of Minerals" 

"Having for the past few months served as president of 
the State Board of Mines, and desiring now to give way to 
some one of the energetic and enterprising trustees who have 
been active in the effort to aid and encourage the prospector 
and miner in a systematic way, I desire to congratulate you 
upon the results that have followed the labors of the first 
convention. For a long time all work in the way of prospect- 

1 Officers of the State Board of Mines, betides Col. Downey, of 
Laramie, were Joe DeBarthe, of Buffalo, treasurer; and C. G. Coutant, 
of Cheyenne, secretary. The trustees included the officers and the fol- 
lowing: E. J. Wells, Converse county; J. P. CTawford, Carbon county; 
Jas. A. McAvoy, Fremont county; J. E. Keenan, Sweetwater county; 
F. "W. Mondell, Weston county; John S. Harper, Crook county; W. S. 
Kimball, Natrona county; William Brown, Sheridan county; John Eus- 
sell, Uinta county; W. S. Collins, Big Horn county, all thirteen counties 
then existing being represented. 

2 C. G. Coutant (author of "History of Wyoming," 1899) was editor 
of "Wyoming Commonwealth," and I. S. Bartlett (author of "History 
of Wyoming," 1918) was associate editor. 


ing and development had been carried on without system or 
harmony. It is an undisputed fact that organized labor, in 
whatever department it may be, accomplishes more than indi- 
vidual effort. This has been signally demonstrated during 
the year closed. I think you will bear me witness that more 
has been done since our last meeting than during all the years 
that preceded it, in the way of diligent prospecting, great 
discoveries and active development of mining properties. In 
addition to the several new camps that have been opened and 
that have created an excitement that has extended from one 
end of the country to the other, there has been an awakened 
interest in all the old camps, where a faithful few have toiled 
for years, inspired by the belief that in time their labors would 
be crowned with success. Had nothing been accomplished 
more than the discovery of gold on Brush creek, and silver 
at the head of French creek, and in the La Plata district, we 
would have had cause to rejoice, but under the impetus of 
your encouragement and the strong support of the press, we 
have heard from all sides of the energetic exploration for 
ledges and placers, and invariably such exploration has been 
crowned with success. We may reasonably hope that the 
work of this convention will be still more valuable in inciting 
the miners and prospectors in every section of the state to 
renewed diligence. There is every reason to hope that Wyo- 
ming will prove the banner mineral state of the union, and 
this board should see to it that no stone is left unturned to 
make it what we all believe nature has designed it to be. 

Let There Be Li^ht 

There are to be found everywhere, a few disquiet souls 
who prate of hard times and become discouraged because the 
harvest does not immediately follow seed time. They are the 
"Faint Hearts" of any age in which faint hearts have no 
place. For the benefit of such I would quote Julien Gordon's 
exquisite sentiment : 

"The Lord said 'Let there be light!' and there Avas light. 
The fiat for darkness has not yet gone forth, nor for a general 
amnesty of those forces which create the joy-giving beam. 

"Life and light are eternal, and genius, immortal child, 
still beckons all youth, smiling with its divine invitation." 

Everything Found in Wyoming 

A distinguished German scientist who visited this countrj- 

several years ago, on his return home said that whenever he 

wanted anything after that, and could find it nowhere else, he 

was sure of discovering it in Wyoming. This is particularly 


true if the object sought belonged to the mineral kingdom, 
for in no other known region on earth do so many surprises 
meet the prospector and miner on every hand. As the years 
pass by and the pioneers begin to think they have learned the 
country thoroughly, they are startled by the knowledge that 
they don't understand it at all and must begin it all over again. 

It was not until Wyoming was admitted to statehood, 
but little more than a year ago, that general attention was 
attracted to it. Since that time it has been advertised from 
one end of the continent to the other. The eyes of the people 
were all at once opened and they began to realize that there 
was, in the heart of the nation, a commonwealth vaster in 
area than some of the empires of the east, and practically as 
unexplored and unknown as central Africa. With an area 
of 97,000 square miles, how little we know today of the actual 
resources of even a small fraction of our own state. It was 
repeated for years that every foot of the range of mountains 
in southern Wyoming had been thoroughly gone over b}^ pros- 
pectors and that there was nothing in it. Yet within twelve 
months a great gold camp has been discovered on one slope 
of that range, while on the other are being opened silver 
mines as rich as those of Peru or Mexico. And we are as yet 
scarcely in the dawn of that era of development that we be- 
lieve is to make Wyoming the wealthiest commonwealth in 
the Union. 

Agricultural Possibilities 

The agricultural possibilities of the state are unquestion- 
ably great. It is only necessary to get water on the soil any- 
where to produce abundant crops. This has been demon- 
strated in every county from Uinta to Crook and from Lara- 
mie to Fremont. Johnson county has won the championship 
in a national potato contest, while Sheridan, Converse and 
Carbon are neck and neck with her in the race. The valleys 
of the Platte, the GTreen, the Laramie, the Sweetwater, the 
Little Popo Agie, the Bear and almost every stream between 
the continental divide and the Wind river chain of mountains, 
are as fertile as the world-famed valley of the Nile. The 
ranchman who cultivates the soil by irrigation runs no such 
risk as the farmer of the lower states, of loss of crops by flood, 
or drouth, or destructive insects, but while the agricultural 
possibilities of Wyoming are very great, and while realizing 
that there must be bread producers before there are bread 
winners, still we believe the prime consideration is the devel- 
opment of our mineral resources. 

Up to the present time these have been, with the excep- 
tion of our coal mines, practically untouched. The vast 


quantity of fuel demanded by the railroad companies and 
the annually increasing supply required l)y the people who 
settled up the treeless plains east of the Rocky mountains, 
led to the development of the coal measures of Sweetwater, 
Uinta and Carbon counties years ago, and finally splendid 
mines were opened up at Newcastle, while Ave now hear that 
a new line of road is to be pushed through within the next 
four months from Dakota to reach the coal mines about Sun- 
dance, and from Newcastle to Johnson and Sheridan counties. 

Iron Must Come Next 

As an article indispensable to the commercial world and 
in this respect our state is again prepared to meet every 
demand that can be made upon it for a century to come. 
Wyoming has literally mountains of iron and while a begin- 
ning has been made in working them at one point on the 
Cheyenne and Northern, the industry is as much in its infancy 
as any other in this region. The same cause that led to the 
development of our coal mines — the railroad — will eventually 
lead to thousands of men being employed in taking out iron. 
It is not possible that the construction of railway lines has 
been overdone except in certain eastern territory, where com- 
panies were fighting for every inch of ground, paralleling each 
other and going to war over the simple matter of a crossing. 
We have only a single line crossing our state, where there 
must be in a short time at least three. There will be the same 
increase of transportation facilities demanded in neighboring 
states and this will lead to the opening of iron mines and the 
erection of mills somewhere in the mountains that will do 
away with the heavy cost of hauling material half way across 

the continent. 


Chrome Iron 

A. great deal has been published in the newspapers of this 
state about our immense deposits of iron, but strangely enough 
they have never had a word to say of the very extensive 
ledges of chrome iron on Button creek, the development of 
which would be of vast benefit to not only the state, but 
the entire nation. This, one of the most valuable resources 
of the state, should be brought to the attention of eastern 
capitalists who could not fail to appreciate the inducement 
offered for its development. * * * It is found on the Laramie 
plains, east of Cooper Lake station, in ledges near 100 feet 
wide and some two miles in length. It is crystalline in char- 
acter, very fine grained and takes a high and beautiful polish. 
It is also found to some extent in other localities. When this 
marble can be utilized Wvoming can furnish its own marble 


mountains, furniture and mantle slabs. Specimens of our 
marble, which resembles the Italian variety, have been sent 
to artisans east, who have tested its texture, durability and 
utility for the higher economic uses and pronounce it 
' ' superior. ' ' 

Brief descriptions of various other minerals were given, 
including mica, of which it was said, "There are so many 
uses made of this mineral and it is so rarely found in great 
quantities and a perfect state, that these mines should build 
up an important industry in themselves ; ' ' also graphite, found 
on the Sybille, as well as lime and cement, clay and kaolin, 
gypsum, soda, glass, sulphate of magnesia, oil, asbestos, and 
sulphur. All were cited as being highly valuable resources 
awaiting development. 

Cheap power provided by the streams of the State, as an 
inducement to mills and factories, was cited as a valuable 
asset, and optimistic reference was made concerning the sugar 
beet, upon which experiments had just been made, "with 
magnificent success," followed hy a discussion of the precious 
metals, which concluded: 

"There is nothing so ravishing to the human ear as a 
story of the hidden treasures of the earth ; nothing that "will 
enchain his interest like the fiction of Aladdin and his Avon- 
derful lamp, or of Monte Cristo and his cave. In our State 
we have abundance of material for arousing this enthusiasm 
without resorting to fiction. It is true that, for want of 
capital, no great producer has been discovered and developed, 
but we all know that this will come in time. It is no vain 
boast to say that the soil of the plains shows gold from the 
grass roots down and that the commonest looking rock in the 
hills is likely to assay away up in the thousands." 

Gold Hill 

One of the most remarkable discoveries ever made by a 
prospector was that which introduced the famous Brush creek 
camp to the world. From that day to this there has scarcely 
been a piece of rock or a pan of gravel from that side of the 
Snowy range tested that has not shown free gold, and new 
finds are being reported every day, though the camp is now 
over a year old. It is impossible to say what the extent of 
that district will be, but its prospects have been such that has 
infused fresh activity into and revived interest in every camp, 
large and small in Wyoming. It has led to discoveries in 
Lake creek, on Rock creek, on Grand Encampment, on Battle 
Lake, at the head of French Creek and last but not least in 
the La Plata district, on the south side of the Snowy range. 


While some of the mines — for instance on the Grand Encamp- 
ment and Rock creek have shown up better than those in Gold 
Hill or La Plata, these two camps command the greatest public 
interest, a fact undoubtedly due to extent of the field of ore 
in each, which bears one of the precious metals. If the rock 
from the Brush creek camp has glittered "wdth free gold, that 
from La Plata has been fairly resplendent with galena, carry- 
ing a large amount of silver * * *. 

Doug-las Creek 

Take again the district embracing Keystone and Douglas 
creek. The Otras Mining Company is now running its twenty- 
stamp mill on a very high grade ore from the Florence mine, 
which they have been working for several months. There is 
a steady output of bullion from this mine and some immensely 
rich strikes have been made there during the past year. The 
Florence has made a record in the line of big strikes and never 
had better ore to work than now. 

Li the same camp Wellofi: & Barnes, two experienced 
miners from Utah, are meeting with great success. The 
gentlemen have leased two mines that are claimed to be 
among the richest in the district, and have built an arastra 
with which they are now testing the ores. Not satisfied with 
this they have gone ahead and prospected the entire surround- 
ing country, the result being that they announce their inten- 
tion of remaining there and say they can be perfectly satisfied 
for years to come. These are men comparatively without 
capital, from which it may be believed that they have a good 
thing or they could not afford to stay there. 

Northern Wyoming Mines 

The delegates to this convention will speak in detail of 
the outlook in the north, but I feel safe in saying that it is 
not less grand than in the south. From the Bald Mountain 
district come reports that, in the absence of all news from 
Southern Wyoming, would alone promise great things for 
the state. Judging from newspaper reports, and as a general 
thing they are to be relied on, the placers in the Bald Moun- 
tain district are among the richest to be found in this countr}% 
while farther up in the range there must soon be found the 
ledges from which this gold was washed during the glacial 
period. It is gratifying to note the confidence felt in all these 
fields, and I believe it is not misplaced. 

The Sweetwater Country 
We have only to look a little further to discover another 
famous and prosperous camp. South Pass, ]\Iiners Delight 


and Atlantic have long made the Sweetwater country the 
synonym for rich ledges and placer fields. There have been 
several important discoveries there of late and capital is 
going in to develop the mines which are among the best known 
and most prosperous in the state. Several mills and arastras 
are running, and considerable gold is being taken out. From 
a personal investigation I am satisfied this active development 
will continue and that the output will in a few years run up 
into the millions. 

The Great Prize 

What a potent influence has gold upon the human race ! 
We read that it was the chief thing sought to be acquired by 
pre-Adamite sultans. King Solomon has retained his place 
as one of the leading characters in Biblical history more be- 
cause of his wealth than his wisdom. The Avise men who 
followed the star of the east until it stood over the humble 
stable in Bethlehem, carried with them gold to lay at the feet 
of the infant Savior, who was afterward betrayed to his ene- 
mies for twenty pieces of silver, the next in value of the 
precious metals. 

Men have in all ages braved the perils of the deep, and 
nations have gone to war for gold. The voyage in search of 
the Golden Fleece was but the first recorded instance of a 
mad race after the yellow metal that was repeated in the 
case of Columbus, Pizarro, Cortez, Ponce De Leon and Coro- 
nado. The search of the latter for the Seven Cities of Qui- 
vera, is the most romantic of all authentic histories of quest 
for treasure. Lured by the tales of an Aztec, he led his little 
band across the staked plains (Lland Estacado) up through 
Texas, the Lidian Territory and Kansas in search of the 
mystic cities whose streets were said to be paved Avith gold 
and the most ordinary utensils created from the same material. 
Their fate is known to all students of history. 

In our day the mothers first fond pride is to place a golden 
circlet on the finger of her babe. The ring, at once the 
emblem of purity and eternity, is placed on the finger of the 
bride with the blessing of the priest. Gold is coveted by the 
miser, who denies himself the necessities of life and perishes 
from hunger or cold, that not a single shining piece may 
escape his grasp, and breathes his last feasting his eyes on the 
glittering coin. The wage-earner toils the whole month long 
that he may at the end receive a piece of gold, though it be 
of the smallest denomination. The banker hoards it up in 
his vaults and even the most powerful nations of earth measure 
their strength and stability by the contents of their treasuries. 
A golden crown is the emblem of the earthly potentate and 


we are promised if we are eventually admitted to paradise, 
that we shall receive a crown and harp of gold. Strange 
infatuation of man. Strange, yet true, since time whereof 
the memor}^ of man runneth not to the contrary. What an 
impetus it should be to us to know that our mountains are 
filled with this great prize for which every condition of man 
has been searching since the world was created, for which 
they shed their own blood as readily as the blood of others ; 
for which they have suffered alike the terrors of the Arctic 
and the tropical regions. Never should we halt or hesitate 
in the work of developing this treasure, for its abuses are 
inferior to its uses. It can be made to relieve the destitute, 
to comfort the sick, to feed and clothe and educate our fami- 
lies, to fill our land w^ith prosperity and our cities with 
temples. It is all powerful today as it ever has been. 

Smelting Works Needed 

There is one thing W^'oming needs now more than ever 
before, and more than almost anything else, and the individual 
or company that fills that want will be hailed as a public bene- 
factor. There is needed first-class smelting and reduction works 
at some central point. It would be well if there were four or 
five such institutions right now, but we should be satisfied to 
begin modestly as things have always been done in this com- 
monwealth, both as a territory and as a state. If it has seemed 
otherwise to anyone it has been because he was not posted as 
to our wealth of resources, to speak most conservatively of which 
would seem to the citizens of a region less highly favored the 
height of exaggeration. 

The predictions made for years that the mines would pan 
out big some day have been fulfilled. The specimens coming 
in are so rich that they dazzle the eyes of the veteran prospector 
and miner. But unfortunately our richest finds are located at 
a great distance from the railroad, and after hauling ore to the 
nearest station, and this is not very near in any case, there is 
yet a long distance to be traversed, at rates that would eat up 
the profits on the best rock in the world. If there were smelting 
works anywhere within reasonable distance they would now be 
taking out the money that would enable those who ha-ve toiled 
and are toiling so patiently to go on with their development 
work and right soon our camps would be heard from on all 
sides. Who will be the one to take the lead in this enterprise? 
There is no longer any risk in it. The time has come M'hen the 
investment would be a profitable one from the start and the 
company would soon reap a harvest as the reward of its enter- 
prise. Look at it! We have all the coal, oil, fluxes — such as 
iron, soda, and galena — on the ground. 


The Region's Resources 

It would be impossible without trespassing on your time 
to enter into details regarding the resources of this region, 
and the results we may naturally expect to follow their devel- 
opment. Instead of there being reason for discouragement at 
the retarded growth of the country and the slow progress of 
the past twenty years, there is cause for congratulation in the 
magnificence of the outlook. There is consolation in the thought 
that we now have at our command, for the development of the 
marvelous riches nature has bestowed upon this country, im- 
proved machinery and processes that will enable us to accom- 
plish in ten years what could not with the old methods have 
been accomplished in a century. 

When the Count of Monte Cristo, after being hurled into 
the sea, cut his shroud, rose to the surface and planted his feet 
on the solid rock, exclaiming in exultation, "The world is 
mine,"' he spoke from a selfish standpoint of the individual. 
We rejoice that the storehouse of treasures of inestimable 
value has been revealed to us and that the key has been placed 
in our hands, because not only ourselves, but our children and 
the generations that are to follow, are given an inheritance 
that will enable us to unveil the glories of the land of our 
choice and make its splendors the admiration and blessing of 
the world. 

Those of us whom a gracious Providence shall permit to 
remain in this goodly land for another decade, will witness a 
transformation such as has been chronicled in neither history 
nor fiction. I can see it even now. 

The waters of our bright mountain rivers, once permitted 
wantonly to waste their volume to swell the sea, have been 
confined in vast reservoirs constructed in the loftiest portions 
of the Rocky mountain range, where are born the streams that 
give life to the land both to the east and west. These waters 
are freed from bondage only as they are needed to irrigate the 
plains and valleys, or to aid the miners in wresting from the 
hills the treasures they have for centuries cunningly concealed. 

In the valleys are far stretching fields of oats and barley, 
flax and wheat. The heavy heads of the ripening grain, swept 
by the soft breeze from snow-capped peaks, bend and toss until 
they look like the waves of a sunlit sea. 

In every valley are flour and woolen mills, for where a 
brief space ago all was silence, the echoes were awakened by the 
shriek of the locomotive; the "great civilizer" left in its 
wake the village schools, and churches sprang up like magic 
and the village became a city whose population was fed from 
the products of our own soil. It became an unwritten law 
that whatever the people consumed should be raised or manu- 
factured at home, and there was prosperity everywhere. 


The music of the mountain streams is mellowed by the hum 
of industry that fills the whole land. In the cities, the chambers 
of commerce and boards of trade occupy buildings constructed 
of native stone of every shade that is beautiful, and of brick 
and terra cotta, made from our own clay and Kaolin, whose 
flush is like that of the sky when the great luminary rises amid 
the glories of a Wyoming morning. 

In the cities are temples to learning and to art, that are 
free alike to all the children, for there are no poor children in 
Wyoming. These temples are built of the granite and marble 
from our own quarries and decorated with onyx from our own 
mines, and the beauty of the latter stone is more exquisite 
than that now brought from the land of the Montazumas to 
adorn the capitols erected in our proudest states, and the 
palaces of our millionaire princes. 

When the sun retired behind those mountains so tall that 
the snows on their summits are never tainted by the earth's 
dust, and the stars branch across the heavens in brilliant array, 
the sky is lighted by the glow of the fires in a thousand furnaces, 
in smelters and foundries, glass factories and rolling mills. 
In the morning the only cloud that dims the glory of the sun. 
is the smoke arising from these marts of industry in which a 
contented and happy people are engaged in the tireless task of 
adding to the wealth of the world. 

From the mountains there pours down a steady stream of 
gold, as pure and inexhaustible as the sunshine of this favored 
region, and the barren flanks of the hills have become a wilder- 
ness of gardens and vineyards. High up among the emerald- 
breasted hills, lie many cities cradled in their green, surrounded 
by such loveliness as thrills the poetry in us. From these cities 
is sent forth the wealth of the world, for they are built in the 
midst of mines of gold and silver, richer than those of Golconda 
and absolutely inexhaustible. 

Over the wealthiest commonwealth in the nation, whose in- 
fluence is potent not only in the commercial centers but in the 
councils of state, there rests everywhere such a halo of peace 
and prosperity as makes the people imagine they are experi- 
encing the dawn of the millenium. 

Thrice happy the lot of those who live to see the complete 
development of the wondrous resources the infinitely great and 
good Ruler of the universe has given to Wyoming. Wliat a 
picture this region will present when its manifest destiny has 
been marked out! Who knows but that from these hills and 
plains there will go forth the sceptre that will rule the world, 
not by force of arms but by the power of the Prince of Peace, 
who has planted here a shining gateway between the east and 
west? When He comes to re-establish His kingdom on earth 
mav it not be said that He has designed through all the ages. 


and so richly endowed this region that the New Jerusalem shall 
rest in one of the peaceful valleys amid these mountains, where 
it will be surrounded by glories such as mortal eyes cannot 
rest upon elsewhere? At all events we have no fears that those 
who come after us will imagine that we were ignorant or un- 
mindful of the grand possibilities of this region, or failed to 
read aright the handwriting on the wall. 

Government Aid 

The general government has made a start in the direction 
of assisting us in the great work that is mapped out for us to 
do. Within the Kocky Mountain range, under the evening 
shadow of the hills in which the richest discoveries are now 
being made, sits the university established by the state. The 
government has made this institution for the present its rep- 
resentative in agricultural experiments it is conducting in our 
valleys and on our plains. There has been established in this 
connection the chair of mineralogy, mining engineering and 
metallurgy and we hope that within a few years, through the 
instruction imparted in this department, the institution will 
be sending forth educated miners, scientific men and skilled 
artificers who will be a strong reinforcement to the prospectors 
and miners in their exploration and development work. It is 
our expectation that we shall soon secure as the head of this 
department, a thoroughly competent professor, who will be able 
to make an assay and reports for the prospectors and capitalists 
engaged in mining work throughout the state. 

But We Need More 

There is one suggestion I have to make to this convention 
and through the potent influence of the press I hope it may 
reach the world and one day be realized. I am not departing 
from the legitimate line of discussion save for illustration, when 
I call your attention to what is known as the Hatch law. Tliis 
is an act of Congress designed to establish agricultural experi- 
ment stations in connection with the colleges established in the 
several states, etc. In section 2 of the act referred to. we find 
"that it shall be the object and duty of said experiment station 
to conduct original researches or verify experiments on the 
physiology of plants and animals ; * * * composition of use- 
ful plants at their several stages of growth ; * * * the 
analysis of soils and water * * * and such other researches 
or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry 
of the United States as may in each case be deemed advisable, 
having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of the 
respective states and territories." 

Under this act, in our own state, an experiment station 
has been established, with six sub stations, viz. : In Carbon. Lar- 


amie, Crook, Fremont, Sheridan and Johnson eonnties, each 
of which is supported at an annual cost to the government of 
say $6,000. All honor to the generous spirit of the author (jf 
this bill and to that great class of food producers whom it 
benefits. Why should not a similar concession be extended to 
the tireless toilers who have delved in the earth, scanned every 
foot, almost, of the hills and mountains, withstood exposure and 
privations and at the cost of their health, the enjoyment of the 
comforts of home and, to many of their lives, given to the world 
the gold and silver with which its commerce is carried on ; the 
coal and copper and iron, which enable us to transport the 
products of the soil to the remotest points ; the oil that fur- 
nishes the light for the world, by which the student acquires 
his knowledge and the people indulge in their literary and 
social tastes, I would like to see a system inaugurated in line 
with university extension, or like the experiment stations pro- 
vided for in connection with agricultural colleges, by which 
an assay office would be established in every county in this and 
other mineral states. Such office should be in charge of a com- 
petent man and be sustained at the government's expense, in 
order to enable the miner to have his ore promptly and ac- 
curately tested and aid him in the work of exploration and 
development, which under all the difficulties enumerated had 
alone made possible the existence of Wyoming, Colorado, Mon- 
tana, Nevada, Idaho, as states, and tjtah. New Mexico and 
Arizona as territories. Nay, even more ; but for the quest for 
gold would California be a part of the Union ; but for Ponce 
De Leon, Pizarro, Cortez and Coronado, and the whole host of 
gold seekers, would civilization today extend west of the Alle- 
ghenys and Blue mountains, or more than a few hundred miles 
back from the gulf coast? 

It seems to me that while the establishment of the depart- 
ment of agriculture is no more than a just recognition of the 
claims of the farming population, the great mining class, 
w^hich include such eminent prospectors as landed on our 
shores in the fifteenth century and three hundred years later 
settled and conquered the Golden State, who have been pio- 
neers always from the days when search was made for the 
Golden Fleece down to the present time Avhen men, full of 
hope and confidence and nerve have opened Avithin a year two 
great camps in the mountains, are entitled to that assistance 
due from a democratic government to every class of citizen. 
The world owes more to the treasure hunters than to all other 
classes combined. They have ever been the pioneers. Tliey 
have opened up two continents and been the leaders in every 
conquest that has been made since barbarism gave way before 
the advance of civilization. 


I say in all earnestness that congress should establish 
these assay stations, not alone as due to the intrepid class of 
miners and prospectors but as a means of enriching the 
country and placing it forever in the lead financially, of the 
nations of the world. I have offered the suggestion in a 
general way, but I hope it will engage the earnest attention 
of some of our law-makers and that in the very next congress 
a bill will be introduced that will give to the honest pros- 
pector, as the Hatch bill has given to the honest farmer, an 
adviser who will be authorized to "make such researches or 
experiments bearing directly on the mining industry of the 
United States as may in each case be deemed advisable, having 
due regard to the varying condition and needs of the respec- 
tive states and territories." 

Oiir Plain Duty 

What shall we do to aid our world's fair commissioners 
is a pertinent question at the present time. With so many 
and such glorious resources within the borders of this state, 
there must be no failure to have Wyoming properly repre- 
sented at the great exposition in 1893. The commissioners 
are going to work with zeal and courage and they should 
have the undivided support not only of the people but of 
this convention. Wyoming will be able to show up grandly 
if we all do our part, and the way to begin is by standing by 
our commissioners from the beginning, giving them all the 
encouragement and support possible ; never letting them feel 
that they are working alone, that their services are unappre- 
ciated, or that we are unwilling to share the responsibility with 
them. As the whole state will reap the benefit, it is the plain 
duty of this convention to set the state the example and rouse 

the enthusiasm of all in Wyoming's preparation for the fair. 
* * * 

The Pioneers 

It would be inexcusable should I fail to mention before 
concluding, those who are primarily responsible for the recla- 
mation of the Great American desert. All honor to those who 
crossed the great rivers to brave the perils of an unknown 
country. What a debt of gratitude is due Captain Bonneville, 
General John C. Fremont, the pathfinder, and their noble 
following, rank and file! They formed the advance guard 
of the regular army, who, followed by other gallant bands, 
and in time whole regiments, wrestled the great trans-Missouri 
empire from hostile savages, paved the way for the army of 
pioneers that came closely in their footsteps, and laid the 
foundation upon which has been built the grand common- 


wealths that stretch in an unbroken line from the Mississippi to 
the Golden Gate. How little did those early comers realize the 
full meaning of that stanza : 

"I hear the tread of pioneers, 
Of nations yet to be ; 
The first low wave where soon 
Shall roll a human sea." 

The waves indeed rolled in and broke everj^where on the 
plains and mountains, but not until hundreds of these pioneers 
of the army and of civil life had laid down their lives for 
the sake of civilization. On every hill and in every valley 
today the bones of those intrepid men are bleaching. Within 
a stone's throw, or perhaps over their very graves, the iron 
horse thunders now with the products of every section of 
the then unknown lands in his train. The fruits and wines 
and silks from California, the wheat and salmon from Wash- 
ington and Oregon ; the seal and salmon from Alaska ; the 
silver and gold, the horses and cattle from Montana, Nevada, 
Idaho, Utah and Wyoming are rushed across the mountain 
ranges, on two slender threads of steel in an unending pro- 
cession. And cities have sprung up where before all was 
silence, and the tidal wave of civilization has swept away tlie last 
trace of savagery. How little did those sleepers in unknown 
graves dream of the future that they were carving out for 
this country ! Had it passed before them like a dream they 
would have thought their imagination ran riot. While we 
think of them and honor them it is well to remember that we 
can see as little of the changes a decade or a quarter of a 
century will bring to this country as did they. But as they 
would have wondered at what has been wrought in the brief 
time since they laid down to sleep forever amid the everlasting 
hills, though the conquest has been accomplished ; so we need 
not regard as impossible the wildest dream of the wildest 
enthusiasts. We have become used to the railroads, the tele- 
graph, the telephone and the electric lights, and even regard 
with curiosity unmingled with awe the experiments of a man 
who usurps the prerogatives of Providence and causes the rain 
to fall and the elements to move at his command. We do not 
know what miracle will be worked next but we do know what 
there is in the earth that less than miracles will develop into 
such a glory as the angel in the san will pause in his daily 
rounds to make note of, and knowing this we have a right to 
anticipate a future for Wyoming such as will never fall to 
the lot of its sister states, wliether they be older or yet 





Chapter IV 

Laramie County 

Captivity of Mrs. Eubanks — Hanging of Two Face and Black 
Foot — Fig-ht at Deer Creek — Bullock and Bettelyoun— 
John Phillips' Ride — Attack on Horse Shoe — Massacre 
of Settlers — John Reshaw — Stuttering Brown, etc. 

It will now be necessary to go back a few months in the 
history of events in order to give place for the record of some 
things which occurred in connection with the great Sioux out- 
break of which mention has been made in the preceding chapter. 
In the winter of 1863-64, a Mrs. Eubanks was taken prisoner 
by the Sioux down on the Republican Fork in Nebraska and 
brought by them as a captive to the region of country above 
Fort Laramie. She was held in bondage among the hostile 
Indians at a point not far from where the town of Sundance in 
what is now Crook county, is located. The sufferings of this 
poor unfortunate woman were too great and terrible to be nar- 
rated by tongue or pen. For months she was held in this vile 
bondage subject to their will and caprices and her fate was one 
far worse than death itself. At length the cupidity and avarice 
of the savages got the mastery of them and they resolved to 
give up the woman provided they could obtain for her a suit- 
able ransom. With this object in view Two Face and Black 
Foot, a pair of unfortunate chiefs who claimed the custody of 
the woman sent word in to Ft. Laramie that they had the 
woman and would give her up if they were paid a suitable 
sum. Word was sent to them to come to the Fort with their 
captive. The usually wary savages, partially dazed by the pros- 
pect (as they supposed) of securing the ransom, boldly ven- 
tured into Fort Laramie with their captive, when without any 
ceremony whatever the two Indians were hung to the riecrest 
tree by order of Colonel Moonlight who then commanded the 
post. Judge W. F. Lee of Cheyenne was present at the hanging, 
and although he protested that it was acting in bad faith yet 
his protests proved wholly ineffectual. Mrs. Eubanks w^as 
eventually sent back to her friends in Nebraska. A Mrs. Lar- 
imer also fell into the hands of the' Indians at about this time, 
but was released through the intervention of some of the old 
French trappers who had been among the Indians a great deal 
and had gained their confidence. 

On the 26th of July, 1864, a decidedly lively skirmish with 


the Indians occurred at Deer Creek some miles west of Fort 
Laramie which wasi one of the first encounters that took place 
between the Sioux and the whites after the outbreak occurred. 
A Lieutenant Marshall with a small squad of soldiers and three 
or four citizens of whom Levi Ashenfelter, now of Cheyenne, 
was one, went some distance westward from Fort Laramie the 
object being to afford protection to another small party which 
was to go out to repair the military telegraph line which at 
that time extended from Ft. Laramie to Ft. Phil Kearny some 
150 miles to the northwest. The party under Lieut. Marshall, 
nine men in all, were in camp temporarily when a large band 
of Lidians, all mounted, rode suddenly upon them giving vent 
to an unearthly warwhoop as they advanced. The commander 
of the little party who was somewhat "under the weather" on 
account of having partaken of too much "fire water" shouted to 
his men when he saw them coming ' ' get your guns, boys, get your 
guns. ' ' The ' ' boys ' ' were not slow in complying with the order 
and by the time the Indians were upon them they were ready 
for battle. At this the Indians who were slightly disconcerted 
turned and rode rapidly down the hill upon which the camp 
had been pitched. As they rode hurriedly down the decline the 

Lieutenant shouted to his men ' ' shoot them, shoot the D . ' ' 

At this the party opened fire and Bear Skin the leader of the 
Indians was badly wounded. The whites, who had by this time 
mounted their horses, followed in pursuit and drove the savages 
into a clump of hills not far away where their squaws and 
papooses were concealed, and after having provided more effec- 
tually for the protection of the latter the Indians, some forty 
in numbers, rallied and returned to the fight. For more than 
two hours the gallant little band of whites fought four times 
their number of the savage foe, and not only held them at bay 
but eventually rode safely away, the Indians at the same time 
again scampering into the hills. How many of the Indians 
were killed and wounded was never known but there must have 
been several of tliem. None of the whites were killed but nearly 
all of them received slight wounds. Within the ensuing year 
several pitched battles were fought with the Indians in wliich 
Mr. Ashenfelter participated, occurred farther westward in 
the vicinity of Old Fort Casper, but of these mention will be 
made in another portion of this work. 

During the summer of 1866 affairs became so bad in the 
vicinity of Ft. Laramie that it was no longer safe for people to 
remain for a moment beyond the protection of the niilitary 
post. Everybody in that region flocked into Fort Laramie for 
protection, and even there it was not considered entirely safe. 
Many were the depredations committed by the Sioux — many 
more than can be mentioned here, but such as would fill a vol- 
ume, were thev to be recorded. In the fall and winter of 1866 


the situation around and above Fort Laramie was as dark and 
perilous as it well could be, and on December 21st of that year 
at old Fort Phil Kearny 150 miles northwest of Ft. Laramie 
occurred one of the bloodiest massacres that has ever darkened 
the annals of American history. This was the occasion when 
Colonel Fetterman, with eighty-three men, were lured beyond 
the reach of assistance from their comrades in the Fort and 
butchered to the last man by the hostiles. It is not the inten- 
tion to give at this time an account of the massacre, as that 
properly belongs to another portion of this narrative, but fol- 
lowing it came the daring and heroic ride of John Phillips 
(known everywhere as ''Portugee" Phillips) from the scene 
of the bloody episode to Ft. Laramie to spread the alarm, for 
what was left of the garrison at Phil Kearny were also in 
danger of being overpowered and butchered. (_It was necessary 
that word should be sent to Fort Laramie in order that assistance 
might be had, and for that dangerous duty the gallant Phillips 
volunteered his services. He made the ride in less than 36 
hours through a country swarming with savages and gave the 
alarm, and how he escaped death on that perilous ride is more 
than even he in after years could explain or understand. The 
noble steed that 

"Brought you Sheridan into the fray 
From Winchester twenty miles away" 

bore not upon its back a more dauntless hero than did the one 
that safely carried "Portugee" Phillips through on that ride 
of the gauntlet of death from Phil Kearny to Ft. Laramie in 
those perilous days. Years afterwards when Phillips died in 
Cheyenne the "Pioneers of Wyoming" met and adopted reso- 
lutions of respect to his memory and attended his funeral in a 

^ On May 14, 1867, Col. W. G. Bullock, one of the bravest 
and most sagacious of the many daring spirits who in those 
days faltered not in the midst of danger, with a party of 
twenty men among whom was Isaac Bett«lgoon, equally as dar- 
ing and fearless, went some thirty miles southeast of Fort Lar- 
amie to F'ox Creek for the purpose of looking up stock which 
had strayed away. While dismounted and while their horses 
had accidentally been stampeded for a short distance were still 
away, they were suddenly assailed by a large body of mounted 
Indians who rushed in between the party and their horses. 
Under the leadership of Bullock and Bettelyoun who set the 
example the whole party sprang to their arms and prepared 
for the worst. The Indians were astounded and eventually 
driven off but with the loss to the little party of their horses. 
Subsequently Colonel Bullock led out many a small party and 
although he and his men had many a brush with the Indians, 


and narrow escapes, the savage foe at length learned to fear 
the ' * White Hair Chief ' ' more than any other man in the region. 

In August of the same year (1867) Isaac Bettelyonn with 
a party of ten men was surrounded by a large party of Indians 
on the Chugwater while out in charge of a large band of cattle. 
The first warning the party had of the proximity of the Indians 
was when they began to show their heads above the bluffs near 
the stream. I3ettelyoun was not dismayed, however, but throw- 
ing down his gun boldly walked toward them and made signs 
as though his party desired to have a "medicine talk" with 
them. Quite a parley ensued, the result being that American 
Horse, who was at the head of the Indians, and nine of his war- 
riors, threw down their arms and came into the camp of the 
whites where a sort of a temporary treaty was effected which 
relieved the whites of their danger for the time being. Wliile 
the treaty was being made a portion of the party of Indians 
who did not come in or assent to the treaty drove off a number 
of head of stock and the animals were, of course, never recov- 
ered. Not long after the affair just mentioned, Bettelyoun and 
three others had a severe encounter with a small party of In- 
dians over near the Laramie river, in wdiich after exchanging 
shots for a long time and engaging in a sort of a running fight, 
one at least of the Indians was fatally shot and the balance of 
them drew off. None of the whites were seriously injured. 

The winter of '67 and '68 was the darkest and most gloomy 
time of the whole period so far as the region to the west and 
northwest of Ft. Laramie was concerned. Strange though it 
may seem, during the few years immediately preceding the 
summer of 1867, quite a numerous settlement had been made 
to the west and northwest of Fort Laramie, mainlv at and 
around Horse Shoe, while between Ft. Laramie and Ft. Fetter- 
man (recently established) a line of ranches at convenient dis- 
tances had sprung up the length of the entire route and a mili- 
tary telegraph line had been put up between the two posts. On 
the settlement at Horse Shoe the Indians made a descent in mid- 
winter and not ouly burned to the ground every building in 
the small settlement, but massacred quite a number of the set- 
tlers. Fortunately for some, however, this attack was made in 
the night and a few of those at the time in the settlement escaped 
to the brush and timber growing in considerable quantities in 
that locality. Among this number was a man named George 
Han-is, who, although wounded, lay concealed in the brush all 
night within sight of the burning settlement, and although 
several times the Indians came close to where he lay he was not 
discovered and finally made his escape to the sparse settlements 
on the La Bonte. As already stated, several others made their 
escapes some to the La Bonte, others to Ft. Laramie, and two 
or three came in at Ft. Fetterman — all of them, however, in a 


half frozen and half famished condition. It was never known 
just how many were killed in the attack on Horse Shoe, but 
there must have been twenty at least. 

The bloody tragedy at Horse Shoe was almost immediately 
followed by an indiscriminate massacre of every settler along 
the entire route from Ft. Laramie to the but recently estab- 
lished military post called Ft. Fetterman. Not a single ranch 
or station escaped visitation at the hands of the murderous 
Sioux, and but very few persons escaped to tell the story. Every 
ranch along the route was burned to the ground and such a 
trail of devastation and blood was left to indicate the work of 
the savages, that the awful track of violence became known as 
the "Bloody Trail Massacre." Upwards of forty persons in all 
fell victims to the brutality of the savages, and of this number 
ten were women. Names have been forgotten so that at present 
it is impossible to give them. Nearly all of the victims were 
new comers in the country and were not known to any extent 
to those who at that time lived in and around Fort Laramie. 
Whole chapters might be written of the outrages committed by 
the Sioux prior to and for a short time subsequent to the events 
last related which occurred in the winter of 1867-1868, but space 
will not admit of more than has already been given in relation 
to them. 

It remains, however, as a fitting conclusion to the chap- 
ter — or rather series of chapters on the dark and eventful 
days which were experienced in the early times at and in 
the regions of Fort Laramie, to briefly allude to some of the 
daring men who figured prominently in the history of the 
early times. 

Of these Col. Bullock, H. B. Kelly, W. F. Lee, Levi Ashen- 
felter, Isaac Bettelyoun, John Phillips and others have already 
been mentioned. There are others, however, who deserve 
notice and among them are Jules Ecoffey, Adolph Coney, John 
Ryan generally known as "Posey" Ryan who was made the 
hero of one of the western stories written by a gifted writer 
of the east, Richard Whalen, F. M. Phillips, John Hunton, 
Thomas Hall, Hon. Gibson Clark and many others whose 
adventures and experiences would of themselves make an 
interesting history. Two of the most noted personages who 
figured during the early times at Ft. Laramie and vicinity 
must, however, be briefly alluded to here. They are John 
Reshaw and "Stuttering" Brown, so called from an unfor- 
tunate difficulty which the name will itself indicate. No one 
remembers that he had any other name than the one given 
here and if he did, it was never heard of. Brown had a mule 
which in many respects was a marvel and seemed to be pos- 
sessed of a sort of an intuitive knowledge of what was wanted 


of him. Mounted upon the back of this mule, Brown would 
go anywhere and everywhere day or night when no other 
white man at Ft. Laramie dared to venture out of gunshot 
range of the post. Brown, who was quite well advanced in 
years, had but little to say to any one, though was always 
ready to take a hand in a fight with the Indians when by so 
doing he could be of any assistance to others. As a general 
thing, however, Brown's outgoings and incomings were by 
himself, and for years he lived the life of a recluse. The words 
of the poet as applied to the old Yellowstone hermit : 
"In the Indian wars he lurks aloof 

And ever when met by rare good chance 

He glides from the pathway haggard and lean. 

With bended head and abstracted glance 

It is only known that stately and grand 

The hermit hunter lives all alone. 

With the cataract's thunder forever at hand 

In the wonder world of the Yellowstone," 

would also apply to Stuttering Brown. At length, early in 
the year of 1868, both Brown and the mule disappeared and 
neither have since been heard of to this day. John Reshaw, 
whose father also lived for many years in the vicinity of Ft. 
Laramie, was another peculiar character and in some respects 
a dangerous one. He was a half-breed, but in some way 
acquired a good education and years ago used to take con- 
tracts of the government, and it is safe to say that the govern- 
ment never got much the best of him in those matters. At 
length Reshaw shot and killed a soldier near Ft. Fetterman 
after which he joined the Indians and for more than a year 
was one of their leaders in the depredations they committed 
prior to 1868 in the vicinity of Ft. Laramie. It was during 
this time that a large party of Indians, of whom Reshaw was 
the leader, surrounded in the night time a small party of 
whites camped on the La Bonte, but while peering through 
the bushes at the prospective victims whom it was supposed 
to kill and scalp, Reshaw discovered T. Jeff Carr now LT. S. 
Marshal for Wyoming in the party. Prior to that time Re- 
shaw had known Carr, who was also one of the fearless 
pioneers of that region and seeing him in the party he called 
off the Indians and the little party never knew of their 
narrow escape until years afterwards. Subsequently, Presi- 
dent Grant issued an amnesty order in Reshaw 's case and 
he rejoined the whites, but after quarreling with and killing 
an Indian chief somewhere above Ft. Laramie he was mur- 
dered by the Sioux, in revenge, in the early part of the year 1874. 
Wliile many sad and lamentable affairs happened dur- 


ing the period that has been treated of in the preceding 
chapters, occasionally, as in all wars, something happened 
of a laughable or humorous character. One of these instances 
only will be related. At the battle with the Indians near 
the mouth of Horse Creek, the fight lasted some two or three 
hours. Judge W. F. Lee, now of Cheyenne, and who is 
familiarly called "Billy" was one of the leaders of the whites 
in that fight, and it was he who first made a barricade of the 
wagons as a protection against the Indians. "Billy" at that 
time had along with him a very small keg of whiskey which 
contained about one-half of its original contents when the 
fight began. He visited the keg during the fight and when 
it was over went around for a final drachm. The whiskey 
was all gone and Billy was about to go on the "warpath" 
to find out who had consumed it, but finally remembered that 
no one of the party knew where it had been concealed but 
himself, and concluding that he must have visited it oftener 
than he had supposed, very discreetly said nothing about it 
to the balance of the party. While farther along in this work 
it will be necessary to refer again to Indian troubles around 
Ft. Laramie and elsewhere in what is now Laramie county,' 
the writer must now leave this branch of the subject and 
turn his attention to events which by 1867-1868 had begun 
to transpire elsewhere. 

Chapter V 

Laramie County 

Cheyenne— A Prelude— The First Rush— A City of Tents— 
The First Building- — Its First Inhabitants — The Town- 
site — Other Early Matters. 

Some writer a number of years ago wrote the following 
which appeared in the "Pacific Tourist": "Like all other 
Frontier towns, Cheyenne has a history and it is similar to 
that of others." This writer was wrong, Cheyenne has a 
history but it is in most respects unlike that of any other 
town or city on the American continent. It has a remarkable 
history, although for the reason that people as a general 
thing fail to see, or if they do see, fail to appreciate the fact, 
that important history is being made in their midst, this 
matter has been persistently overlooked. People at home can 
never as a general thing, be made to understand — for example 
— that they have eminent men among them, and according to 
their theory and understanding, the "eminent man" is always 
abroad somewhere — never at home. In places five hundred, 
and even one thousand, miles from Cheyenne one can hear 
the statement made that, "the ablest and most eloquent lawyer 


I ever listened to was a lawyer out at Cheyenne, etc.," but 
ill Cheyenne the finest lawyer will not be found in Cheyenne, 
but some other place, abroad. So in regard to matters that 
make history — important history — they always happen some- 
where else and are never looked for at home. When the fact 
is remembered that in just two years six months and ten days 
from the date of the erection of the first building in Cheyenne, 
in obedience to the moral and political sense of her people, the 
political emancipation of 500,000,000 of women throughout the 
world was for the first time officially proclaimed, and the guar- 
anty of their equal political rights and privileges enjoined in an 
embryo empire nearly as large again in area as the whole of 
New England — an announcement which created a profound 
sensation throughout the civilized world — it must be admitted 
bj every thinking man and woman that Cheyenne has made 
a history that will endure forever in the annals of the world. 

Some years ago a gentleman named J. H. Triggs under- 
took to write a history of Cheyenne, but only a few facts 
were eventualh^ given in reference to early events in Chey- 
enne, the balance of the book being devoted to a description 
of the resources and prospects of the northern country, and 
particularly of the Black Hills country. Although the present 
writer assisted in gathering what few facts there were given 
in the book in reference to Cheyenne and would, therefore, 
be justified in reverting to them for the present work, yet 
from the fact that this is not intended to be a "puff" for the 
country, but an impartial and correct record of events, there 
is little or nothing in the work alluded to that is available as 
material now. Two incidents, however, in the early history 
of Cheyenne, one of them with an incorrect date, have been 
found in the book alluded to, which were not ascertained 
from other sources. 

Robert E. Strahorn's "Hand Book of Wyoming" was 
written a few years later, but the present writer has not seen 
it for a long time, and all that can be said of it here is that 
it was an exceedingly well written book and contained much 
valuable information, mainly of a descriptive character. 

It was said in the olden times that "all roads lead to 
Rome," and in a certain sense the saying Avas a true one. 
and while it may not be said that all roads in Wyoming lead 
to Cheyenne, it can be said that nearly all of the history of 
Laramie county, worth relating, and much of the history of 
the territory itself since Cheyenne was founded, has either 
had its beginning or ending there. For this reason the history 
of Laramie county from the time Cheyenne was established 
(except what has already been given) will be given as part 
of — or rather contemporaneously with — that of the "Magic 


City of the Plains" (Cheyenne's poetic name) from this point 
to the end. 

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad across 
the plains was a gigantic, as well as dangerous undertaking, 
and in order that the work might progress safely and expe- 
ditiously, the United States government sent out many troops 
and established military posts along the line of the road, and 
in many instances these troops were posted at convenient 
points even before the final survey had been completed. Such 
was the case in the vicinity of what is now Cheyenne. Quite 
a body of troops were sent forward and went into camp at 
what is now Ft. D. A. Russell (of which mention at some 
length will be made farther along) some weeks before the 
Cheyenne townsite was laid out as the rush to that point had 
begun. This was in the spring of 1867 and before it had 
been clearly understood where the western terminus of the 
road would be for the approaching winter. Very soon, how- 
ever, after it had been definitely decided that a halt until 
the spring of 1868 would be made on the banks of Crow 
Creek, a rush for this point, eventually, followed. The new 
comers were few and far between at first, and by the middle 
of June, '67, there were probably not to exceed fifty people 
camped in tents on the site of the present city of Cheyenne. 
There were so many in the first party that arrived on the 
banks of the creek that it is impossible at this time to give 
the names of all of them and it will not be attempted. Judge 
J. R. Whitehead, who is still a resident of Cheyenne, (1886) 
was however one of the party. Henry Altman who arrived 
at the proposed new townsite on June 15, '67 says there were 
not more than twenty people, all told, camped on Crow Creek 
when he reached that point. In a very few days, however, 
the great rush began and by the 1st of July there were many 
hundreds of people on t'le ground, most of whom temporarily 
occupied tents. 

A whole chapter might be devoted to a description of 
the great rush which brought hundreds— and even thousands 
to the banks of Crow Creek about this time, but space forbids. 
Tents were pitched everywhere, and so numerous were they 
that what is now Cheyenne was at first called "The City of 
Tents," but later on, because of its sudden marvelous and 
rapid growth, it was christened "The Magic City of the 
Plains," though by whom, tradition is silent. 

(To be continued) 



(Part II)* 

By Paul Crane and Alfred Larson 

The Chinese miners who were brought back to Rock 
Springs under army escort a week after they had fled from 
the scene of the massacre were lodged in box cars near the 
troop encampment. Before long they were at work in the mines 
again, ^ and the rebuilding of Chinatown began. The Union 
Pacific Coal Department was able to continue its policy of 
using both Chinese and white labor. The company discharged 
forty-five whites who were considered participants in the riot, 
but put other whites back at work.- 

For a time the issue remained in doubt, and the presence 
of the army was all that prevented another outbreak. The 
Rock Springs Independent appealed to public opinion outside 
of Rock Springs: "Let the demand go up from one end of 
the Union Pacific to the other, THE CHINESE MUST GO."^ 
Other editors added their voices to the clamor against the 
company's policy.'* The Knights of Labor tried to put an end 
to the employment of Chinese. White inhabitants of Rock 
Springs almost unanimously were ready to deny that the 
massacre had been wicked or wrong. ^ As long as this spirit 
prevailed, the army was needed to prevent a repetition of the 
massacre. Three Government directors of the Union Pacific 
Railroad who investigated the massacre reported a week after 
the Chinese had been returned to Rock Springs that the 
ninety soldiers on duty were overworked and should be 
re-enforced.^ For a time the sheriff of Sweetwater County 
could depend on no assistance from the white inhabitants in 
maintaining order. '^ Gradually, however, the spirit of revolt 
V'/as dissipated until it was possible to withdraw the troops. 

The Chinese consul at San Francisco, who went to Rock 
Springs to investigate, deplored the refusal of the Sweetwater 

* The first part of this study appeared hi the January, 1940 issiie 
of the Annals. 

1 House Reports, Ist Session, 49th Congress, 18S5-18S6, Vol. 7, 
Report No. 2044, "Providing Indemnity to Certain Chinese Subjects," 
p. 24. 

3 Ibid., p. 25. 

3 Supra, p. 51. 

•1 The Chinese Massacre, p. 7 &. 

5 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 25. 

6 Ibid., p. 24. 

7 Ibid. 


County grand jury to act upon testimony provided by Chinese.^ 
The failure of the grand jury to bring in any indictments 
brought the release of sixteen whites who had been arrested.^ 

Although the Chinese were allowed to go back to work, 
it was evident that they could get no reddress locally for the 
property losses they had suffered. The Chinese consul at 
New York who had gone to Rock Springs and joined the San 
Francisco consul in investigating the massacre secured a list 
of estimated individual losses, totalling $147,748.74. This list 
was submitted to the United States Department of State by 
the Chinese ambassador in Washington, Cheng Tsao Ju. The 
ambassador November 30, 1885, in a formal note which Senator 
Sherman of Ohio called "one of the most eloquent, one of 
the most beautiful compositions I know of in our language, "^° 
asked that guilty persons be punished, that Chinese subjects 
be indemnified, and that measures be adopted to protect 
Chinese from further attacks. ^^ He contended that the 
attack upon the Chinese was unprovoked, "in broad daylight," 
and that the judicial proceedings were a "burlesque" since 
there had been no indictments. 

Inasmuch as Secretary of State Evarts in 1880 and Secre- 
tary of State Blaine in 1881 had denied the legal liability of 
the United States Government to provide indemnity for losses 
occurring when a mob assaulted Chinese in Denver in 1880, 
the Chinese ambassador undertook to show that indemnity 
should be provided for losses at Rock Springs notwithstanding 
these views. In one material respect, opined the Chinese 
ambassador, the Rock Springs case differed from the Denver 
case. Colorado was a State in 1880; Wyoming was still only 
a Territory in 1885. It was the ambassador's interpretation 
of our Constitution that while the Federal Government cannot 
interfere in the administration and execution of State laws, 
the administration of justice and the protection of life and 
property are functions of the Federal Government in a 

The ambassador declared, furthermore, that international 
usage suggests that indemnity should be made. There is, 
said he, a principle of reciprocal justice and comity, the 
Golden Rule, which is applicable to Governments in inter- 
national relations. American citizens in China have the same 

8 Tbid., p. 2'6 

9 Ibid., p. 25. 

10 Congressional Record, Vol. 17, p. 5110. 

11 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 4 ff. Arguments of the Chinese Am- 
bassador and of Secretary of St.ate Bayard in reply which appear in full 
in the House Reports are also given at considerable length in John 
Bassett Moore's Digest of International Law, Vol. VI. 


protection of the laws, and right to indemnity for losses, as 
Chinese subjects have in the United States. What, then, he 
asked, has been the United States Grovernment 's practice with 
reference to damages suffered by United States citizens from 
mob violence in China? In 1858 the Government of China paid 
to the United States the sum of $735,258.97 "in full liquida- 
tion of all claims of American citizens. ' ' The Chinese Govern- 
ment at that time accepted the claims presented by the United 
States Government without examining the evidence on which 
the claims were based. The Chinese ambassador submitted 
an abstract of other cases in which the United States Govern- 
ment had asked for punishment of offenders and indemnity 
to citizens. ^^ It cannot be believed, wrote the Chinese ambas- 
sador, "that the United States would so far violate the spirit 
of the 'golden rule' . . . as to require of China that which 
under similar circumstances it would not concede to China 
in reciprocity." 

The Chinese ambassador also referred to the case in 1851 
when mobs in New Orleans and Key West destroyed Spanish 
houses, and the Spanish subjects were indemnified from the 
United States Treasury. ^^ On that occasion, too, the United 
States Secretary of State had declared that Spanish residents 
were entitled to no more protection than native-born citizens. 
The Chinese ambassador understood, he wrote, that the indem- 
nification of the Spaniards "was a voluntary act of good will, 
aliove and beyond the strict authorization of domestic law. "^* 
But that indemnification indicated that in the past the Presi- 
dent and Congress had found a way to overcome the obstruc- 
tions cited by Webster, Evarts, and Blaine, and suggested 
that a way could now be found for the Chinese. 

The Chinese ambassador asked the indulgence of the 
Secretary of State for one further point. When a special 
United States embassy went to Peking to ask for modification 
of the 1868 immigration treaty, that embassy gave assurances 
that if China conceded modifications Chinese laborers already 
in the United States "should have ample protection guaran- 
teed to them by a specific treaty stipulation and that the 
Government would 'construe all such obligations in that spirit 
of friendly liberality which has marked its relations with the 
Chinese Government'. "^^ The ambassador intimated that 
thereby the United States Government incurred an increased 
obligation to protect Chinese laborers. 

12 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 41 ff. 

13 Ibid., pp. 7-8. 

14 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 8. 

15 Ibid. 


President Cleveland in his first annual message to Con- 
gress in December, 1885, recommended that "all the power of 
this Government should be ex'erted to maintain the amplest 
good faith toward China in the treatment of these men, and 
the inflexible sternness of the law in bringing the wrongdoers 
to justice should be insisted upon. "^^ 

Secretary of State Bayard replied formally to Cheng 
Tsao Ju's note February 18, ISSG.^'^ He agreed that the 
massacre was deplorable. "... I denounce with feeling and 
indignation the bloody outrages and shocking wrongs. . . . 
There is nothing to extenuate such offenses against humanity 
and law. ..." He then considered at length the question of 
Government responsibility, holding with his predecessors in the 
State Department that in such cases the Government was not 
legally liable. He corrected the Chinese ambassador's interpre- 
tation of our Constitution by pointing out that the Territory of 
Wyoming enjoyed local self-government with full authority 
to maintain order and administer justice. With reference 
to maintaining order, preserving the peace, and punishing 
infractions of it ". . . the local authority and responsibility is 
in practice as self-contained in a Territory as in a State. "^^ 
Unfortunately, wrote Bayard, the scene of the massacre was 
"a rude commencement of a communit.y on the outposts of 
civilization . . .," where there were few representatives of 
formal recognized authority.^^ The Chinese went there vol- 
untarily. There was no representative of the United States 
Government or Territory of Wyoming among the assailants ; 
hence, no official insult or wrong. Assailants, as well as 
assailed, were aliens ; so there was nothing national in what 

Bayard explained that no exceptional obligation rested 
upon the United States toward Chinamen through reciprocity, 
since Chinese subjects within the jurisdiction of the United 
States at the time had far greater privileges and immunities 
than did American citizens in China, particularly with refer- 
ence to the right to "go and come of their own free will and 
accord." Chinese in this country were accorded all the 
rights, privileges, immunities, and exemptions pertaining to 
citizens and subjects of the most favored nation. The same 
courts administered the same laws to Chinese subjects and 

16 House Reports, loc. cit., p. 2. 

17 Ibid., p. 59 flf. 

18 In the Senate debate Sherman of Ohio was not so ready to admit 
that Federal responsibility was not greater in a Territory: " Remeniber 
this was in a Territory where the Government of the United States is the 
only power, where the .inrisdiction of Congress is absolute and complete." 
Congressional Record, Vol. 17, p. 5111. 


American citizens, except that the Chinese alien was more 
favored in that he could select either a State or a Federal 
court, whereas a citizen in many cases had no such option. 

It is not, Bayard continued, the obligation of the United 
States Government to indemnify individuals injured by other 
individuals. Remedies must be sought in the courts. The 
action of the United States in 1850 with reference to an 
attack on the Spanish consulate at New Orleans was no ex- 
ception. It was denied at that time that there was any obli- 
gation on the part of the United States. Moreover there was 
a special immunity attached to the Spanish consular represen- 

Although Bayard emphatically denied all liability, he 
added that in view of the shocking outrages and the com- 
plete failure of the police authorities, generosity and pity 
might induce the President to recommend that Congress in- 
demnify the Chinese. 

President Cleveland in a special message March 2, 1886, 
placed the question of indemnification before Congress. ^^ 
The President called attention particularly to the latter 
part of Bayard's note where the absence of provoca- 
tion and the failure of Wyoming Territorial officers 
to bring the guilty parties to justice were cited as possible 
reasons for Government generosity. After this suggestion 
from the President a bill was introduced which authorized 
the President to ascertain the damages and to award an 
aggregate amount not exceeding $150,000.^° 

The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations unanimously 
recommended indemnification, and it was soon apparent that 
the bill would become law. On the whole Senate approval 
was based on generosity and pity rather than on a feeling 
that there was any legal liability. A few Senators objected 
to payment when there was no recognized liability. Senator 
Mitchell of Oregon maintained that he would vote nothing 
for the Chinese until Congress should pay at least part of 
tweWe or thirteen million dollars due to frontiersmen on ac- 
count of losses suffered by Indian depredations. ^^ He argued, 
further, that indemnification would set a precedent which 
would be cited many times in the future whenever one set 
of resident aliens injured another set. He asked those in 
favor of the bill whether a civil suit of any kind had been 
brought by any Chinese subject who had suffered loss of 
property at Rock Springs. He was told that a private suit 

19 House Reports, loc. cit., pp. 1-3. 

20 Congressional Record, Vol. 17, p. 5184. 

21 Ibid., p. 5113. 


would appear to be hopeless since a year had gone by with- 
out any criminal indictments.^^ 

Senator Cockrell of Missouri also objected to payment. 
"I do not believe in the principle of making the people of 
the United States, the tax-payers of this country, responsible 
for the class of people that corporations and monopolies may 
import into the country to displace American labor, and make 
them responsible for the depredations they may commit upon 
each other. "23 It was his opinion that the Chinamen who 
went to Rock Springs as contract laborers knew that it was 
an exposed place, that the authority of the United States 
was weak there, and that they were going there to displace 
white laborers. Despite such opposition from a few Senators 
the bill passed the Senate by a vote of 30 to 10, with 36 Sen- 
ators absent.^^ 

In the House of Representatives, as in the Senate, it 
was recognized generally that the Federal Government was 
under no legal obligation, although Congressman Rice insisted 
that there was such an obligation under international law.^^ 
Congressman McKenna and Wyoming Territory's delegate, 
Joseph M. Carey, questioned the appraisal of property dam- 
age. The assessed valuation of Sweetwater County in 1885 
vras about two and a half million dollars, of which only $200 
represented property belonging to Chinese. ^^ Congressman 
Worthington wanted to indemnify the Chinese, but not be- 
cause of any well established principle of international law 
nor as a gratuity. He preferred to pay as a matter of policy, 
in view of the fact that there were nearly a thousand Ameri- 
can residents in China and hundreds of thousands of American 
dollars invested there. ^'^ 

Evident in the debates in both Senate and House was 
the feeling that the suspension of Chinese immigration in 
1882 should be made permanent. Wyoming Territory's dele- 
gate, Carey, outlined two possibilities for the future of Wyo- 
ming Territory : 

Owing to the building of new railroads, to the inex- 
haustible coal fields of Wyoming Territory ten thousand 
miners will within a very short time be required. If these 
miners be Mongolians, they will add nothing to the wealth 

22 Ibid., p. 5187. 

23 Congressional Eeeord, Vol. 17, p. 5112. 

24 Ibid., p. 5235. 

25 Ibid., p. 4471. 

26 Ibid., pp. 4428 and 4474. 

27 Congressional Eeeord, Vol. 17, p. 4429. 


of the Territory, but will sap its very life, and the mining 
camps will consist only of huts. If the miners employed be 
white men, besides adding great wealth to the Territory it 
will bring forty to fifty thousand additional population, and 
instead of villages of Chinese huts, well-built towns will 
spring up, in which will live thrifty populations. 

Indemnification of the Chinese sufferers was enacted final- 
ly February 24, 1887. The sum asked by the Chinese ambas- 
sador, $147,748.74, was paid to the Chinese Government for 
distribution among those who lost property. 

Although the Union Pacific won its battle to keep Chinese 
at work and the United States Government paid for property 
losses, the fears expressed in 1885, that it was the intention 
to make a Chinatown of Rock Springs, were not realized. 
Several factors made it desirable, if not necessary, for the 
company to restrict rather than increase the employment of 
Chinese. In the first place Congress had suspended immigra- 
tion of Chinese in 1882 ; and that temporary exclusion was 
later made permanent. In the second place sentiment in the 
Territory was against further employment of Chinese. An- 
other consideration that must have influenced the company 
was the one outlined by Joseph M. Carey, Wyoming's dele- 
gate in Congress, who has been quoted above. Chinese labor- 
ers sent their earnings home to their families. They added 
nothing to the wealth of the Territory. Employment of 
whites ofi:'ered the best prospects for Wyoming's future de- 
velopment and prosperity — in which the Union Pacific would 

It was unfortunate that the Union Pacific chose to bring 
Chinese into the mines in the first place. Much embarrass- 
ment would have been avoided for all concerned if some 
compromise could have been worked out with the white 
miners who went out on strike in 1875. Company officials, 
however, were in no mood to accept dictation from the white 
miners. Nor were they any more ready to accept dictation 
from white miners, supported by the Knights of Labor na- 
tional organization, in 1885. But after, with army assistance, 
they had put the Chinese back in the mines, and had won 
that particular engagement, they were ready to take a long- 
range view and to modify their policy. No more Chinese 
laborers were added. The company officials recognized, how- 
ever, a certain obligation to the Chinamen whom they had 
brought in. These were kept at work until they died, or until 
they were returned to China at company expense and on 


pensions. Four who reside in Canton are still receiving 
pensions from the company.'^^ 

The gradual exodus of Chinamen from Wyoming is indi- 
cated by the United States Census returns for the Territory 
and State, and for Sweetwater and Uinta counties where most 
of the Chinamen have been : 

Number of Chinese Number of Chinese Number of 
Year in Whole Territory 

or State 

1870 143 

1880 914 

1890 465 

1900 461 

1910 246 

1920 252 

1930 130 

The Chinese who remain in the state have gone into occu- 
pations other than mining. At present the only Chinaman 
v/orking in the Union Pacific mines is the son of an old 
Chinaman who formerly worked in the mines but is no longer 
able to do so. 

in Sweetwater 

Chinese in 


Uinta County 















28 Information regarding the retirement of Chinese miners was 
secured for the authors by George Schmidt of the Rock Springs Daily 
Rocket who interviewed company officials. 


The tirst time Wyoming presented an Exhibit at a World 's 
Fair was the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, in 
1893? In a publication comprising the Second Report of the 
Wyoming Historical Society at Cheyenne, by Robert C. ^lorris. 
Secretary, in 1900, a detailed account of the displays under 
various classifications, is given. 

Of the 31 pages in the booklet, 14 are devoted to a report 
of the Wyoming exhibit, for which the sum of $30,000.00 was 
appropriated by the State for cost of constructing a Wyoming 
building, as well as other expenses. 

Awards were made to 10 exhibitors under the group 
including minerals, ores, native metals, gems and crystals and 
geological specimens, and a total of approximately 50 awards 
were made under various classifications, including coal, coke 
and petroleum, building and ornamental stone, agriculture 
and ''Photographs of topographical and geographical features, 
from Sundance west," being a set of 150 pictures by Wm. 
H. Jackson. A collection of these pictures is now on display in 
the Wyoming State Museum, Cheyenne. 



January 1, 1940, to March 31, 1940 


Miscellaneous Gifts 

Guild, Charles F., Piedmont, Wyoming — Buffalo skull, found by donor on 
his ranch, in December, 1939. 

Blackman, Eev. John C, Cheyenne, Wyoming — A carbon single filament 
electric light bulb and fluted glass fixture from the First Congre- 
gational Church, Cheyenne, built in 1883 ; oldest church building in 

Logan, E. A., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Cartridge used in old Spencer rifle. 

Lawson, Samuel A., 410 East Twenty-fourth St., Cheyenne, Wyoming — 
Candle holder made by donor in 1885, Avhile a brakeman on a Union 
Pacific passenger train. 

Guild, Lorin, Cheyenne, Wyoming — -Two old hand-made nails from Fort 

Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation, Sunrise, Wyoming — Two specimens 
of iron ore, locally called steel ore or specular hematite; and one 
specimen copper ore, containing minerals, asurite, cuprite and 

Pictures — Gifts 

Heath, Mrs. Laura C. Huntington, Eawlins, Wyoming — Photograph of 
her sister, Mrs. Gertrude H. Merrill, whose husband was Judge 
Homer Merrill. The two sisters purchased and published the 
Platte Valley Lyre from 1889 to 1898, when Laura married Alfred 
Heath, of Saratoga, Wyoming, and the newspaper was sold. 

Erwin, Mrs. Marie H., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Forty-six photographs of 
historical subjects, including old Fort Laramie, early days in Doug- 
las, Wyoming, State Fair parades, etc. 

Montgomery, John, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Twenty-six photographs of 
historical subjects, including scenes at Fort Bridger, Fort Laramie 
and Register Eock, Guernsey, and the following pioneers: Dr. 
June Etta Downey, Dean Earl D. Hay, Justice F. Soule, Dr. Aven 
Nelson, Edward Ivinson, Otto Gramm, A. E. Bowman and Judge 
V. J. Tidball. 

Lawson, Samuel A., 410 East Twenty-fourth St., Cheyenne, Wyoming — 
Framed photograph of donor, with pair of antlers, taken in 1886. 
Size, 13"xl7"; tinted. 

Pamphlets — Gifts 

Erwin, Mrs. Marie H., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Five booklets of Oregon 
Trail Memorial Association. 

The Wyoming Tribune and the Wyoming Eagle, Cheyenne, Wyoming — 
Five copies of 1940 Classified Business and Professional Directory, 
in booklet form. 

Adamsky, Mrs. E. S., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Booklet, report of Cheyenne 
Board of Trade, July, 1887, compiled by Eobert C. Morris; and 
booklet. Constitution and By-Laws of T. C. Durant Steam Fire 
Engine Company No. 1 of the City of Cheyenne, Wvoming Territory, 

King, Norman D., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Forty-five copies of "America's 
Historical Opportunity, ' ' by Oregon Trail Memorial Association. 
27-Pg. booklet; illustrated; 1937. 



July, 1940 



;l t to right in carriages: Warren Richardson, chairman; J, A- Martin, Granville R. Palmer, 
J. L. Murray, D. H. Holliday, E. W. Stone, Clarence B. Richaxdson and E. A. Slack 

Published Quarterly 

The Wyoming Historical Department 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


^ol. 12 July, 1940 No. 3 








By William E. Chaplin 


By Robert D. Hanesworth 


By Harry B. Henderson, Sr. 

THE WEST (Poem) 219 

By E. A. Brininstool 



By J. K. RoUinson 


By Victor H. Cohen 

Chapters 6 and 7 240 




MUSEUM (Listed) 246 








Published Quarterly 




State Librarian and Ex-Offieio State Historian 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Governor Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State . Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer ....... Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor . Wm. "Sfiotty" Jack 

Superintendent of Public Instruction . Esther L. Anderson 
State Librarian and Ex-Officio Historian . Gladys F. Riley 

Inez Babb Taylor, Assistant Historian 

The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the 
State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any statement 
of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the history of the State. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State's past. The ANNALS 
OF WYOMING is one medium through which the Department seeks to 
gain this objective. All communications concerning the Annals should 
be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Eiley, Wyoming Historical Department, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are sent free of charge to all State Offi- 
cials, heads of State Departments, members of the State Historical 
Advisory Committee, Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming news- 
papers. It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscrip- 
tion price, $1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1940, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 

A Memorial to the Members of 
The Constitutional Convention of Wyoming 

111 the Capitol at Cheyenne on September 2, 1889, gathered 
the most outstanding body of men ever assembled in the 
history of Wyoming. Fifty-five delegates had been elected 
from the ten territorial counties then existent, and they came 
together for the momentous task of framing the Constitution 
of the proposed new State. The group convened in the Su- 
preme Court room, referred to during the sessions as "Con- 
stitutional Hall," and the deliberations continued throughout 
twenty-five days, to September 30. 

It was a crucial period, but that assemblage was nobly 
equal to the occasion, and in this Golden Anniversary Year 
of Wyoming Statehood, 1940, that historical document is still 
recognized as a masterly instrument in its "clarity, brevity 
and composition;" its provision, granting to women the 
rights of suffrage on the same basis as those accorded to men, 
was the first time in history that such a clause had been writ- 
ten into the Constitution of a State. The document is a lasting 
monument to those who had even a small part in its evolve- 
ment and adoption. Were all those delegates living today, 
they validly could look across the half-century span in retro- 
spect and declare with the Honorable William E. Chaplin, 

EDITOE'S NOTE: In presenting these biographical sketches as a 
memorial to the men who planned and perpetuated the text of the 
Constitution of Wonderful Wyoming, due acknowledgment is made of 
the gracious cooperation of pioneer citizens in the capital city, from 
over the State and from more distant points. All obligingly responded 
to inquiries of the Wyoming Historical Department by providing such 
information as was within their knowledge. 

Special recognition for assistance is due the three living persons 
actively connected with the 1889 Convention, namely, two delegates, 
Honorable William E. Chaplin, from Albany County, now a resident 
of Van Nuys, California, and Judge Henrj' S. Elliott from Johnson 
County, now of Seattle, Washington, together with the official stenog- 
rapher of the Convention, Miss Louise S. Smith, of Cheyenne. 

Mr. Chaplin contributed the comprehensive article entitled * * Eemi- 
niscences of a Member of the Wyoming Constitutional Convention, ' ' 
which appears in this issue of the Annals, and Judge Elliott, not- 
withstanding frail health, responded promptly to the inquiries of this 


"* * * it was my opinion at the time I signed the Constitution 
of Wyoming that the Convention had performed well. 1 
think so yet." 

The lives and activities of these representative men form 
an impressive skyline across Wyoming's background, in which 
the tall spires of their superior intellect, keen perception, 
unqualified integrity and high ideals outline a superb lesson 
in exemplary citizenship. It is impossible to honor them too 
greatly — masterful men, from the East, South and Middle 
West — broadly informed, and for the most part educated 
and specifically trained in various lines. Several were former 
or later Governors of the Territory or State. A number were 
Confederate and Union Veterans of the Civil War, thoroughly 
accustomed to dangers and hardships, and approximately 
one-third were lawyers. Others were exceptionally Avell drilled 
in the valuable school of practical business experience. Almost 
fifty per cent held high degrees in the Masonic Order, a 
fraternal organization, of which its precepts for right and 
justice are universally known. 

One and all, they had arrived in this rough and sparsely 
inhabited Territory on various missions — some by appoint- 
ment from the United States Government — and all were 
aggressive, resourceful and versatile, of the type best suited 
to plan the procedure and direct the formation of an embryo 

Destiny, in her benign way, bestowed a signal honor upon 
this royal regiment of brilliant citizens, out of whose delibera- 
tions emerged that historic document. 

Miss Smith personally gathered data and furnished to the Historical 
Department the biographical "copy'' on the majority of the Laramie 
County members, and gave valuable assistance in locating and identi- 
fying old photographs for reproduction in connection with this article. 

Besides this cooperation from various individuals, the jaages of 
the accepted histories of Wyoming were consulted, as well as the 
old newspaper files and the printed word from miscellaneous sources. 

But it is extremely difficult, and in many instances practically 
impossible, to reach back across the years and grasp a set of facts 
concerning personalities of such distant days with certainty that all 
those purported facts are accurate. The recordings of historians are 
sometimes at variance, and truth is elusive. Misinformation frequently 
is inadvertantly given to the inquirer due to the uncertainty of mem- 
ory, and thus errors find their way into print. Therefore, while this 
explanation is not to be construed as an alibi for any inaccuracies, it 
is designed to present some of the handicaps faced by writers on 
historical matter. 


Albany County* 

Melville C. Brown, President of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, was born on a farm near Augusta, Maine, on August 
16, 1838, and died at Laramie, Wyoming, on April 10, 1918. 

He migrated to California when only 18 years old, and 
engaged in business, studied law, ventured into politics and 
mining, and in that state and also Idaho, he developed an 
aggressiveness and leadership, which marked his active life 
as a prominent lawyer and citizen of Wyoming, where he was 
known as "the dean of the Wyoming bar." 

He came to Wyoming from Idaho where he held important 
mining interests which he disposed of, settled at Cheyenne 
in October, 1867, began the practice of law, but moved to 
Laramie City on May 1, 1868, nine days before arrival 
of the first Union Pacific train. Almost immediately he was 
elected first mayor of that new rough-and-ready town, but 
"resigned in disgust" three weeks later, though in after 
years he served as Laramie's mayor for a two-year term. 

Judge Brown was a member of the second Territorial 
Legislature, served five years as U. S. Judge of the District 
of Alaska under appointment in 1890 by President William 

Of him, one of his contemporaries has written: "The 
record of no man in public life in Wyoming has been more 
faultless in honor, fearless in conduct or stainless in reputa- 
tion than that of Judge Melville C. Brown. * * *" 

WiLLLVM E. Chaplin was born on February 25, 1860, at 
Omaha, Nebraska, and is one of the two living members of the 
Wyoming Constitutional Convention. 

In 1873, he came from Omaha to Laramie City, where he 
was apprenticed to Colonel E. A. Slack on the Laramie Daily 
Independent, to learn the printer's trade. 

In 1881 he became the first foreman on "The Boomerang," 
newly established by the famed humorist. Bill Nye, whose 
real name was Edgar Wilson Nye. Mr. Chaplin obtained an 
interest in that newspaper, and in 1890, he and an associate 
founded the Laramie Republican, of which the former was 
its editor until 1920. 

He was a member of the City Council of Laramie from 
1885 to 1889, mayor in 1894, registrar of the Public Land 

*Eight Constitutional delegates were elected from Albany County, 
including Colonel Stephen W. Downej' and John McGill whose names 
do not appear on the list of signers of the Constitution. 


Ofifice at Cheyenne from 1898 to 1915, and secretary of state 
from 1919 to 1923. In politics he is a Republican. 

Mr. Chaplin, during his career as a newspaper publisher 
and writer, spread the story of Wyoming far and wide, as 
well as directed the public mind of the State into constructive 
channels, and thereby nurtured Wyoming's groAvth and devel- 
opment. Though now advanced in years, and living in another 
State, his loyalty to and interest in Wyoming remain un- 
changed, as evidenced by an excellent guest editorial which 
appeared in the Laramie Republican-Boomerang, Laramie 
Wyoming, issue of June 7, 1940, entitled "Wonderful Wyo- 
ming — Land of Opportunity." Reminiscent of personalities 
who started from "scratch," and are noted for outstanding 
accomplishments in Wyoming, Mr. Chaplin observes that 
"The record of the past is proof of what may be accom- 
plished by the young men and young women of today." 

Since retiring from active business life Mr. Chaplin has 
made his home in California, he and Mrs. Chaplin spending 
their vacations every year at their summer home above Cen- 
tennial. Mr. Chaplin, who is 80 years old, drove across country 
for the 36th time on a trip from their present home at Van 
Nuys, .California, to Wyoming, in June, 1940, where at the 
University of Wyoming in Laramie, Mr. Chaplin received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Law. 

This veteran citizen of Wyoming is a living source of 
detailed information concerning that momentous event, the 
Constitutional Convention, and continuously is besieged by 
avid seekers for first-hand information on the Convention 
procedure and its various ramifications as they developed 
from day to day. 

Stephen Wheeler Downey was born in Westport, Mary- 
land, on July 25, 1839. On October 31, 1861, he enlisted as 
a private in the Civil War, followed by quick promotions, so 
that by the time he was 23, he was made a colonel, September 
8, 1862. Obliged to resign from the Army because of severity 
of wounds, he was honorably discharged November 6, 1862. 

Colonel Downey then prepared himself for the legal 
profession, moved to the Territory of Wyoming in 1869 and 
began his practice in Laramie. He was the first prosecuting 
attorney of Albany county, in 1869 and 1870, during the 
functioning of the first woman jury; elected as a member of 
the Territorial Council in 1871. 1875 and 1877; served as 
Territorial Treasurer, 1872-1875; Auditor. 1877-1879; elected 
on the Republican ticket to the Forty-sixth Congress (March 
4, 1879-March 3, 1881) ; declined to be a candidate for renomi- 


nation as he preferred to "devote his time to the development 
of the resources of Wyoming. ' ' Was elected as a member 
of the Territorial House of Representatives in 1866, and again 
in 1890 ; president of the board of trustees of the University 
of Wyoming, Laramie, 1891-1897 ; member of the State House 
of Representatives in 1893 and 1895, serving as speaker the 
latter year; was again prosecuting attorney for Albanj^ county 
from 1899 until his death, August 3, 1902. 

He drafted the bill creating the University of Wyoming 
and throughout his lifetime was imbued with an undying 
faith in the existence of great mineral treasures in the State. 

Because of the illness of his father. Colonel Downey left 
the Convention after the first few sessions and was not 
present for signing the Constitution. The procedure, as re- 
corded in the "Journals and Debates," indicates his active 
participation in the sessions during the first two days. 

George W. Fox, born on August 18, 1838, in Preble 
County, Ohio, was reared as a farmer. Served in the 171st 
Regiment of Ohio Volunteers during the War of the Rebellion, 
and came west to Council Bluffs, Iowa, in the fall of 1865. 
In the spring of 1866 he crossed the plains to Montana with 
an emigrant train, by way of Fort Laramie and the Big Horn, 
fighting his way through the hostile Indian country. In 
Montana he engaged in mining until the fall of 1868 when 
he came to Wyoming, arriving at Laramie City on October 
16, "two days before the vigilance committee made their 
descent upon the Boston Saloon." He operated a wholesale 
and retail meat and vegetable market, and was one of the 
leading merchants of the community. 

Mr. Fox was chairman of the first board of trustees of 
the town ; in 1874 was elected County Clerk ; re-elected ; 
member of the lower house in the Third Legislature, being 
elected in 1894, and in 1896 was elected to the State Senate 
for four years. 

Of him, one of the early historians has said, "He was by 
nature a pioneer and having faith in the country and in the 
people, he was enabled to bear a conspicuous part in thf> 
upbuilding of all the interests in Albany County," and o£ 
his part in the Constitutional Convention, that "he served 
with distinction." 

Mortimer N. Grant was born at Lexington, Missouri, on 
March 2, 1851. 

Upon his arrival in Wyoming in 1869 he accepted a 
position with a surveying party, and in the fall took a con- 


tract for surveying on his own account, and did some of the 
most important work in this regard ever performed in the 
State. The township in which Rawlins is located, also the 
townships of Rock Springs, Green River and Evanston, were 
surveyed by him, the work being completed in 1872. 

Beginning with 1876 Mr. Grrant was actively interested 
in mining in this State, including the Keystone Mine on 
Douglas creek. Later he spent some time in New Mexico 
and Arizona, returning to Laramie in 1885 and accepted 
appointment as Auditor of th,e Territory, which he held until 
after the first election in 1890. In 1894 he was elected Sheriff 
of Albany County, and served as president of the Mining 
and Stock Exchange upon its organization. He was one of 
the original and largest owners of the Douglas Consolidated 
Placer Mines, Albany County, which property he sold for 
the Company in January, 1897. 

Mr. Grant was a pioneer who performed excellent service 
to his community and State. 

John W. Hoyt, M. D., LL.D., was born on October 11, 1831, 
near Worthington, Ohio, and died on May 23, 1912, in Wash- 
ington, D. C, at the age of 82, having passed his later years 
in literary work. 

The third Territorial Governor of "Wyoming, 1879-1882, 
Dr. Iloyt has been pointed out as the first of early Governors 
serving the Territory who remained to continue activities in 
its behalf after his original mission was ended. He accepted 
appointment from President Grant to the governorship of 
this raw and undeveloped western region, though he had 
declined a post as minister to Spain, and has been referred 
to as "one of the most remarkable men ever sent to Wyo- 
ming." During his term of office the Territory's population 
increased 100 per cent. 

He was the first president of the University of Wyoming, 
from 1887 to 1890. Upon failure of re-election, he removed 
to Washington, D. C, where he spent the remainder of his 
life in authorship and in fostering his favorite project, a 
National LTniversity. "Wyoming owes much to Governor 
Hoyt's initiative and his promotional Avork in education and 
the arts, as well as in the development of the Territory's 
resources." Hoyt Hall at the University, Laramie, was named 
in his honor. 

He traveled the State extensively, studying its resources 
and possibilities, and he is credited with having located 


Togwotee Pass and the Shoshone River routes into the Yellow- 
stone Park. 

His impressive oratory and vivid writings wielded an 
influence of great worth to the State. 

John McGill was bom on July 16, 1846, at Lennoxshire, 
Scotland, and when 20 years of age he crossed the Atlantic 
Ocean to Canada where he found employment. In May, 1868, 
he came to Wyoming. 

He was a member of the last Territorial Council and the 
first State Senate, representing his district for sir terms, and 
serving as its president for one term. He was Laramie 
County Commissioner for 12 years. 

During about ten of the earlier years in Wyoming he was 
employed by Sprague, Davis and Company, manufacturers 
of ties for the Union Pacific Railroad Company, after which 
he established a ranch on the Big Laramie, directed his efforts 
to cattle and sheepraising, and when he sold out in 1915, had 
become one of the leading cattlemen of his section of the 
state. The years brought further prosperity, and upon retire- 
ment from stockraising, Mr. McGill moved to Laramie where 
he was a director of the Albany County National Bank. 

One historian has said of him, "He not only wrought 
for himself, but he labored for the benefit of others and left 
his impress for good upon the annals of his commonwealth." 

Mr. McGill died on March 15, 1918, at Denver, Colorado, 
while undergoing a surgical operation. 

Alexander Sutherland was born in October, 1861, in the 
Dominion of Canada. He came to the United States with his 
parents when he was nine years old, and lived in Chicago 
until 1873 when the family moved to North Platte, Nebraska. 

He came to Wyoming in 1880, and for several years was 
employed in riding the range in Johnson County. In 1893, 
he removed to the Big Horn Basin and settled on Tensleep 
River where he engaged in raising stock and farming on an 
efficient basis. 

He served as a member of the Tenth Legislative assembly 
in 1909. 

Mr. Sutherland was considered as "one of the progressive 
and energetic men of the county, whose impress was made in 
enduring lines on the minds of his fellow citizens and the 
local institutions of his county * * *" and recognized as a 
leading factor in the commercial life of his community. 


Fremont County* 

Major Noyes Baldwin was born on September 8, 1826, at 
Woodbridge, Connecticut, and died at Lander, Wyoming on 
January 12, 1893. 

At the time of his marriage to Miss Josephine Wright, in 
San Francisco, California, on September 5, 1854, he was engaged 
in the contracting and building business, having traveled around 
Cape Horn to the West Coast. Unlike most early newcomers 
to Wyoming, he entered the territory from the west. 

After a voyage in 1854 to Peru, in an unsuccessful attempt 
to recover a fortune in gold bullion from a sunken vessel off the 
coast, and in the fall of 1859, he was attracted to Nevada by 
gold excitement and located at Gold Hill. On July 3, 1860, his 
wife and family arrived by stage, and on that day a son, Melville 
N., was born. , 

Mr. Baldwin, in 1863, organized the First Nevada Cavalry 
of 100 men, and accompanied by his family, took station as 
Captain at Fort Churchill, near Carson City, Nevada. In 1864 
he received the rank of Major and was transferred to Fort 
Douglas, Utah ; the following year he was assigned to command 
at Fort Bridger, and was mustered out of service in 1866. 

The same year he obtained a government license to trade 
with the Shoshone Indians and located at the mouth of the Popo 
Agie River, but abandoned the enterprise in the spring of 1867. 
The following year he established a store at South Pass and 
opened trade with the Indians in the Lander Valley, on Baldwin 

Nine days after their son, George L., was born on May 4, 
1869, (said to be the first white child born in the Lander Valley) 
Major Baldwin was obliged to remove his family and property 
to South Pass, because of danger from the Indians. A few 
months later when Camp Stambaugh was established, Major 
Baldwin was appointed first post trader, and here the family 
remained until the post's abandonment in 1878, after which they 
removed to Lander, erected a store and residence and continued 
to reside. 

There were seven daughters and two sons born to jMajor 
and Mrs. Noyes, and numerous relatives are still living in the 

C. G. Coutant, the Historian, says of this member of the 
Constitutional Convention, ''There are few men who came to 
Wyoming as early as he did and made it their permanent resi- 

*Three Constitutional delegates were elected from Fremont county, 
including Major Noyes Baldwin, whose name does not appear on the list 
of signers of the Constitution. 











M : 




■—I O 


dence. * * * Before he came to Wyoming he had seen mnch 
of the world, had large experience in business as well as in mili- 
tary affairs, and all this contributed toward making him the 
valuable citizen he proved himself to be in the frontier days of 
the territory." 

Herman G. Nickebson was born on May 4, 1841, at Litch- 
field, Ohio, and died on October 24, 1927, at Lander, Wyoming, 
at the age of 86, having spent 59 years in that section. 

Enlisting with Company D, Twenty-third Regiment of 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil 
War, Mr. Nickerson was transferred to the 168th Infantry and 
made Captain of Company I. 

Because of ill health after the War he was forced to forego 
his law studies, and in 1866 came West to the new gold fields 
in Montana through Wyoming over the Bozeman Trail with ox 
teams, at the height of Indian hostilities. Two years later he 
returned to this area and settled at South Pass where he devoted 
his interests to mining activities for eighteen years and took 
prominent part in the life of the community. 

He was the Republican candidate for the first Territorial 
Legislature, from whom Esther Morris at her famed "tea party" 
exacted a promise to introduce a bill giving to women the same 
rights of franchise as those accorded to men, and also to work 
for its passage. Mr. Nickerson was defeated by his Democratic 
opponent. Colonel W. H. Bright, from whom Mrs. ]\Iorris had 
received a similar promise, and which was fulfilled, with the 
framing and presenting of the renowned document known as the 
"Female Suffrage Bill." 

Captain Nickerson was elected to the next session of the 
legislature, in 1871, and again in 1884 when through his efforts 
the county of Fremont was created out of Sweetwater county. 
He also served as treasurer of Fremont County, and probate 
judge from 1884-1887, as well as receiver of the LTnited States 
Land Office at Lander, Wyoming, to which he was appointed in 
1892 and served until the following year when he accepted ap- 
pointment as Indian Agent on the Shoshoni reservation. He held 
the office of justice of the peace for twenty years. 

He was the first superintendent of schools of Sweetwater 
county and was chairman of the first board of county commis- 
sioners of Fremont County. 

At Elyria, Ohio, on April 12, 1874, Mr. Nickerson was 
married to Harriet J. Kelsey, and brought his school-teacher- 
bride to South Pass. Mrs. Nickerson taught the first pub'ic 
school in Lander and shared lier husband's interest in civic and 
social affairs, in which she also was a leader. 


Broad in his precepts and generous with his unusual talents 
of leadership, this member of the Constitutional Convention 
contributed largely to development of the resources of the Terri- 
tory and State, as well as to its civic, cultural and industrial 

Douglas A. Preston, born on December 19, 1858, at Olney, 
Illinois, arrived in Wyoming in about 1887 and settled first at 
Cheyenne, where he served as a clerk in the office of the Wyo- 
ming Attorney General. Later in the year he associated himself 
with John R. Dixon and established a law office in Rawlins, 

In 1888 he moved to Lander where he continued his law 
practice until 1895 when he moved to Rock Springs, Wyoming, 
and followed his profession until 1912, specializing in criminal 

Before coming to Wyoming, Mr. Preston was prosecuting 
attorney for Richland County, Illinois, from 1880 to 1884. 

A member of the AVyoming House of Representatives from 
1903 to 1905, he was appointed as attorney general for Wyo- 
ming by Governor Carey in 1911, and was re-appointed to that 
office by Governor John B. Kendrick in 1919, for another four- 
year term. 

Though an active Democrat in politics, he supported Joseph 
M. Care}^, Progressive Republican, for Governor in 1910. 

Mr. Preston was a member of the Benevolent Protective 
Order of Elks. 

His death in October, 1925, was the result of an automobile 

The recorded activities of Mr. Preston indicate that he was 
a citizen of splendid character and capabilities, and the records 
of the Constitutional Convention show that he took his share of 
responsibility in the deliberations of that body. 

Johnson County* 

Charles H. Burritt, born at Manchester Depot, Vermont, 
on February 15, 1854, was educated at Brown University, 
Rhode Island, and the Detroit Law School. At the age of 
22, in 1876, he was admitted to practice law in the State of 

AVhen he first came to Wyoming in 1878, he obtained 
employment with George B. Dunham, a stockman operating 
on Horse Creek. Earlv in 1883 he was connected a few months 

^All three Johnson county delegates signed the Constitution. 


with the law office of Colonel Stephen W. Downey, at Laramie, 
W.yoming, before he moved to Buffalo, Wyoming, where he en- 
gaged in regular law practice, and took active part in the affairs 
of his community and State. He served several terms in the 
State Legislature. 

In 1898 Mr. Burritt went to the Philippines with Company 
C, First Wyoming Volunteers, and while in the Islands he 
joined the 11th U. S. Cavalry. He was the first chief of the 
United States Mining Bureau of the Islands, was appointed 
Judge of the Court of the First Instance for central northern 
Luzon Provinces, resigned in 1907, returned to the United 
States and settled at Reno, Nevada, where he opened a law 
office, and where he died of pneumonia on June 1, 1927. 

He spoke Spanish and Chinese fluently, and while in the 
Philippines he rendered the decision which "forever preserved 
for the Islanders their title to land, as superior to claims 
made by State and Church." 

His adoption of a full-blooded Filipino girl was the 
first legal adoption of an Islander by an American. He edu- 
cated his protege in the Philippine Normal School and she 
followed the profession of teaching until her marriage. 

Mr. Burritt held numerous high offices in fraternal or- 
ganizations, including the Knights of Pythias, the Masonic 
Order, and Independent Order of Odd FelloAvs, and was an 
active member of the Spanish American War Veterans. He 
also carried the dispensation to the Islands for establishment 
of Masonic Lodges. 

He bad a keen legal mind, and has been referred to as 
"the most active member in the Wyoming Territorial Con- 
vention in connection with establishment of the irrigation 
code and the provisions for irrigation in the Constitution." 
He also was an active sponsor of woman suffrage. 

Among living descendants are a son, Edwin Wheeler 
Burritt, of Cheyenne, Wyoming, and a daughter, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth B. Snell, of San Francisco, California. 

Henry S. Elliott, of Seattle, Washington, is one of tbe 
two living members of the Wyoming Constitutional Conven- 
tion, and served as its temporary Chairman. 

Mr. Elliott was born on March *26, 1858, at Beaufort, 
South Carolina, and came from that State to Wyoming in 
1882. After a brief residence in Cheyenne he moved to 
Buffalo, Wyoming, where he served two terms as prosecuting 
attorney of Johnson County, and one term as Mayor of the 


The son of a colonial family, and reared in the South, 
he was graduated from Columbia University, now known as 
George Washington University, Washington, D. C, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1879, when but twenty-one years of age. 

On August 13, 1884, he was married to Miss Mary Helen 
Erhart of Buffalo, Wyoming, and to the couple six sons were 
born, all of whom are living. 

In 1891 he moved to Washington State, residing a few 
months at Centralia, and afterward at Chehalis, where he 
served a four-year term as Superior Court Judge, of Lewis, 
Pacific and Wahkikum Counties. 

In 1910, Mr. Elliott moved to Seattle, as one of the trial 
attorneys for The Seattle Electric Company, owner of the 
street car service. After the sale of the company to the City 
of Seattle, he was appointed United States Commissioner for 
the Western District of Washington, Northern Division, by 
United States District Judge Neterer, and entered upon his 
duties on August 13, 1923. Though 82 years of age, he still 
holds the position of U. S. Commissioner and performs the 
duties of that office. 

Judge Elliott is a member of the Episcopal Church 
and several branches of the Masonic Order, including the 
Knights Templar, and Order of the Mystic Shrine, as well as 
other fraternal organizations. 

Of him it is said in the History of King County (Wash- 
ington) "* * * a profound scholar, he is learned not only 
in the technicalities of common law, but in the broad under- 
lying philosophy of jurisprudence, and has shown an un- 
usual capacity for administering the affairs of the office." 

John M. McCandlish was born in Pennsylvania, and came 
to Wyoming from that State between 1880 and 1885. His 
first residence in the Territory was at Cheyenne, where he 
was in the employ of Caleb P. Organ, after which he made 
his home at Buffalo for a time before returning to his native 
state where it is thought he died in about 1900. 

The record in the "Journals and Debates of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, Wyoming," shows that he took part in 
the regular procedure. 


Laramie County* 

George W. Baxter was born on January 7, 1855, at Hen- 
dersonville, N. C, but soon afterward his father moved the 
family to Knoxville, Tennessee, where young Baxter spent 
his childhood and received his early education. 

He was graduated from the U. S. Military Academy at 
West Point in 1877. As a second lieutenant in IT. S. Cavalry, 
he saw service in the w^est, and in 1881 became a resident of 
"Wyoming. His duties included service in Montana at the 
Sioux Agency, and in Wyoming at Fort D. A. Russell, Fort 
Washakie and Fort Laramie. He assisted in the capture of 
Chief Dull Knife and his band in 1878. 

While at Fort Washakie he was delegated to construct 
the telegraph line from that point to Rawlins. 

In 1880 before coming west he married a wealthy Ten- 
nessee girl, and to the couple were born a son and four 

Colonel Baxter followed Francis E. Warren as the sixth 
Governor of the Territory, under appointment of President 
Grover Cleveland, November 6, 1886. He served for forty- 
five days after which he resigned. 

After his resignation from the governorship, Mr. Baxter 
entered the cattle business and in 1888 became one of the inoor- 
porators of the Western Union Beef Company, first being a 
director, and for two years the manager, following which he 
was made president. 

In the first State election following the Constitutional 
Convention, he was a candidate for Governor on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. 

Though he left the State permanently and returned to 
the South with his family soon after his unsuccessful candi- 
dacy for Governor in 1890', he had distinguished himself dur- 
ing the Constitutional Convention and thereby holds a unique 
place in Wyoming history. 

Mr. Baxter, on September 7, 1889, the sixth day of the 
Convention, introduced the woman suffrage section, which 
was File No. 25, entitled, ''Concerning Female Suffrage," 
made an eloquent and persuasive plea in its behalf, and an- 
nounced that his presence at the Convention was "to assist 
in the formation of a Constitution whose tendencies shall be 
to elevate the citizens of this State." 

After eulogizing women in general, he thus declared his 
stand for the proposed equal suffrage bill: "I am for it, and 

*Eleven Constitutional delegates were elected from Laramie County 
and all signed the Constitution. 


I believe in it because of that great and overpowering con- 
sideration which should influence every man on this floor in 
casting his ballot, and that consideration is because it is 
right ; because it is fair ; and because it is just, and I shall 
ever regard as a distinguished honor my membership in this 
Convention on which for the first time in the history of all 
this broad land there is incorporated into the fundamental 
law of the State a provision which shall secure to every 
citizen, man or woman, the absolute and equal enjoyment 
of every right and privilege guaranteed under the law to 
every other citizen." 

Anthony C. Campbell was born in Doe Run, Pennsyl- 
vania, April 1, 1853, and was educated in his native state. 

He came to Wyoming in territorial days and maintained 
his home in Cheyenne. Was United States District Attorney, 
attorney for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Company, 
the Standard Oil Company, as well as other large corporations, 
and was Assistant United States Attorney in the Interior 
Department. He was recognized nationally as an authority 
on public land law. 

Mr. Campbell departed from this life on September 8, 
1932, at Cheyenne, Wyoming, his wife having preceded him 
in death many years. There were three children, Frances, 
deceased, Mary Gr. Campbell and Thomas A. Campbell. 

He retained during his life that keenness of intellect, 
loyalty to friends, and devotion to duty, both personally and 
professionally, which made him an eminent citizen and a 
distinguished lawyer. 

Henry G. Hay was born at Indianapolis, Indiana, October 
31, 1847, educated at Vincennes, Indiana ; Eastman Business 
College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and Harmony, Pa. (now Am- 
bridge. Pa.). 

He was located at Reedsville, Missouri, near Galena, where 
he became a surveyor. With John B. Thomas, he came to 
Wyoming in 1870 and set the first corner stone under govem- 
m,ent authorization in the Territory of Wyoming, and sur- 
veyed the southeastern portion of Wyoming. 

In 1871, associated with John B. Thomas, he engaged in 
the sheep business, and built the Valley Ranch on Lone Tree 
Creek, ten miles southwest of Cheyenne, now owned by 
Warren Live Stock Company. 

On November 18, 1874, he married Miss Ella Bullock, 
whom he had met at the home of Francis E. and Helen 


Warren. To this union were born Henry G. Hay of Gary, 
Indiana, and Mildred Hay Gibbs of Pasadena, California. 

In 1875 he formed a partnership with I. C. Whipple in 
the grocery business, sold to the Union Mercantile Company 
in 1883 at the location of the present Princess Theatre. 

In December, 1881, he joined with J. M. Carey and Thomas 
Stargis in the organization of the Stock Growers National 
Bank, and subsequently became operating head of the insti- 
tution. This bank was one of the few that weathered the 
trying times of 1893. 

From 1881 to 1893 he also engaged in range cattle busi- 
ness, associated with I. C. Whipple, with ranches located on 
the Laramie River and Chugwater and Cottonwood Creeks. 

He was an active member and president of the Cheyenne 
Board of Trade, a member and Treasurer of the Wyoming 
Stock Growers Association, a charter member of the Cheyenne 
Club, a member of the Lodge No. 1, A. F. and A. M., member 
of the building committee of the Carnegie Public Library and 
Cheyenne Opera House (opposite the Stock Growers Bank), 
and Commissioner to the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893. 

Politically, he served as chairman of the Laramie Count}'' 
Republican Committee, was an active member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention. He served two separate terms as Treasurer 
of the State of Wyoming. 

In 1908 he sold his holdings in the Stock Growers Na- 
tional Bank and moved to New York. There he became 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States Steel Corporation, 
filling this position until his death, August 18, 1919. He is 
buried in Vincennes, Indiana, beside his father and grand- 

John K. Jeffrey, secretary of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, was born on April 6, 1843, at Newburgh, Orange County, 
New York, and soon after the Civil War, of which he was a 
veteran, he left his native state for the West. 

In 1868 he entered the employ of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road at Cheyenne, Wyoming, and a year later he accepted a 
position with the Rogers and Company Bank. Subsequently 
he entered the service of the First National Bank of Cheyenne. 

He served as clerk under appointment, at Camp Carlin, 
quartermaster's depot and commissary located between Chey- 
enne and Fort D. A. Russell, now Fort Francis E. Warren. 
The depot furnished all supplies for Fort Russell, Fort Fetter- 
man, Fort Laramie and intermediate points. 

Mr. Jeffrey held numerous other positions of public serv- 
ice in Cheyenne during his twenty-nine years residence there. 


In 1880 he was appointed clerk of the District Court, First 
Judicial District, Cheyenne, where he served until his resig- 
nation on December 18, 1886. He was County Clerk of Lara- 
mie County, from 1879 to 1888, and again from 1893 to 1894. 
He also served as City Clerk for three years. 

At the conclusion of the Convention sessions, the body 
voted as a gift to Mr. Jeffrey the handsome gold pen used 
by the 45 men who actually signed the Constitution for the 
new State. 

After moving from Wyoming to Colorado in 1897, his 
business connections in Denver included the position of 
secretary-treasurer of the Seeing Denver Company, from 
which he retired in about 1921. 

He was a member of the Knights of Pythias fraternal 
order and of the Grand Army of the Republic. His church 
affiliation was the Episcopalian. 

Surviving Mr. Jeffrey are two sons, John and Henry, 
and a daughter, Mrs. Sherley Moore, all of Denver. 

James Albert Johnston was born on a farm near Dayton, 
Ohio, on December 7, 1840, attended public school for a few 
years, worked in a wagon factory in Cincinnati and in 1867 
M^ent to Cheyenne. From there, to Denver where he worked 
on a farm, soon joining a party bound for Texas to drive 
cattle to Colorado and Wyoming. He took up a homestead 
12 miles south of Denver and in 1870 married Miss Melissa 
Drummond. By 1874 he had a family of three children. 

In 1878 he became interested in mining at Leadville, 
and later in the building of large irrigation works which 
brought him in contact with Edwin S. Nettleton, State Engi- 
neer of Colorado. 

Nettleton recommended Mr. Johnston to the Wyoming 
Development Company at Cheyemie, and in 1883 he left Colo- 
rado to become associated with this company. In 1887 he 
was elected to the Wyoming Territorial Legislature and intro- 
duced an important bill relating to the use of water and 
establishing the oft'iee of Territorial Engineer, which act 
became a law. He was influential in securing the appoint- 
ment of Professor Elwood Mead as first State Engineer, and 
worked with Mr. Mead in drafting Constitutional provisions 
relative to use of water, and later, a code of water laws for 
the State of Wyoming, which was adopted, with little cliange, 
by the first State Legislature in 1891. 

He served as superintendent of water division number 
one until 1896, also as the secretary of the State Board of 
Control, and engaged in a variety of enterprises. He and his 


brother, E. S. Johnston, purchased a grocery business in 
Cheyenne which his brother gradually took over alone. In 
1893 he went to Senora, Old Mexico to take charge of the 
construction of a large irrigation enterprise. Mrs. Johnston 
died suddenly there and he returned to Cheyenne, retiring 
from the work in Old Mexico to interest himself in the Stock 
GroAvers National Bank of Cheyenne. 

In 1898 he married Anna Fox and moved to Denver to 
take charge of the office of Clay-Robinson Company. He 
remained in this work until 1914 when he retired and spent 
twenty-one years in California. At the age of 82 he and 
Mrs. Johnston completed a world's tour. 

He never lost interest in Wyoming and the activities of 
the State Engineer's office. He died June 7, 1936, at the 
age of ninety-one years. His wife survives him. 

Elliott S. N. Morgan was born in January, 1832, at Pitts- 
burgh, and was educated in the schools of that city and New 
Castle, Pennsylvania. He died on April 20, 1894, at Chey- 
enne, Wyoming. 

He entered business on his own account following two 
years experience as a clerk in his father's store. In 1860, 
he was married to Miss Laura Spiese of New Castle, Pa., and 
five children were born to the couple. 

Before coming to Wyoming he had become prominent 
in politics in his own State, having served several terms in 
the Legislature of Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, preceding 
his appointment as Secretary of Wyoming Territory by Presi- 
dent Hays, on March 10, 1880. He was reappointed on March 
31, 1884, by President Arthur. 

Mr. Morgan served as Acting Governor of Wyoming, 
while Secretary, following the death of Governor William 
Hale on January 13, 1885, and until the appointment of Gov- 
ernor Francis E. Warren by President Arthur on February 27, 
1885. At the time of Mr. Morgan's death at Cheyenne, news- 
paper records gave him credit with having also shared re- 
sponsibilities with Governor Hale, who was handicapped by 
illness in the performance of his official duties. 

Following his public service, Mr. Morgan began practice 
of the legal profession, being admitted to the bar in 1887. 
He also was a member of the editorial staff of the Livestock 

He served as chairman of the legislative committee of 
the Constitutional Convention, and was a Republican at that 
time, but later changed to Populism. 

He was a member of the Presbyterian church and of the 
Masonic Order. 


Caleb Perry Organ was born in Virginia, later moving 
with his parents to Missouri. He served in the Confederate 
Army as a Lieutenant in a Missouri regiment during the last 
years of the Civil War. After the close of the war, he 
started West, arriving in Cheyenne in 1867. He served as 
Depot Superintendent at Camp Carlin, when it was one of 
the principal supply depots for the Army in the West, and 
was located between Cheyenne and Fort D. A. Russell. 

Later he entered the cattle business, and this w^as his 
chief interest until his death, at which time he still owned 
the Org-an ranch about a mile southeast of Cheyenne. He 
was also interested in ranches in other parts of AVyoming, 
and in the hardware business at Buffalo and Douglas, being 
a member of the firm, Draper and Organ Hardware, at 

Mr. Organ was a charter member of the Cheyenne Club, 
which was the social center for cattlemen of Wyoming, 
serving as an officer of the Club for many years. He was 
twice elected to the Territorial Council. Was nominated for 
Congress by the Democratic Party and defeated by the late 
Joseph M. Carey. He also ran for Secretary of State, and 
was later appointed by President Grover Cleveland to the 
office of Receiver of the U. S. Land Office at Cheyenne. 

He married Miss Kate Graham, a Cheyenne school teacher, 
and lived in the historic residence at 2201 Ferguson Street 
(Carey Ave.). Mr. Organ died July 28, 1898 at the age of 
55 years, and was survived by his wife and a daughter, 
Katherine, who is today Mrs. Marsh Armstrong of Rawlins, 
Wyoming. Mrs. Organ passed away in 1938. 

Charles N. Potter was born in Cooperstown, New York. 
October 31, 1852. He was graduated from the Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, High School in 1870, and studied law^ at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, where he received the degree of L.L.B., 
in 1873. He practiced law in Grand Rapids until March. 1876, 
when he came to Cheyenne, and soon became a factor in the 
social, civic, political and legal life of the City and Territory. 

He was City Attorney for Cheyenne from 1878 to 1881, 
and again in 1889. He was Prosecuting Attorney of Laramie 
County from 1881 to 1883, Attorney General of the State 
from 1891 to 1895, a member of the Cheyenne Board of 
Education from 1888 to 1897, and President of the Cheyenne 
Industrial Club. During his lifetime he was an active mem- 
ber of the Congregational Church, and several fraternal 


Judge Potter was elected Justice of the Supreme Court 
of Wyoming in 1894, and re-elected in 1902, 1910, 1918, and 
1926. His service of thirty-three years as a member of the 
Supreme Court and over twenty years as its Chief Justice, 
constituted a judicial career which, in its length and distinc- 
tion, has few parallels. In the field of law in Wyoming, he 
was a pioneer who cleared aAvay the brush, and set the legal 
guide posts for all time. 

Judge Potter died at his home in Cheyenne on December 
20, 1927, his life in this State covering a period of fifty-two 

Thomas R. Reid was born on April 12, 1839, in London, 
England. While yet a j^oung child and after the death of 
his father, he was taken by his mother to Australia where 
lived her two married daughters, with whom she and her son 
made their home. 

He was educated in Australia and in England, and came 
to America from the latter country in 1867 to "fight Indians." 
He enlisted in the Second Regiment of the U. S. Army, 
Nebraska, for a period of five years, and after his discharge 
accepted employment with the Union Pacific Railroad, with 
whom he remained until retirement. He married Elizabeth 
Hunt Rodgers in 1877. 

Mr. Reid's public service included the Cheyenne City 
Council in 1886, and the State Legislature. He passed away 
on June 16, 1917. 

John A. Riner was born in Preble County, Ohio, 1850. 
Studied law at the University of Michigan, graduating in 
1879. Moved to Wyoming and was attorney for city of 
Cheyenne in 1881. He married Miss May Jillich in 1882, and 
they had four children, all of whom are now living. Was 
United States District Attorney for the Territory of Wyoming, 
1884. Elected a member of the LTpper House, Tenth Legisla- 
tive Assembly of Wyoming Territory, in 1886, being selected 
as president of that body during the session. Elected mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention in 1889 he took an 
active part in its deliberations, serving on the judiciary com- 
mittee where his outstanding legal ability Avas of especial 
value. Elected member of the State Senate, 1890, but resigned 
before the legislature convened to accept appointment as 
United States District Judge for the District of Wyoming, 
commissioned September 23, 1890. 

His work as a Judicial Officer was such as to receive the 
generous and hearty commendation not only of his associates 


in the great 8th Circuit as then constituted, but also of the 
Bar and all who had business to transact in the Federal Court 
in Wyoming. He had a broad intellectuality, deep human 
sympathies and wide tolerance. Honor and integrity were 
synonymous with his name. No one enjoyed or merited more 
the respect, confidence and the high regard of the people of 
this commonwealth. He died March 4, 1923. 

Hubert E. Teschemacher was born in Massachusetts in 
1856, of a wealthy family and in 1879 came to "Wyoming 
where he entered, prominently, into business and social life 
of the Territory, accumulating large holdings in the cattle 

He was head of a firm operating as the Teschemacher 
and DeBillier Cattle Company, which included his brother, 
Arthur, and a number of local and eastern men, among whom 
was Theodore Roosevelt. The range was at Bridger's Ferry 
on the North Platte River. 

Harry Ralston, of Cheyenne, was foreman of the outfit 
from March, 1884, until about 1893, as he recalls, and esti- 
mated that there were around 25,000 head of mixed cattle 
in the herds. 

Mr. Teschemacher was a Harvard man, and during his 
residence in Cheyenne was president of the exclusive social 
group known as the old Cheyenne Club, and resided at the 
club-house, since razed and the site is now occupied by the 
Chamber of Commerce Building. 

He served in both houses of the Territorial Legislature 
and was a member of the Wyoming Stock Growers Associa- 
tion. He was a Republican, and is among those whose name 
appears most frequently in the journal and debate records 
of the Constitutional Convention. 

It is thought that he died in Boston, of pneumonia, in 
about the year 1906, and that his brother passed away in 
Switzerland several years earlier. 

According to Cheyenne old-timers, the father of the two 
brothers was H. F. Teschemacher, a California forty-niner, 
who served as an early mayor of San Francisco. 

Bibliography of Material Used in Compiling Above Biographies of 

Delegates from Albany, Fremont, Johnson and 

Laramie Counties: 

History of Wyoming, Vols. 1, 2, 3, by Bartlett. 
History of Wyoming, Vols. 1, 3, by Beard. 
Wyoming Historical Eeports, Miscellaneous, 1900. 

Men of Wyoming, compiled and published by C. S. Peterson, Denver, 


Herringham 's Encyclopaedia of American History. 

Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1927. 

Coutant 's History of Wyoming, Vol. 1. 

Coutant Notes. 

History and Directory, Laramie City, Wyoming Territory, by J. H. 

History of the University, Wyoming, by Wilson O. Clough. 

Bancroft's Works, Vol. 25. 

Progressive Men of Wyoming. 

History of Fort Bridger, by Robert S. Ellison. 

Dr. L. C. Hunt 's notes on the Constitutional Convention. 

National Encyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 23. 

Women of Wyoming, by Beach, Vol. 1. 

Journals and Debates of the Constitutional Convention, and also numerous 
correspondents in this and other states, as well as newspaper clip- 
pings, files and personal interviews. 

(To ie concluded in the October issue, with biographies of delegates 
from the following counties: Carbon, Converse, Crook, Sheridan, Sweet- 
water and Uinta.) 



Miss Louise S. Smith, 1889 


Miss Smith, assistant cashier of the Stock Growers National 
Bank, Cheyenne, Wyoming, and active in Cheyenne business 
and social life the past half century, holds the distinction of hav- 
ing been the official stenographer for the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1889. Appfreciation of Miss Smith's skill in recording 
the proceedings was evidenced by the presentation of an ex- 
quisite gold pin by the Convention at its close. 

In addition to her connection with the historical Conven- 
tion, Miss Smith holds the unique position of being the Capital 
City's first stenographer, beginning her business career in 1886. 
One of her first positions was with the banking institution of 
which slie is now an officer. 

Miss Smith resides at 712 East Eighteenth Street, Cliey- 
enne. Wvoming. 



By W. E. Chaplin 

In 1889 conditions seemed ripe for statehood. The buffalo 
had ceased to roam and the deer and the antelope were more 
wary in their play. The savage hostilities of Red Cloud, Sitting 
Bull, Chief Gall, Spotted Tail and Crazy Horse were in the 
past. The Indian was living peacefully on his reservation and 
the herds and flocks of the white man grazed on a thousand hills. 
The Union Pacific had for a score of years carried the traffic 
of the nation across our southern border and the Northwestern 
and the Burlington had penetrated the central and northern 
portions of the Territory. The population was not large — 
about 60,000 — ^but it was intelligent, energetic and ambitious. 
Francis E. Warren, powerful in business and statesmanship, 
was Governor by the appointment of President Benjamin Har- 
rison. Joseph M. Carey, lawyer, judge and able business man, 
was delegate in Congress. You could have scratched the Rockies 
with a fine-toothed comb and found no abler men. The people 
of Wyoming were tired of being governed by carpetbaggers 
While the officials sent to us were generally good and able citi- 
zens, they were not of our choosing. We longed for statehood. 
Mr. Average Citizen desired to vote for those who controlled 
the state government and for the President of the United States. 
Bills had been introduced in both the Senate and House of 
Representatives providing for the admission of Wyoming. It 
was thought advisable to follow the provisions of the Senate 
Bill. The boards of commissioners in the several counties 
passed resolutions requesting the Governor, the Chief Justice 
and Secretary of the Territory to issue a call for a Constitutional 
Convention and to apportion the delegates among the counties. 
The basis of the apportionment was the vote on Delegate in 
Congress at the election of 1888. The number decided upon 
was 55. The selection of delegates was without regard to party. 
It was sought to obtain one fitted for the responsibility and of 
sterling character. A glance over the roster and a study of the 
occupations of the members in their after lives proves that 
nothing but the good of the people was sought. Almost every 
walk of life was represented. 

The delegates assembled in the Supreme Court room of the 
Capitol Building, September 2, 1889. Temporary organization 
was effected without delay by the choosing of Henry S. Elliott 
of Johnson County as Temporary Chairman. Mr. Elliott is 
still living, his home being in the city of Seattle, Washington. 


After the report of the Committee oil Credentials had been 
read, forty-five members were sworn in. It is interesting to 
note that this is the exact number of signatures appended to 
the Constitution. The total number sworn in was finally forty- 
nine. That ancient and honorable Justice of the Peace, W. P. 
Carroll, adminitstered the oath. 

Melville C. Brown, able attorney of Albany County, was 
chosen permanent chairman. There was no particular struggle 
for the position. Laramie County, with eleven delegates, did 
not have a candidate for the position. It was suspected that 
bigger game was looked for in the future. J. K. Jeffrey of 
Laramie County was chosen Secretary. Permanent organiza- 
tion being perfected, the Convention at once entered into its 
important work. Louise Smith of Laramie County was selected 
for the position of stenographer. She is still living and through 
all the years has been a valued citizen of Cheyenne. Although 
at the time a very young woman, she performed her work with 
outstanding ability. The published report proves her worth. 

It is not my purpose to review in any considerable detail 
the work of the Convention ; time does not permit. Chairmen 
of committees were named by the President because of their 
peculiar fitness for the duties to be performed. If I were called 
upon to choose the article of the Constitution I believe of the 
highest value, I would name Article VIII, Irrigation and Water 
Rights. The Chairman of that Committee was James A. Johns- 
ton of Laramie County, an engineer of ability. Not long before 
the effort for statehood there had been imported into the Terri- 
tory a young civil engineer to take the position of Territorial 
Engineer by the name of Elwood Mead. He owed the obtain- 
ing of this position to Mr. Johnston, who had known him favor- 
ably as a professor in the Agricultural College at Fort Collins. 
It was a hard fight for Mr. Johnston, because of Mead's youth, 
to get him appointed to the "Wyoming position. Tliis is the same 
Mead who became an outstanding world character and high 
authority upon irrigation and water rights. He directed the 
construction of the wonderful Hoover Dam that regulates the 
flow of the Colorado River. Mead and Johnston drew the article, 
only five sections in length, and then looked over the roll of 
the Convention for a man whom they considered capable of 
making an adequate argument in its favor. They decided upon 
Delegate Charles H. Burritt of Johnson County. Burritt was 
a yoimg lawyer who had much experience in the adjudication 
of water rights. He entered into the work with a zest and made 
an argument for the measure as presented that was unanswerable. 
Many objections were raised by attorneys, but they were all 
answered satisfactorily. Under the terms of the proposed con- 


stitutional provision, Wyoming was winning virgin ground 
Riparian ownership of water was thrown in the discard, thrj 
state was given ownership of all waters within its borders. The 
citizen could only secure the right to use the water and to obtain 
that right he must put it to beneficial uses and continue to use it. 
He is not permitted to use the water of a stream if the use inter- 
feres with a prior appropriator below or above. In other words, 
the first man to take out a permit has the better right. 

Another change from the then general practice was the 
division of the state into four water districts and the appoint- 
ment of district commissioners. The four district commission- 
ers, together with the State Engineer, were to constitute a 
Board of Control, to which appeals could be made from the 
District Commissioners. This, some believed, would provide 
too much interference with the functions of the Courts. How- 
ever, all opposition was overcome and the article went into the 
Constitution with slight amendment. It has worked quite well 
for a period of fifty years. Wyoming has the distinguished 
honor of having pioneered in irrigation and water right law. 

Suffrage brought forth extended and on one occasion 
acrimonious debate. There was little opposition to woman 
suffrage. It had been tried out in the Territory for twenty 
years and had proved satisfactory. Long speeches had been 
prepared by some who were looking forward to political prefer- 
ment, and it had seemed probable that they would be disappoint- 
ed, but a motion by Mr. Campbell of Laramie County afforded 
the opportunity of oratory. He moved to amend the first section 
by making it a separate article to be submitted separately and 
voted on separately by the people. In his argument, Mr. Camp- 
bell stated that he was in favor of woman suffrage, but that 
he had been requested to make this motion in order that the 
question might be tested at the polls. There had been a time 
in his life when he was in opposition, but that time had passed. 
His observations since coming to Wyoming had convinced him 
that the women should have the privilege of voting. While in 
Omaha some years before, he had heard an argument between 
Phoebe Cozzins and a bright young lawyer of that city in which 
the young man had stated that woman suffrage had been a 
failure in Wyoming. He said that throughout the length and 
breadth of the nation you could not find a more lawless condi- 
tion of things than at Rawlins, Laramie and Cheyenne. Camp- 
bell had taken that statement as true until he had made a per- 
sonal investigation and found it absolutely false. He had seen 
several elections conducted in Wyoming and always in the 
most orderly manner. However, while the tendency of uni- 
versal suffrage was for the best, there had never been a vote 


upon the matter and he believed that those who wished that it 
be submitted separately ought to have the opportunity to vote 
upon it independent of the balance of the Constitution. 

A storm broke loose. Mr. Holden of Uinta County would 
prefer to remain a territory during all the endless cycles of 
time to having this question submitted separately. Mr. Baxter, 
who had sponsored the woman suffrage clause from the first, 
made a very clear and forceful argument against the motion. 
Mr. Coffeen of Sheridan County, in a lurid speech, challenged 
Mr. Campbell's motives and aroused the ire of that gentleman. 
As white as a sheet, Mr. Campbell arose and shouted, "Any 
man who impugns my motives on the floor of this Convention 
lies, away down in the bottom of his old throat." There was 
much confusion, but Mr. Coffeen was a peace-loving citizen and 
a personal encounter was avoided. After some discussion it 
was decided to expunge the incident from the record. Perhaps, 
I should have made no reference to it at this time, but it was 
the only real fireworks of a somewhat prosy convention and 
created a lot of genuine amusement. Miss Smith, who took the 
stenographic report of the convention, will attest the accuracy 
of my comments at this late date. 

Former Governor John W. Hoyt of Albany County, made 
an excellent address favoring suffrage for women and in opposi- 
tion to the Campbell motion. He said he had not believed it 
would be necessary to make extended argument on the subject 
and yet went away back into the dark ages and discussed the 
manner in which women had been treated long before Christ 
came to bring peace on earth. Governor Hoyt was a candidate 
for the United States Senate. President Brown made an argu- 
ment for woman suffrage that was excellent in detail. He also 
was a candidate for the United States Senate. A few other 
forward-looking members took the occasion to endear them- 
selves to the lady voters. The only member who came out flat- 
footed in opposition to woman suffrage was Mr. Palmer of 
Sweetwater County. 

Mr. Campbell's motion was defeated by a vote of 20 to 8. 
and woman suffrage stood with the remainder of the Constitu- 
tion. In future discussions of the Constitution it never ap- 
peared to prove a handicap. 

There were some other matters pertaining to suffrage tliat 
aroused considerable debate. Tliere was an insistent demand for 
an educational test and yet it was not desired that those al- 
ready qualified to vote should be deprived of the franchise. It 
was finally decided to require voters to be able to read the con- 
stitution, excepting those who had already enjoyed the privilege. 

The committee having education in charge was headed by 


President Hoyt of the University. He it was who drafted the 
Territorial Statute Law founding and governing that institu- 
tion. He had been its President for more than two years and 
was qualified theoretically and practically to write the article 
that was to control the educational system of the new State. 
He carried into the Constitution the chief provisions of the 
Territorial Law. The establishment of the University with all of 
its departments was confirmed. A single consolidated institu- 
tion was contemplated. The various necessary colleges were to 
be under one central control. It was provided that school in- 
come should be distributed among the several counties in pro- 
portion to the number of children of school age, and it was 
further required that no school money should be used in the 
support of private or sectarian schools. The work of this 
committee was so well performed that there was little debate 
upon its report in committee of the whole. As I recall, there 
was no opposition to the work of the committee. 

Article V, the Judicial Department, caused a great deal 
of discussion. It afforded the lawyers of the Convention ample 
opportunity to exploit their legal erudition. "Wyoming Ter- 
ritory had been getting along with three Federal Judges, acting 
both as District Judges and Supreme Justices. The people 
had become used to the system and many favored a continuance 
of something along the same order. By the time the finished 
report of the committee had reached the committee of the whole, 
the subject had been pretty well threshed out and a majority 
of the Convention favored a separate Supreme Court. Judge 
Potter had been with this majority, but constant rumor and 
pressure from the outside demanding economy caused him to 
yield to the point of submitting an amendment providing for 
a consolidated Supreme Court for a period of six years, to con- 
sist of four judges, one of whom was to step aside when deci- 
sions rendered by him were being acted upon. This amend- 
ment was very ably argued by the best lawyers in the body. 
Mr. John A. Riner of Laramie County disagreed most decidedly 
with Mr. Potter, his stand being that if the people of Wyoming 
did not care to adopt a constitution providing for the right 
kind of a government, then it would be better to remain as a terri- 
tory till they changed their minds. The stand taken by Judge 
Riner proved to be the will of the majority, the final vote upon 
the rejection of the Potter amendment being 21 to 17. The 
question of salaries for the judges caused a good deal of com- 
ment. It was finally left to the legislature. 

Times were not so good in 1889 and a wave of economy was 
upon the land. The Convention went into the matter of salaries 
of public officers with a heavy hand. It really went far beyond 


the usual requirements of constitutional law and legislated. 
There has been much criticism of this portion of the conven- 
tion's work, but in its defense it can be said that the people 
were saved a great deal of money thereby. 

Public indebtedness was handled without mercy. The State 
was required to limit its indebtedness to one per cent, except 
to suppress insurrection or provide for the public expense. Offi- 
cials were limited to their budgets. Counties were limited to 
two per cent in the creation of indebtedness. An exception was 
made governing sewage systems and water works. 

Hours of labor on public works were restricted to eight 
and none but citizens or those who had declared their intention 
to become such was permitted to be employed. 

The fact that the Constitution has operated successfully 
for a period of fifty years is ample proof of its value. Amend- 
ments have been few. 

It may be of interest to those interested in the history of 
the Constitutional Convention to review briefly the lives of some 
of the more important members. 

. Judge Melville C. Brown, President of the Convention, 
was born in Maine in 1838. His first location in the west was in 
Idaho. He came to Wyoming about the time of the completion 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, locating at Laramie. He was, 
without much delay, elected to the position of Mayor, but re- 
signed in a few weeks. He was soon wed to the beautiful Nancy 
Fillmore, daughter of the Superintendent of the Wyoming Divi- 
sion of the Union Pacific. They were a handsome couple. She 
made of his home a sweet haven of rest and contentment. He 
took high rank in the practice of law and at one time was Fed- 
eral Attorney for the District of Wyoming. In later years he 
was again elected Mayor of Laramie. At times. Judge Brown 
had a temper that was hard to control. In the heat of passion 
his tongue was vitriolic. On one occasion he lambasted the Jus- 
tices of the Supreme Court with such venomous language that 
the court took Judicial notice and debarred him from practice 
for a considerable period. President Theodore Roosevelt ap- 
pointed him to th'^ position of Judge of Alaska, whicli he filled 
for about five years. In that position he was the subject of 
many criticisms and Rex Beach's novel, "The Spoilers," was 
based upon some of the actions of the court. After his s?rvice 
in Alaska, Judge Brown returned to Laramie and resumed the 
practice of law. He did not step into the good practice he laid 
down, but with the added emoluments of Justice of the Peace 
he kept the pot boiling. He died in 1928. 

John W. Hoyt came to Wyoming as Territorial Goveriuu-, 
through the appointment of President Hayes, in the spring of 


1878. He was a talented man ; had studied medicine and was 
an M. D. ; he had also studied law. He edited a paper in Wis- 
consin for a number of years. He had occupied many other 
positions of trust. After ably serving the Territory as Gov- 
ernor he became the manager of the Wheatland Development 
Company. He framed the law which created the University of 
Wyoming and carried its excellent provisions into the State 
Constitution. He was the first President of the University. He 
published a paper at Laramie for a brief period, but it was 
not a success financially. He spent his afternoon of life in the 
city of Washington, where he died in 1912. 

James A. Johnston was the oldest brother of five Johnstons 
who made history in Wyoming. In Colorado, where he resided 
for a time, he became acquainted with Elwood Mead, one of 
the most capable engineers of his day. He persuaded Governor 
Moonlight to appoint Mead Territorial Engineer. In the Con- 
stitutional Convention, Johnston was the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Irrigation, and in collaboration with Mead and Burritt 
formulated Wyoming's excellent law upon the subject. In after 
years he became interested in banking and for a long- time was 
manager of the live stock commission office of Clay, Robinson 
& Co., of Denver, Colorado. Upon his retirement he located in 
California, at Los Angeles, where he died a few years ago. 

Charles H. Burritt of Johnson County came to Wyoming 
in the early eighties and married an Albany County girl 
named Wheeler. They were married at Laramie and shortly 
thereafter settled in Buffalo, which had but recently been 
made a county seat. He practiced law successfully there 
until 1898, when he went to the Philippines as an officer in the 
Spanish-American War. He remained abroad for several 
years. Upon his return to the United States, he settled in 
Reno, Nevada, where he practiced his profession until his 
death in 1927. 

Clarence D. Clark of Uinta County grew to manhood in 
the State of Iowa. He was a good story-teller and was fond 
of relating his experience in trying to get a job as brakeman 
on a railroad. He applied to the trainmaster for work. The 
trainmaster looked him over and said: "Young man, you 
would not make a brakeman in a thousand years. It takes 
brains to make a railroad man." He taught school and 
studied law. In Evanston he had a good practice and was 
very popular among the people. He was elected Congress- 
man at the first State election. At the second State election 
he was defeated by Coffeen. In 1895, he was elected to the 
United States Senate and had the good fortune to receive 
the salary of $10,000, that would have been paid to a Senator 


had we elected one for the two preceding years. He served 
in the Senate until 1916, wiien he was defeated by John B. 
Kendrick. He was Chairman of the Committee on Railroads 
and Committee on Judiciary for the greater portion of his 
service in the Senate. On his retirement from that body he 
was made a member of the Canadian Boundary Commission. 

Jesse Knight of Uinta County became Judge of the Third 
Judicial District and thereafter Justice of the Supreme Court. 
He probably had as large a personal following as any man in 
the State. He would stick to a friend through thick and thin. 
His slaps at enemies were rather cutting. He died while a 
member of the High Court in 1905. 

George W. Baxter was a native of North Carolina ; was 
reared and educated in Tennessee and West Point. Soon after 
graduating from West Point, he resigned from the army and 
engaged in the cattle business, at the head of the Union Cattle 
Company. This company owned some 30,000 acres of land 
southeast of Cheyenne, purchased from the Union Pacific 
Railroad. This land was enclosed and the alternate sections 
were government land. This condition prevailed when Presi- 
dent Cleveland appointed Mr. Baxter to the position of Terri- 
torial Governor. Cleveland soon learned of the condition of 
affairs and removed Governor Baxter summarily. Governor 
Baxter was a handsome man, a true southern gentleman. In 
the Constitutional Convention, he espoused the cause of 
woman suffrage and made a good argument for the ladies. 
He ran for Governor in the first state election, being defeated 
by Francis E. Warren. In a few years the large tract of 
land owned by the Union Cattle Company was sold, and 
Governor Baxter left the State. He died a few years ago. 

From start to finish Charles N. Potter took a lively hand 
in the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention. He was 
particularly valuable in matters pertaining to the judiciary. 
He was educated in lavv^ at Ann Arbor and came to Cheyenne 
in the early eighties. He held many positions of trust during 
Territorial days. He favored a separate Supreme Court, but 
was willing to yield if it was found that a majority was 
against him. He introduced an amendment to that effect, but 
it was defeated. He was elected to the Supreme Court in 
1894 and served as a member of that body during the remain- 
der of his life. 

John A. Riner was of that class of young men who earned 
their way through college. At Ann Arbor, he did chores of 
various kinds to help win his way financially. He said to 
me once, "I wonder if Judge Carpenter remembers when I 
used to carry coal and kindling up to his room at Ann Arbor." 


Carpenter was at that time Judge of the Second Judicial 
District, and Riner was United States Judge for the District 
of AVyoming, having been appointed to that position when 
Wyoming was admitted as a State. As a judge he made a 
fine record. He retired in 1921 and did not live long there- 
after. The State has had no better citizen. 

Morris C. Barrow of Converse County came to Wyoming 
from southeastern Nebraska in the late seventies. He had 
edited a newspaper in the town of Tecumseh. His advent 
in Wyoming was through the railway mail service, his run 
being from Sidney to Laramie. He got into trouble with 
the government, but was acquitted by a jury of his peers. He 
became city editor of the Laramie Daily Times and when the 
Boomerang was started in 1881 he became a compositor on 
that paper, thereafter obtaining the position of city editor. 
From that position he went to Rawlins, where he edited a 
paper for about two years. When the Northwestern Railroad 
built into central Wyoming he established Bill Barlew's 
Budget at Douglas, which he conducted till the date of his 
death, in 1910. He also published a monthly publication, 
"Sage Brush Philosophy." He was Receiver of the United 
States Land Office at Douglas for several years. 

If I were called upon to pick out the most useful member 
of the Convention I would name Henry G. Hay. He got the 
necessary money to pay for the things that had to be obtained 
before Congress could pass an appropriation. In other ways 
he served the Convention well. He was manager of the Stock 
Growers National Bank, Cheyenne. In after years he became 
treasurer of the United States Steel Corporation and died in 
the east. 

Henry S. Elliott of Johnson County took a prominent 
part. He was the temporary chairman. He married a girl 
who was a member of a family by the name of Erhart who 
were Albany County pioneers and who located in Buffalo 
in the seventies. He now resides in Seattle, where he is a 
United States Commissioner. He is one of the two living 
members of the Convention. 

Henry A. Coffeen of Sheridan County was on the floor 
perhaps more than any other member. As he was the only 
delegate from Sheridan perhaps this was justified. He came 
from Illinois to Wyoming. He took great interest in Theoso- 
phy and at one time had Madame Besant deliver a lecture 
in Sheridan. Among his literary efforts he wrote a Life of 



By Robert D. Hanes worth* 


Because of the comparative accuracy of facts recorded at the time 
of their happening, the major portion of the material assembled for 
this historical resume of Wyoming Frontier Days Show has been gleaned 
from the newspapers, authentic registers of events as they take place. 
Some of the vivid descriptions by the insjaired newswriters of those 
e;xciting days have been quoted verbatim, in order that a bit of the 
color, glamor and thrill of the spectacular beginnings of an institution 
which has developed into a magnificent Western Tradition, might be 
conveyed to the readers of this discourse. — E. D. H. 

Conceived early in August, 1897, Cheyenne Frontier Days 
has grown until today it is recognized the country over as 
the "World's Greatest Outdoor Show." Of its origination, 
Warren Richardson, chairman of the first committee, says, 
"The Frontier Days baby was bom on the train betwe en 
Cheyenne and Greeley, Colorado, during the summer of 1897. 
It M^as customary then as it still is for the natives of Greeley 
t o ce lebrate what was known as 'Potato Day.' It was on 
one of these occasions that Colonel E. A. Slack, his w ife, my 
mofher and myself, had gone to Greeley together. Up on our_ 
return from the celebration while on t he train, the C olonel 
said"to me, 'Why cannot Chevenne~Eave some such celel) r a- 
tion once a year .' 1 said, 'I did not think it possible as we did 
not raise much of anything in Cheyenne, except hell, and I 
did not qaite see how we could pull off such a show.' It was 

*BIOG-RAPHICAL SKETCH— Eobert D. Hanesworth has been sec- 
retary of the Cheyenne Chamber of Commerce since March 1, 1924, and 
secretary of the Clieyenne Frontier Days Committee since 1926. 

He was born on March 30, 1898, at Cheyenne, Wyoming. A son of 
Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Hanesworth, he was educated in this State and was 
graduated from the Cheyenne High School with the class of 1913. He 
received the degree of bachelor of science in electrical engineering from 
the University of Wyoming, at Laramie, with the class of 1917. 

Mr. Hanesworth attended the First Officers Training Camp at the 
Presidio, San Francisco, California in 1917, where he received the 
commission of Second Lieutenant in Coast Artillery. He was ]iromoted 
to First Lieutenant in September of 1918, served six months with 
the American Expeditionary Forces in France, returned to the United 
States and was discharged on March 3, 1919. 

His talents and energies have been devoted generously to numerous 
civic activities, including the Boy Scouts of America and the American 
Legion, in addition to the quantity of detail in connection with his 
regular work with the Cliamber of Commerce, and Frontier Days, "The 
World's Greatest Outdoor Show." 


at this point that Colonel Slack's fertile mind developed the 
idea of Frontier Days. Said he, 'Let's get up an old times 
day of some sort, we will call it Frontier Day. We__wilL 
get all the old timers together, and have the remnant of the 
cow punchers come in with a bunch of wild horses, get out" 
the old stage coaches, and some Indians, etc., and we will 
have a lively time of it. ' The Colonel started the idea working" 
in the next issue of his paper." 

As the years have passed by there has been some differ- 
ence of opinion as to who suggested a "Wild West" celebra- 
tion and the name ' ' Frontier Days. ' ' After reading all obtain- 
able information in the 1897 files of local newspapers, it seems 
to me that both Mr. F. W. Angier, passenger agent of the 
Union Pacific, and Mr. E. A. Slack, editor of the Daily Sun 
Leader, were instrumental in suggesting "Frontier Days," 
and probably should be giA^en credit jointly. The August 
28, 1901 issue of the Cheyenne Leader, under the heading 
"History of Frontier Days," says in part "The Union Pacific 
Agent, Mr. Angier, came to the Leader Office, and after 
mentioning the various celebrations, asked us to suggest some- 
thing for Cheyenne. Going over the list, it was quite evident 
that Wyoming could not hope to excel in any of the features 
then in vogue, so casting about to see what new thing there 
was that would attract the people in and outside of its state, 
we suggested cowboy exploits, and if possible the procurement 
of a band of Indians. This met the approval of Mr. Angier, 
. . . and he left in a hopeful train of thought." 

The word "WE" in the above quotation indicated that 
the Dail}^ Sun Leader and Mr. Slack in particular, was the 
originator of Frontier Days. 

Warren Richardson also gives Col. E. A. Slack, then 

editor of the Daily Sun Leader, credit for Frontier Days. 

' He ^saysT-^^he man who was the father of Frontier Days, 

who originated the idea, who developed the sentiment that 

resulted in its complete success, and who, for the first few 

^ years of its infancy, stood by it through thick and thin, when 

"^^f^ it was attacked as a 'rough neck show and should not be 

permitted,' and who, as long as he lived, was the greatest 

power behind the show, both with his mighty intellect, through 

the columns of his newspaper, and with his money when it 

was necessary, was Colonel E. A. Slack." 

But later, Mr. Angier on August 23, 1911, wrote a letter 
to the Sun Leader, referring to a history of Frontier Days 
appearing a week previous in his newspaper giving E. A. 
Slack credit for starting the show. He states that he (Mr. 
Angier) went to Cheyenne and laid his plans before Colonel 


Slack who at once said, "It is all right and I am with you." 
The Sun Leader of even date in, an editorial says, "The 
Leader's Frontier Days history of a week ago is, as Mr. 
Angier states, erroneous. The idea of a carnival with wild 
western sports for Cheyenne was originated by Mr. Angier. 
then traveling passenger agent for the Union Pacific at 
Denver, and a great deal of the subsequent advertising which 
the show received was due to his remarkable energy." 

Be that as it may, the undisputed fact remains that on 
August 30, 1897, Mayor Wm. R. Schnitger called a meeting 
of representative business men at the office of Riner and 
Schnitger to discuss the suggestion of Frontier Days, at 
which time a committee was appointed to solicit funds and 
arrange for the celebration. This committee was Warreii 
Richardson, chairman, Edward A. Slack, J. A. Martin, E. W. ^. 
Stone, J. H. Arp, G. R. Palmer, D. H. Holiday, John L. 
Murray and Clarence B. Richardson. — 

Chairman Warren Richardson donated the "elegant front 
room of the Tivoli Cafe, upstairs, for the use of the com- 
mittee. ' ' This room is above the Tivoli Saloon where Sam 
Marchick is now located. 

An elaborate description of that first celebration appeared ' 
in "the Sun Leader of Sept. 23, 1897, under the heading "The 
First Frontier Days" which declared, in part, "No more 
perfect day in every respect could have been designated by 
Providence for the first Annual Celebration of Frontier Days 
in Cheyenne. Incoming trains during the night and the 
trains from the south and east this morning brought hundreds 
of visitors to our city, but the largest iiumber, as might well be 
expected, arrived on the excursion train from Denver, which 
arrived in the city about noon. On this train, also, came 
the Greeley band, which, discoursed fine music at the depot 
before dinner. 

"The appearance of the city indicated a grand holiday, x^ 
the stars and stripes and bunting adorned business houses, ^^ 
and on all sides were seen Frontier badges and everj^one J J 
seemed out for a celebration with a seeming inspiratio n. ^ ^ 

"The commencement of the grand festivities of the occa- 
sion was made manifest at 12 o'clock by the firing of cannon 
by battery A, by the ringing of all the bells in the city, by 
the blowing of the railroad whistles and also the wliistles 
of every plant in the city. Hundreds of citizens fired shotguns, 
rifles, pistols and the combined noise was deafening in the 

"At 12:30 o'clock the citizens began to repair to the 
fair grounds. The committee had announced that the pro- 



gram was long and must commence at 1 o'clock, sharp. The 
Union Pacific ran trains from the depot to the fair grounds 
at 1, 2, and 3 o'clock. It is estimated that the number of 
visitors to our city was at least 3,000. The citizens of the 
city turned out in full force and the fair grounds never 
were so full of people. 

'On the grounds the guests could obtain any kind of 
liquor or solid refreshments. The track had been worked on 
Jor days and was in good condition for horse racing. 

'Around the stables were the racing horses and their 
owners and riders. Bucking bronchos, cow ponies, bulls, 
steers and oxen were everywhere in evidence. 

"The following was the revised order of the exercises: 
^ No. 1. Cow pony race, quarter mile. 
No. 2. Free fo/ all, half mile. 
No. 3. Cow pony heat race (2 in 3). 
No. 4. Pony Express. Event sham battle by the U. S. 

No. 5. Stake race, 250 yards, time race. 
No. 6. Wild horse race, half mile. 
No. 7. Cow pony race, second heat and to close. 
No. 8. Pitching and bucking horses. 
No. 9. Free for all, one mile. 

Event — Scene on the Overland Trail — ox train — stage 
holdup, vigilantes, etc. 

"The first event was a cow pony race, quarter mile, purse 
$20 ; 5 per cent to enter. 

"Starter McDermott not having appeared, the races were 
started by Mr. R. S. Van Tassell. 

"The second event, the free for all half mile, excited a 
great deal of attention. The first race was greatly delayed 
on account of the slowness of the riders to materialize. After 
the first race, the other events were rushed. The bands were 
delayed in town on account of missilig the trains, but arrived 
at this time. (Access to Park by train.) It was two o'clock 
when the second race was called. 

"At this time the soldiers from Fort Russell marched 
into the fair grounds in grand military style under the gen- 
eralship of Capt. Pitcher and aided by the officers as published 
in the Sun Leader last night. The soldiers pitched tents 
in military style and their maneuvers were immensely en- 
joyed. At this time the Sioux* Indians, under Chief Chile, 
gave a fine war dance in the old time Indian fashion. This 
was received by loud applause from the grand stand. 

"When the time came for the third event, the fair 
grounds looked like an immense city. The people had turned 
out in thousands and the half mile track was completely 
lined up. The grand stand was absolutely packed so tightlj'' 


it was impossible to get one more person in. The crowd was 
even larger than any one had imagined, and still more 
visitors. The total number of visitors can be estimated 
reasonably at 4,000 people. 

"The sham battle was the next thing on the program 
and one of the most exciting events of the day. This was 
brilliantly conducted by the dashing Captain Pitcher. The 
bugle sounded and the battalion was called to the open space 
inside the half mile track. The battle was viewed with the 
greatest of interest by the thousands of visitors, many of 
whom had never viewed a similar scene. The excitement ac- 
companying the discharge of a number of guns fired as if 
at an enemy inspired many to intense excitement. The battle 
was brilliantly conducted, the soldiers showing much skill 
in the many maneuvers. 

"The sixth event was the wild horse race, distance one- 
half mile, purse $75 ; this was the first race of the kind ever 
pulled off at the fair grounds. 

"The seventh event was the cowpony stake race, 250 
yards, purse $25. 5 per cent to enter. 

"A great deal of excitement was occasioned by the 
runaway of a black cow horse. A number of cowboys struck 
out after it and another scene of old-time life was revived. 

"The eighth event was pitching and bucking horses. 
This was the event of the day. The wild horses were brought 
on the track barely halter broken and every rider rode a 
strange horse. Some of them were very wild and could 
hardly be kept in the track limits, although the best riders 
in the west had them under control. The scene of the wildest 
kind of horses raving and jumping and attempting to jump 
the fence kept the crowd at distance and presented a thilling 
scene. Some of the riders showed the greatest of skill and 
it is regretted that space does not allow for individual men- 
tion of the expert riding. This event was pronounced by 
old timers as equal to anything they ever witnessed and the 
crowd went wild over it. Horses jumped fences, men were 
knocked down and thought killed. The scene was thrilling 
and we are happy to chronicle that no one was hurt, though 
many were knocked down. The scene of the overland train 
Avas realistic in the extreme. Freight wagons bedecked in 
old time style, genuine old time stages used thirty years ago. 
The old oxen and bull teams were prominent and vigilantes 
were immense. 

"The stage coach event was next. Chairman Richardson, 
Secretary Martin, R. S. Van Tassell, L. Kabis, Mr. McUlvan 


and a number of other citizens rode on the stage, which was 
pulled by six' swift horses and driven by Dave Creath. " 

The First Frontier committee had at least one task that 
does not confront the 1940 committee for the Wyoming Trib- 
une of September 22, 1897, says, "The Frontier Days Com- 
mittee will arrange to have all ash cans, dry goods boxes, 
barrels, etc., which now occupy conspicuous places on the 
sidewalks in the business section of the city, temporarily^ 
removed and gotten out of sight for Wyoming's first celebra- 
tion of Frontier Days. ' ' 

In describing the attendance of this show, the Wyoming 
Tribune says, "To the east and west of the grandstand, on 
both sides of the track, for a distance of 300 yards the people 
were packed so that standing room was at a premium, and 
hundreds more occupied the more favored places around the 
track and in the open or inside. The grandstand was con- 
gested with pent up enthusiasm and people. If there had 
been seating room for 500 more it would have been occupied, 
no matter what the cost." 

One of the writer's very early recollections is that of 
standing along the outside rail of the track fence together 
with hundreds of others. Practically eveyone carried um- 
brellas to protect against the rain or for shade. Whenever a 
steer or bronc came towards the fence, all umbrellas were 
immediately raised and pointed toward the animal to turn 
him in another direction and it usually did. 

Apparently the two newspapers of that period took de- 
light in presenting opposing views, for while the Daily Sun 
Leader praises the celebration in superlatives, the Wyoming- 
Tribune declares, "There are some features of such a pro- 
gram that do not meet with the approbation of all. . . . 
Our visitors know that the stage hold-up, the vigilantes and 
the ox team departed our boundaries a generation ago. 

"The influence of Frontier Days is not elevating in 
character, but is it harmful to any extent? We think not, 
and yet suggest that next year a more varied program be 
gotten up. . . ." 

"One thing impressed the observer more than all the 
rest combined and that was the absolute incapacity shown 
to handle the crowds. It is a curious and inexplicable thing, 
the unaccountable desire of dozens of ladies to stand on the 
race track, totally oblivious to the extreme novelty and danger 
of their position, and, while it was a relief to see them grab 
their petticoats and safely get away from the deadly feet of 
wild and crazy broncs, the spectacle was not edifying, and 
should be dispensed with next year." 


It is rather interesting to review the list of contributors 
to the first show, many of Avhom are still in the harness today 
i]] civic work. H. P. Hyncls, recently deceased, leads the 
list, others are E. A. Logan, Miss Louise Smith, Max Meyer, 
Arp & Hammond Hardware Co., F. A. Meanea Co., Stock 
Growers National Bank, C. W. Hirsig, Union Mercantile Co., 
J. W. Lacey, Idelman Bros., Dinneen Bros., Pitt Covert, J. M. 
Carey Bros., F. E. Warren Mercantile Co., G. Kingham, A. E. 
Roedel, Richardson Brothers, Lem Ellis, Hofmann Bros., Dr. 
Conwa3% Palace Pharmacy, Percy Smith and D. W. Gill. A 
rather interesting item to those of us who knew Sam Bergman, 
a man who made considerable money in the second-hand 
business where Louie Wax was later located, is the listing 
of his contribution of 25c. 

In 1898 we find that the following committee was ap- 
pointed to arrange for the second Frontier Days Celebration : 
John L. Murray, chairman, Stephen Bon, treasurer, J. A. 
Breckons, secretary, Daniel McLUvan, Pitt Covert, Maurice 
Dinneen and Morris Wasserman. This committee decided 
tliat two days would be necessary to successfully stage this 
event and set the date for Sept. 5 and 6, INIonday and Tuesday. 

The second Frontier committee decided to ask for a grent 
deal of assistance, and appointed the following sub-commit- 
tees : Election and Wedding ; Indian Dances and Ceremonies ; 
Stage Coach and Emigrant Events ; Pony Express ; Roping 
Steers ; Dog and Hare Coursing contest ; Music Committee ; 
for press representatives ; City Officials, State Officials, Corner 
Stone Laying and Pioneer Picnic. Our loyal friend and sup- 
porter. Max' J. Meyer, was announcer at this show. 

The Daily Sun Leader, under the caption "Our Second 
Celebration," says in part: "The Second Annual Frontier 
Celebration has eclipsed any previous one in the history of 
Cheyenne. It has been made up of a combination and rapid 
succession of the most exciting and picturesque events recall- 
ing an ideal period of early Frontier Days. 

"Since early yesterday morning, teams have been coming 
into the city, bringing people from the country by the bun 
dreds, from distances of fifty to seventy-five miles. Every 
incoming train has been loaded down with passengers, ovei* 
2500 coming from Colorado points. 

"The ceremonies of the day opened with a monster 
parade which started immediately after the arrival of the last 
special train from Colorado. 

"The parade was formed of four divisions, the first being 
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. This was lead by Colonel 
Codv, riding in an o])en carriage with Governor W. A. Rich- 


ards seated by him. Following the carriage came twenty 
Sioux Indians mounted and dressed in typical Indian costume. 
Then came a company of German Uhlans in a white uniform 
of their rank. Following were bands of Arabs, Turks, and 
Cheyenne Indians, all magnificently mounted. Then came 
a party of cowgirls, and following these were a band of 
Indians, followed by a mounted cowboy brass band. Follow- 
ing these came a squadron of the 6th U. S. Cavalry, then a 
company of Cubans, then some Mexican riders, more Indians 
and a squadron of British lancers. Following these was the 
old Overland Pioneer Coach, with an escort of cowboys. 
Following were Indians, the division closing with the A battery 
of the U. S. Artillery. 

"The second division of the parade consisted of Cheyenne 
Fire Department, 200 strong, with its apparatus handsomely 
decorated with flags and flowers, making a splendid exhibi- 
tion of the superb volunteer fire department in the U. S. 
Following them came the labor organizations of the city, 
the machinists, boiler makers being particularly noticeable 
on account of their handsome suits. This division was led 
by the Cheyenne City Band. 

"The third division, led by the Eaton band, had for its 
feature the magnificent float of the directors of the Festival 
of Mountain and Plain of Denver. The float was drawn by 
six black horses, and was applauded by the crowds along the 
entire route. It was entitled "Neptune and the Seas." 

"A number of Cheyene merchants had handsome floats. 

"Next came the beautiful cereal floats of the Wyoming 
Development Company exhibiting productions of the Wheat- 
land Colony. Clark, the Cheyenne taxidermist's float of 
stuffed animals and rare skins, was perhaps the most unique 
and elaborate in the parade. 

"The big Sweickert Hardware Co. was here represented 
by four handsome floats displaying their ware. Manewal's 
Bakery float attracted great attention. Charles Erswell fol- 
lowed in a boat float made of canvas and propelled by a 
bicycle. The float was pure white, twenty feet long and 
was a perfect counterpart of a smack in the sea. It evoked 
all the patriotic enthusiasm of the crowd. 

"Next came the Phil Zang mammoth beer-keg float, the 
keg being ten feet in diameter. The Wyo. Cycle Co. had a 
notable display on a float. E. S. Johnston, the big grocer, had 
two grand floats, one of them being a moving grocery, the other 
a negro and watermelon. Saturnalia, where real happiness 
reigned supreme. 


"Next came the Messick Dry Goods Company's hack filled 
with the most beautiful women in silks and satins. Major Tal- 
bot, the finest specimen of the frontier cavalry man now extinct, 
was knight errant on a beautiful charger. 

''Then came out thirty weather beaten, travel stained prairie 
schooners with their "Pikes Peak or Bust" outfits, the motive 
power being horses, cattle, asses, etc., in all imaginable variety 
in way of hitching them on. 

"The fourth division headed by the Loveland Band, repre- 
sented the distinctive features of the day. 

"A number of the old time visitors to the city rode in the 
pioneer coach which formerly ran between this city and Dead- 
wood. The coach was drawn by six horses, driven by George 
Lathrop, a stage driver of thirty years ' experience on the plains. 
Following the pioneer coach came a genuine emigrant train, con- 
sisting of twenty emigrant wagons, halted on their way across 
the plains to take part in the celebration. Following the emi- 
grants were bands of Shoshoni and Arapahoe Indians, led by 
Chiefs William Shakespeare and Dick Washakie. The parade 
closed with a band of cowboy riders, mounted on fine specimens 
of bronchos. 

' ' The parade in its entirety was pronounced the most unique 
and successful ever seen in the west. 

"The events in the afternoon proved as exciting and inter- 
esting as those in the morning. Promptly after the parade 
ended, the doors of Buffalo Bill 's wild west were opened and over 
6,000 people witnessed the performance, which was a revelation 
to the westerners, who, accustomed as they are to seeing exhibi- 
tions of fine horsemanship, were astonished and delighted at 
the magnificent riding of the cowboys, Indians, Arabs, Cossacks, 
and cavalrymen forming the world's congress of riders. 

"The dog and hare coursing events were a novel and inter- 
esting feature, out of the four events run. The hares were 
invariably run down within a radius of 250 yards. 

"Tbe day's sport passed with but two accidents, a rider in 
one of the running races and rider in the wild horse race being 
thrown, one of them being rather seriously injured. 

"The following program was pulled off this afternoon at 
the fair grounds: 

1. Running race, one mile, free for all. 

2. Trotting race. 

3. Representation of first election in Wyoming. 

4. Rnnning race, one-quarter mile, free for all. 

5. Pony express, under the direction of Clias. Hirsig. 

6. Bucking and pitching contest. Purses for the worst 
horse and the best rider. 

7. Novelty race for Wyoming horses. 

8. Roping wild steers. 


9. Dog and hare coursing. 

10. Emigrant train attacked by Indians, rescued by 

11. Livery wagon race, one-half mile. 

12. Stage coach hold-up by road agents. 

13. Cowpony race, one mile 'catch weights.' " 

Interesting sidelights on the show were scattered through- 
out that particular newspaper: "The fine steers used in the 
roping contest were purchased by the committee for $40, and 
were sold today for $32.50." 

"In the dog and hare coursing contest there was no deci- 
sion. All the dogs on the ground joined in the chase." 

"The delivery wagon race was won by L. R. Bresnahen, 
Dinneen Bros, second." 

"Frontier Days has become a permanent institution in 
Wyoming. It has come to stay. Those who had doubts are now 
fully persuaded. The skeptical man is no longer to be found." 

A choice bit of poetry was thrown in for good measure : 

"With Spirits Gay in Frontier Day 

I came with all my dough; 
In bed I lay, I'm not so gay, 

My head is swelled, you know." 

In his report on the second celebration, SecV Joe Breckons, 
recorded total receipts of $2,910.26 as follows : 

From former committee - $ 134.31 

Concessions 351.05 

Subscriptions 1,351.50 

Entry fees - 92.40 

Sale of grandstand seats 1,017.00 

The committee turned a balance of $2,612 over to the suc- 
ceeding committee. The newspaper account of the meeting at 
which the above report was submitted, says ' ' The Cheyenne Club 
entertained last year's (1897) and this year's (1898) Frontier 
committees. The discussion of Frontier work was extremely 
entertaining, as were the humorous anecdotes related. Last 
year's committee is sensitive on one point, and that is reference 
to those ice cream suits which the members wore on the last day 
of the celebration, when, as it will be remembered, the ther- 
mometer went down to 10 degrees below zero. But the old com- 
mittee, with its charitable and Christian spirit, presented the 
suits to the new committee and a resolution was passed that 
they wear them (the old committee had a majority at dinner)." 
August 23 and 24, 1899, were the dates set for the observ- 
ance of the third annual Frontier Celebration. The following 
comprised the 3rd committee : E. W. Stone, W. E. Dinneen. 
Frank Ptoedel, R. W. Breckons, Alex Nimmo, Ed. F. Stable, 
C. W. Riner, Warren Richardson, and W. F. Daiber. 


Frontier Wedding- and Bridesmaids' 
Ball Highlight Second Show 

A new "Social Feature" as the Sun Leader calls it, was 
added to the 1898 program. This feature was a Frontier Wed- 
ding. Newspapers in 23 cities of Wyoming and Colorado spon- 
sored contests for the election of bridesmaids to represent their 
respective communities. The election was by coupons printed 
in each edition of the newspaper, the girl receiving the greatest 
number being elected, and was sent to Cheyenne as the guest of 
the Frontier Committee. Prominent Cheyenne families enter- 
tained these young ladies while in Cheyenne. 

Shortly after the announcement of the contemplated wed- 
ding, an application was received which is quoted from the 
Sun Leader of July 27, 1899, as follows: 

"Having just read your advertisement in the Denver Post, 
I hasten to apply for the honor of being married on Frontier 
Days at Cheyenne. I am a young man, 24 yrs. old. The young 
lady is 18 and handsome too. As we are desirous of getting 
married on the 23rd of August as that is the young lady's birth- 
day, I sincerely hope and pray that you will do us the honor 
and make us both happy for life by letting us be the bride and 
bridegroom on this occasion. . . . Mr. Secretary if our pros- 
pects are bright let me know at the earliest opportunity so that 
we may know what to do." 

One of the newspapers informed its readers that "all day 
yesterday and today people from the surrounding country have 
been driving into the city prepared to take in the big show. 
Cowboys, bunches of wild horses have crowded the barns and 
corrals as they have not been since the days when Chevenne was 
the gateway to the Famous Black Hills region to the north. 
Emigrants traveling across the country and hearing of the 
Frontier Days celebration have pulled here with their wagons 
and there is quite an encampment of these schooners of the 
prairie at the Fair Grounds." 

For the 3rd Frontier Days celebration the following pro- 
gram was given : 

1. Half mile cowpony race. 

2. Erunning free for all. 

3. Exhibition by Cavalry from Tt. Eussell. 

4. Pioneer wedding. 

5. Bucking and pitching contest. 

6. Indian pony race. 

7. Stake race. 

8. Wild horse race. 

9. Ladies' cowpony race. 

10. Frontier Day stage coach holdup. 

11. Running free-for-all — one mile. 

12. Roping wild steers. 


The rules of the steer roping: contest were somewhat differ- 
ent from those now in effect. In that event the roper after 
catching his steer had to dismount, tie the steer and then re- 
mount his horse to give signal to judges by waving his hands. 

In the bucking contest, prizes were given not only for the 
best rider but for the worst horse. 

The Pioneer Wedding was awaited with great interest, and 
was a highlight of the show. In anticipation, the Sun Leader 
announced the planned details as follows : ' ' Miss Cora Baer 
and Dr. M. C. Mathews of Denver, in full frontier garb, will be 
united in marriage by the famous Parson Uzell of Denver. The 
wedding will take place Wednesday afternoon and 23 brides- 
maids will attend the bride. At one o'clock on Wednesday the 
bride and groom, minister and bridesmaids will assemble at 
the home of Pitt Covert. At 2 o'clock the bridesmaids will be 
conveyed in the old Black Hills stage coach drawn by six horses, 
to the Fair Grounds. A separate conveyance will be on hand 
for the bride and groom and minister. On arrival at the fair 
grounds, the bridal party is to take position under the grand- 
stand and upon the signal from the master of ceremonies, Covert, 
and with the band playing suitable music, the party will repair 
to the stand which will be located directly in front of the grand- 
stand and in full view of the thousands of spectators, the cere- 
mony will be performed. The Ladies Auxiliary of the Frontier 
Association has made ample preparations for the entertainment 
of the bridesmaids, who will be driven over the city in the morn- 
ing and attend a reception at the Capitol in the evening. ' ' 

The Bridesmaids' Ball, which was held on Capitol Avenue, 
between 16th and 17th streets, north of the Interocean Hotel, 
where the Hynds building is now located, was also an outstand- 
ing event. Of that occasion the Sun-Leader says, "The brides- 
maids' ball last evening, aside from the unfortunate accident 
of the bleachers falling down, was one of the most enjoyable 
events in Cheyenne's history. The evening was ideal for out- 
door entertainment, and thousands turned out to participate in 
the dancing and witness presentation of prizes. 
^-- ' ' The bride and groom and bridesmaids arrived about 9 :30, 
and the grand march was called. This was really a pretty sight ; 
the bride and groom led, followed by 23 bridesmaids and their 
escorts, for the most part well known Cheyenne gentlemen. The 
Indians, in gala attire, participated and added much to the 
appropriateness of the occasion. 

"With nothing overhead but the canopy of heaven, the 
stars out in their fullest splendor, the moon lending material 
assistance to the electric lights, with no wind whatever, the out- 
door ball proved eminently successful and enjoyable. It was 


truly a frontier event and one that those present will ever re- 
member. At the conclusion of the grand march, Governor 
Richards awarded the prizes." 

The newspapers teemed with interesting articles on the 
various celebrations. However, for the lack of space, I cannot 
discuss the details of each show. 

For the first *five years, there was no gate admission, the 
only charge being for grandstand seats. Large numbers of peo- 
ple crowded around the entire track. The 1901 committee esti- 
mated that four or five thousand people saw the show in this 
manner and did not contribute one cent to its support. Starting 
in 1902 a gate admission of 25 cents was charged. 

The Frontier Show continued to grow and expand and 
periodically a additional day was added to the celebration until 
in 1925 when 5 days were inaugurated. Up to the present time 
there have been 147 days on which Frontier contests were held. 

''A new Frontier Park," quoting from a program of 1908, 
"large enough for the maneuvers of batteries of artillery or 
hundreds of mounted men has been laid out just north of the 
city and a monster double-deck stand is now completed at a 
cost of $20,000." This so-called monster stand is half of the 
present double deck steel stand. In 1922 another section was 
added at a cost of $20,000. Again in 1926 additional seating 
capacity was needed and the stadium stand was erected at a 
cost of $16,000. Additional sections were added to the double- 
deck steel grandstand in 1936 and 1939. These improvements 
bring the total cost of Frontier Park, as it now stands, to ap- 
proximately $300,000. All of this was paid for from the profits 
of the show since its inception. 

In addition to paying for the improvements, the Frontier 
Committee purchased approximately 100 horse-drawn vehicles 
which are invaluable at the present time because of difficulty in 
replacing them ; also Indian tepees, the entire night show 
grounds, fireproof warehouse for storage of the parade vehicles, 
harness, saddles, and many other items. 

Cheyenne Frontier Days Celebration has been imitated 
throughout t^ e United States but never has been equalled. For 
43 years Ch'^'vesnie has been building soundly and costructively 
and today Cheyenne Frontier Days towers above all competitors 
— has been justly called the "Daddy of 'em All" and the 
"world's greatest outdoor contest." 

An estimated total number of 2,000,000 people has wit- 
nessed the 43 Frontier shows. Each year people from every 
state in the Union and usually several foreign countries are in 
attendance at Frontier Days and the average annual attendance 
during recent years has been 60,000 persons. 


(Left to right, top) : John B. Kendrick — Jauuaiy 4, 1915-February 26, 

1917; Frank L. Houx (Acting)^February 26, 1917-January 6, 1919; 

(Bottom): Robert D. Carey — January 2, 1919-January 1, 1923; William 

B. Ross— January 2, 1923-October 2, 1924. (Died in office.) 


By Harry B. Henderson, Sr.* 

Article IV 

John B. Kendrick 

John B. Kendrick was inaugurated as Governor on the 
first Monday in January, 1915, serving the State as such 
officer to February 24th, 1917, when he was elected United 
States Senator. He, too, was a western man, familiar with 
the traditions of the people of the state, the resources of 
the state and all the activities which were for their develop- 
ment; he was keen in his observations, practical in business, 
and urged upon the people to adhere to the thrift and econo- 
mies that make for progress and happiness. 

Governor Kendrick, in his first message to the Legisla- 
ture said, "The first requisite of a State Department is good 
service : appropriations should be made to insure this result 
under a strictly business management. "We should bear in 
mind the actual needs of establishments rather than the bene- 
fits to accrue to the localities in which they may be situated. 

"Equality of taxation is a necessary principle of fair 
and impartial government." 

Legislation to create a Public Utilities Commission was 
recommended and the Public Utilities Act was subsequently 

The Governor also recommended that Permanent Land 
Funds "might be loaned on Wyoming agricultural lands of 
unquestioned value. I want to impress you that as guar- 
dian of this heritage it is imperative that we safeguard it 
with every precaution to insure its integrity. 

"We are confronted by the extreme danger which arises 
from the application of rights of priority of appropriation of 
our waters after they have crossed into neighboring states. 
Constructive legislation is earnestly urged to protect the 
rights of Wyoming to the waters of its streams." 

Enlargement of the Capitol Building is stated as an 
imperative necessity. In conclusion the Governor says, "I 
have suggested that you let your keynote be Co-operative. 
I now urge you to make your watchword Progress." 

The Governor, in his message of 1917, says: "In making 

*A biographical sketch of Mr. Henderson appears in the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 1939, with the first of this 
series of five articles on Wyoming Territorial and State Governors 
being written especially for this publication. 


appropriations for the support of the various public institu- 
tions of the state — we should bear in mind that they are for 
a definite and fixed purpose and not to be considered as allot- 
ments to be expended within the limits of a certain community. 
There should be a definite disposition on the part of every 
member to restrict all state appropriations wherever the exer- 
cise of such economy is at all consistent with the actual needs 
of the State." 

The creation of the "Budget System" and an enactment 
of a laAv for that purpose is urged. The law was enacted 
in 1919. 

Legislation is asked upon the prohibition question. 

The enactment of a law providing for a Highway Com- 
mission is requested, and the suggestion was enacted into a 
law. Attention is directed to the reclamation of lands, in 
the Green River watershed and the statement is made, "there 
are one million twenty-five thousand acres that can be re- 
claimed by irrigation." 

The Governor, in conclusion, urges "the enactment of 
carefully considered legislation, avoiding the necessity of 
hasty action upon important measures. * * * Forget section- 
alism, obliterate county lines, merge partisanship into patri- 
otism, blend the north with the south, east and west, so that 
your every effort will be to serve your state as a whole." 

Mr. Kendrick was bom in Cherokee County, Texas, in 
1857. His ancestors were Virginians, who came to the Texas 
country in its pioneer days. He received the country school 
education the district afforded, in which he lived. His an- 
cestors were engaged in the cattle business and as a boy he 
became interested in the range and the driving of cattle. 
In 1879, when but twenty-one years old, he brought to "Wyo- 
ming for his employers over what was then known as the 
Texas Trail, his first herd of cattle. He located on the Run- 
ning Water, a small stream just north of the site where the 
town of Lusk was later built. He returned to Texas in 1883 
and purchased for his o^vn account a small herd of cattle, 
trailed them to Wyoming, and in 1889 established his ranch 
in northern Wyoming and southern Montana. There were 
no railroads in that section of the country. The town of 
Sheridan on Goose Creek had just been established as a 
community trading point. 

Mr. Kendrick lived on the ranch and was his own fore- 
man. He knew the cattle business ; he knew how to operate 
his ranch so that it would earn a profit. He knew how to 
invest his profits so that they would become profit earners. 
His investments were diversified. The ' W ' ranch was 


known because it was the home of the Kendricks. Miss Eula 
Wulfjen, who became Mrs. Kendrick, January 20, 1891, was 
the faithful, loving and helpful wife that managed the home 
and made the ranch not only home but brought into it those 
things which gave encouragement to Mr. Kendrick, her hus- 
band. A daughter and son were born to this family, Rosa 
Mae and Manville, who like their parents, are fine people. 

Mr. Kendrick was one of the best educated and cultured 
men in Wyoming, although he never was a student of any 
college. His education was dug out by giving his evenings 
to reading and learning the practical things of life. He was 
always a student in the University of Experience, but it has 
no "Commencement Days." 

Trail driver, foreman, owner, stockman. State Senator, 
Governor, United States Senator, husband, father; the youth 
of today can gain much by taking on the spirit of thrift, 
industry, and good citizenship that were so marked in Gov- 
ernor Kendrick. 

Death came to the Senator, November 3, 1933 at Sheridan, 
the community which he had recognized as home for forty- 
five years. 

Frank L. Houx 

Prank L. Houx, Acting Governor of Wyoming from Feb- 
ruary 26, 1917 to the first Monday in January in 1919, was 
born in 1860 in the State of Missouri. His educational advan- 
tages were limited to the common schools of the district in 
which he was brought up. As a young man he attended a 
business college and read law for a short period of time. 
He came west and lived in Montana for several years, then 
moved to the Big Horn Basin, settled at Corbett at the mouth 
of Sage Creek on the Shoshone River. 

With the opening of the new town, Cody, he established 
his residence at that point. He was first Mayor of Cody and 
succeeded to that office for several terms. He was elected 
Secretary of State for the State of Wyoming in 1910 and 
again in 1914. It was during his second tenn as Secretary 
that Governor Kendrick was elected United States Senator. 
Upon Mr. Kendrick being elected Senator, Mr. Houx auto- 
matically became Acting Governor. Shortly after taking over 
the duties of the office of Governor, war Avas declared against 
Germany by the Congress of the United States. Mr. Houx 
thereupon became the War Governor of the State. He mo- 
bilized the National Guard of Wyoming and the Regiment 
was offered to the United States for service abroad. He 
nominated the persons in the state to have charge of the 


registration of men and to make the selective draft. He 
appointed the Wyoming Council for National Defense which 
functioned during the war period. 

Governor Houx''s term of service being between Legisla- 
tive Sessions, he had no opportunity to present a message 
concerning the affairs of State. As Chief Executive during a 
most trying period in world affairs he served creditably and 
faithfully the interests of Wyoming. 

Upon retiring from office in 1919 he directed his energies 
towards the industrial interests of the country, particularly 
in the refining of oil. He has now retired from business and 
is living at Cody where he first held public office. 

Robert D. Carey 

We are now presenting to you a Wyomingite — Honorable 
Robert D. Carey, citizen and native son, Governor and 
United States Senator; a man who grew into the business 
and affairs of the State naturally. 

Governor Carey delivered his first message to the Legis- 
lature in 1919. His first recommendation is that "we provide 
a memorial to the men of Wyoming who were lost in the 
great War in France that for all time the people of this 
state shall have a reminder of those who made the supreme 

The Governor recommended the enactment of a Prohibi- 
tion Law, effective June 30, 1919. He also said, "The most 
important problem that any legislature has to deal with is 
the matter of appropriations. To avoid extravagance and 
waste we should adopt what is known as the executive 
budget. * * * Keep appropriations as low as possible, bearing 
in mind the good of the entire state rather than some com- 
munity, but remember that money spent for a useful purpose 
is never wasted." 

Regarding taxation, the Governor said, "No system can 
be devised which will be entirely satisfactory. Taxes, to be 
just, must be equitable and their equalization is the most 
important factor." 

Good roads are urged as a valuable asset of the State. 
"Legislation for the betterment of our schools should be 
given careful thought and consideration of such bills should 
not be postponed until the closing hours of the Session." 

The Governor calls attention to the agencies carrying 
forward agricultural experiments, and says, "It would seem as 
if all this work could be done under the direction of a Depart- 


merit of Agricnltiire. " He urges, "surveys of areas of land 
susceptible to irrigation and that permits be obtained for 
water rights. If this is not done at an early date, these rights 
will be acquired by other states." The consolidation of Boards 
having to do with the live stock industry was recommended. 

Governor Carey asked for legislative cooperation regard- 
less of political affiliations. 

In his message to the Sixteenth State Legislature, the Gov- 
ernor says, "I shall submit a budget giving a complete itemized 
plan of all proposed expenditures for each department of state 
government. It is the first time we have had a budget and there 
have been no precedents to guide us. ' ' 

Attention is called to the rapid increase in assessed valua- 
tions ; the valuation for tax purposes for 1920 being approxi- 
mately $430,000,000. The question of an equitable tax had not 
yet been solved. State institutions and oil royalties are dis- 
cussed very fully in the message. 

"The soldiers who gave their service in the great war 
should be granted a bonus by the Federal Government in the 
form of public lands. A resolution to congress so recommend- 
ing is suggested. We can never expect to do very much for 
agriculture until a State Agricultural Department is created." 

The creation of the State Fish and Game Commission was 
recommended, the administration of the Blue Sky Law was 

Tbe Governor criticises in no uncertain terms the inactivity 
of county officers to enforce the provision of certain laws, and 
suggests the creation of a State Department of Law Enforce- 

In closing, he said, "My desire and purpose is to co-operale 
with you, to assist, not to dictate, bearing in mind that we have 
one and all assumed a solemn obligation to the people." 

Robert D. Carey served Wyoming as Governor for four 
years and approximately seven years as United States Senator. 
He Avas born in Cheyenne, August 12, 1878. Wyoming was 
always his home. He was a typical westerner ; courteous to all, 
just in dealing with his fellowmen, wise in counsel in business 
and public affairs, he loved the people of his state. He died in 
his home city, January 17, 1937. 

After completing his college course at Yale, he took on the 
management of the Carey laud and livestock interests in Central 
Wyoming, and thereby, learned from practical experience the 
problems of the stockman and farmer. He was successful in 
overcoming some of the difficulties that attend agricultural pro- 


duction and made the ranch a profitable unit of the Carey Com- 
pany. He was interested in the things that made for develop- 
ment and progress in the State. 

Mr. Carey married Julia B. Freeman of Douglas in 1903, 
a daughter of an honored pioneer family of Wyoming. Mrs. 
Carey and their two children, Miss Sarah and Mr. Joseph Carey, 
survive the fine gentleman, stockman, Governor, Senator and 

Williajn B. Ross 

William B. Ross, the ninth elected Governor of Wyoming, 
was born in Tennessee, December 4, 1873, educated in his 
native state and admitted to the practice of law, came to 
Wyoming in 1901, located in Cheyenne where he opened a 
law office and began the practice of his profession. 

Mr. Ross was a clean young man of splendid personality 
and was well received by the people of the State. He was elected 
Prosecuting Attorney of Laramie County in 1906 and during 
his term of office made decided advance in enforcing the laws 
of the State, and closing places of vice in Cheyenne. He was 
a Democrat and was willing at all times to defend the principles 
of his party ; he was active in politics and campaigned the State 
several times in the interests of his party candidates. 

Mr. Ross was nominated for Governor by his party in 1922 
and was elected to the high office, assuming the duties on the 
first Monday of January, 1923. 

Governor Ross, in his message to the Seventeenth Legisla- 
ture, presented the following : 

"We are here only because the men upon whom the same 
duty fell in their day were steadfastly loyal to the masses from 
whom they derived their authority. Against the encroachments 
of arbitrary powers and selfish greed, they stood fearlessly for 
the right. In the w^ords of the immortal Lincoln, 'A Govern- 
ment of the people, by the people and for the people.' In con- 
templation of the high ideals of the men who have gone before 
us in legislating for this State, we cannot fail to be moved 
by the solemnity of the moment. Not as partisan do we meet, 
but as delegated spokesmen of the people who sent us. They 
expect us to meet the emergencies which arise and to perform 
the tasks allotted to us with a view to their welfare. T have 
every confidence in the success of our common efforts. 

"At the outset, I must impress upon you the importance 
of the strictest economy. The financial crisis existing through- 
out the nation is, no doubt, temporary, but so long as it lasts we 
will have no alternative but to forego many of the things we 
considered necessities under normal conditions. ' ' 


The Governor recommended the consolidation of depart- 
ments of government and thereby curtailing expense. He said, 
' ' Many of such departments are luxuries we can afford in times 
of prosperity, but which we ought to deprive ourselves of in 
times of financial depression. It is just as incumbent upon 
the State as it is upon the individual to live within its income. 

"Louisiana has a severance license tax placed upon state 
products which are removed from that State. The national 
resources of Wyoming which are being removed year after year 
are probably of more value than those removed from the State 
of Louisiana. We should have the benefit of a severance license 
tax law." 

Law enforcement was urged. The violation of the Pro- 
hibition Laws is particularly referred to. "In order to secure 
enforcement it is necessary for the Executive to have the power 
to remove any officer who fails to discharge his full duty in 
this regard." 

The message has many fine suggestions, in fact Mr. Ross 
would make none other. 

A supplemental message was sent to the Legislature upon 
the subject of severance tax legislation, in which the Governor 
says, "A crisis has been reached; the people's cause is imperiled. 
My desire to do something for them is the force which impels 
me to appear before you. I remind you of your responsibility 
to the people at home whom you are chosen to represent, those 
who are too poor to send emisaries to safeguard their interests. ' ' 

Mr. Ross and Miss Nellie Tayloe were married September 
11, 1902. Four children were born in the family. 

Governor Ross died October 2, 1924, having served less than 
twenty-one months of his four-year term. He was an efficient 
executive, a gentleman and an honored citizen. 

(To he concluded in October issue) 


When you can ride each lengthening trail 

Without a sense of loneliness; 
When every coulee, draw and swale 

Holds beauties which you would possess; 
When you can read the starry skies 

Beneath which you lie down to rest, 
Then shall you know and realize 

The fascination of the West! 

— From "Trail Dust of a Maverick," 
Bv E. A. Brininstool. 








By John K. RoUinson 


In preparing the following article on early-day history of the 
Clark 's Fork region in northwestern Wyoming, it has been necessary 
to include considerable data concerning certain border points in Mon- 
tana, and especially Cooke City, as the early travel into the Clark's 
Fork district came by way of Cooke City. Up to about the year 1900, 
much of the trading was done in Cooke City or Livingston, Bozeman 
or Fort Yellowstone, and later, in Eed Lodge, Montana. — J.K.E. 

The earliest known white man to have left any history 
behind him in the state of Wyoming was John Colter, who 
definitely was known to have traversed, and for a time dwelt, 
in the valley of the Clark's Fork of the Yellowstone as early 
as 1807. As the facts are well established in regard to Colter 
leaving the Lewis and Clark party on the return from the 
explorations down the Columbia to the Pacific, nothing fur- 
ther need be related as to how Colter happened to have 
separated himself from the Lewis and Clark Expedition and 
ventured by himself on an exploration which disclosed the 
Yellowstone National Park, as we now know it, but which 
was first known to the early travelers in the West as "Colter's 
Hell." Small wonder it is that his true stories of his discov- 
eries were not regarded seriously by many in the early days. 

Colter traveled through Sunlight Valley, a tributary of 
Clark's Fork, and crossed the divide between the head of 
Sunlight Creek and the head of the North Fork of the Stink- 

EDITOE'S NOTE: John K. Eollinson, now living at 2285 Mar 
Vista Ave., Altadena, California, spent "many happy years as a cow 
hand, ranger and freighter" in Wyoming. He was an early pioneer 
settler of Sunlight Basin, one of the less known beauty spots in the 
extreme northwestern Wyoming, Park County, concerning which he 
has written the accompanying informative and entertaining article, 
especially for the ANNALS. 

He Avas in the stock business in that section, as well as in the 
hunting and guiding business. He freighted to the Sunlight Mines 
and to the Winona Mines, also from Gardiner to Cooke City, Montana. 
Later, 1906 to 1913, Mr. Eollinson was a United States rnnger in charge 
of the Sunlight-Clark's Fork district. 

Mr. Eollinson is representative-at-large of the Montana-Wyoming 
National Cowboys association, a social organization made up of men 
who rode range in Montana or Wyoming for cow or horse outfits in the 
'80s or '90s. State "camps" are formed, "wagon bosses" elected and 
meetings held once or twice a year. "The organization, founded recently 
in Montana and Wyoming, was formed to organize and hold the old- 


ing Water, down which stream he traveled, finding well- 
marked Indian trails leading to the Stinking Water Hot 
Springs, now known as the DeMarris Springs. He was the 
first white man to visit those springs, which caused the 
Indians to name the river which passes the Springs ''The 
Stinking Water," because of the sulphurous odors arising 
therefrom, and because of the active small geysers, likewise 
emitting a strong sulphurous odor. 

Years went by after the first visit on the upper Clark's 
Pork by John Colter, and it was not until fifty years later 
that any authentic knowledge was had of a white man in 
that section, when Pat O'Harra was known to have trapped 
in the Clark's Pork country and had established headquarters 
on Pat O'Harra Creek in 1857, when he was with the Great 
American Pur Company and where he lived for several years 
until the middle seventies, when all trace of him became lost, 
after he was last seen at old Fort C. P. Smith on the Big Horn. 

Hunting parties of Crow Indians frequented the upper 
Clark's Pork and Sunlight Valley, as game was at all times 
abundant, and where there was but little difficulty in getting 
a few scalps of "Sheep Eaters" to take back to the Crow 
villages on the lower Clark's Pork, Pry or Creek and the 
lower Stinking Water. 

The first actual prospecting for gold in the upper Clark's 
Fork country followed closely the discovery of gold at Alder 
Gulch, Montana Territory, when prospectors came from the 
west, traveling down stream from the head of Clark's Fork, 
as the early prospector had entered the Gallatin Valley by 
the Bozeman Trail. It was one of the small groups of the 
original John Bozeman party that encountered disaster on 
Crandall Creek, a tributary of the upper Clark's Fork, when, 

time American cowboys together and preserve the traditions of the 
range." There are no dues or assessments. 

As symbolic evidence of Mr. Eollinson 's continuing loyalty and 
interest in his home state, he has donated a handsome gift in the 
form of a bronze plaque to commemorate the historical aspects of 
the summit of Dead Indian Hill, that high pass, "which is the only 
passageway to the valleys west of the Big Horn Basin country, and 
opening to Sunlight Creek and the upper Clark 's Fork of the Yellow- 

Engraved on the plaque, which is 24" x 36" in size, are the 
names of the 16 pioneers including Mr. Rollinson as having made pos- 
sible the road work in 1909 that rendered the dangerous Dead Indian 
Hill safer for travel. Efforts were concentrated particularly on the 
so-called ' ' Beaver Slide, ' ' at the foot of the hill, which was the most 
perilous of several precarious stretches. 

The plaque is set into a native stone, cut and faced by the Forest 
Service, and the monument is to be dedicated in a public ceremony by 
the Wyoming Landmarks Commission, some time in August, 1940. 



Old Dead Indian Hill Road to Sunlight Valley 
and Upper Clark's Fork 

■ — ^Photo by J. K. Eollinson 

in 1869, a prospector named Marvin J. Crandall, with one 
companion, went from Bozeman to Jardin, Montana Territory, 
and with a pack outfit traveled that old Indian trail to Lake 
Abundance, and through Daisy Pass to where Cooke City 
now is located. He prospected the upper Clark's Fork and 
upper Crandall Creek, and found a rich placer, Avhich. as 
fall came on, he reported in Bozeman on his return there. 

In the spring- of 1870 (the following spring), a party of 
prospectors was organized by Adam (Horn) Miller, one of 
the original John Bozeman men, consisting of Bart Henderson, 
J. H. Moore, James Gurley, T. Dougherty and Maiwin J. 
Crandall, (often referred to as "Jack"). Crandall and Dough- 
erty started out a month in advance of the remainder of the 
party, and planned to meet on Clark's Fork Meadows, a few 
miles south of the Montana-Wyoming line. The main party 
under Horn Miller met Indians and crossed the divide west 
of Cache Creek. While there, Indians stole all their horses, 
leaving them afoot. They cached their outfit, hence Cache 
Creek. The four men. Miller, ]\Ioore, Henderson and Gurley, 
made their way over the old Indian trail down Slough Creek 


and down the Boulder to Bozeman. A searching party was 
organized, and horses procured to hunt for Crandall and 
Dougherty. Their bodies were found at their camp on the 
forks of a creek which became known thereafter as Crandall 

In murdering these two men, the Indians had decapitated 
both bodies, and placed each head on the spike of a miner's 
pick, which had been driven in the ground, and placed a 
tin cup of coffee in front of each impaled skull. In the right 
hand of each man's body, a few feet away, was held a spoon. 
It was evident to the searching party that young men of the 
Crow Nation had committed the murder and taken the men's 
horses, camp equipment and guns. 

The same party of searchers, again under Miller, set out 
from Bozeman in the spring of 1871, and hunted all summer 
for the lost placer, and when on Cache Creek found that 
their cache had been looted by Indians, and the contents 
carried off and equipment destroyed, they crossed the divide 
from Cache Creek to Republic Creek, and discovered the 
manganese-stained outcrop which was later developed as 
the Republic mine. 

The following year (1872) mining claims were staked 
out on Miller and Republic mountains, and by 1875 the mining 
camp then called Clark's Fork, was established, although 
located at that time on or within the Crow Indian Reserva- 
tion. The Lost Placer has never been re-discovered. 

In 1877, a raiding party of Chief Joseph's Nez Perce 
Indians, during their famous retreat from General Howard, 
robbed the small smelter at the outskirts of the new camp 
then called Cooke City, of lead bullion and silver, and used 
the silver lead for molding bullets for their muskets. Chief 
Joseph's retreat followed up Cache Creek and down Crandall 
Creek to Lodge Pole Creek, then over Lodge Pole Creek (a 
tributary of the upper Clark's Fork) then down Trail Creek 
and into Sunlight Valley, then to Dead Indian Creek, where 
a sharp skirmish occurred, and from which incident the 
creek acquired its name. Then up that steep pass, now 
known as Dead Indian Hill, then down eastward off Bald 
Ridge and on to the Clark's Fork below the canyon. 

By 1880 the little camp, (named in honor of Jay Cooke), 
one of the builders of the Northern Pacific Railroad which, 
at that time, had planned to build into the new mining camp, 
had a fast-growing population, and by that time travel had 
already started to come from the east side of the mountains 
and from Big Horn Basin and down the famous Dead Indian 
Hill where the grade was so steep that the driver of the 


first two-wheel mountain carts cut down a heavy tree to use 
as a drag to help their double rough-locks make their descent 
of the hill less hazardous, and even when four-wheeled wagons 
made the descent, they likewise dragged huge trees as a 
precaution against the all-too-often accident. This hill had 
an altitude at the summit of 8,000 feet, and at the crossing 
of Dead Indian Creek, at the bottom of the hill, the altitude 
was 6,000 feet. The road was about a mile and a quarter 
long, and was in places a 25 per cent grade. The road from 
Dead Indian Creek crossed Sunlight at a dangerous ford 
and down a bad hill, so that any heavy vehicle was obliged 
to go up Sunlight Creek eight miles to the crossing at the 
Spruce point (later the Painter ranch), and there ford the 
stream, which was a safe ford except in flood water. 

The road then went down Sunlight Creek to the rim of 
the box canyon of the Clark's Fork River, and followed up 
the south side of the river to the head of the stream, which 
was the Montana-Wyoming boundary. Three miles down the" 
Soda Butte Creek side of the divide was located Cooke City.y 

The need for meat in the new mining camp gave hunters 
an opportunity to profit from the abundant herds of elk that 
ranged in Wyoming close to the new mining camp, and out- 
standing amongst these hunters was Frank Chatfield, a young 
man with one of the earliest of the Bozeman Trail freighters. 
Chatfield went to Cooke City, and having a good pack outfit 
of horses, he engaged in killing elk for the camp, and built 
up not only a reputation as a good hunter, but a profitable 
enterprize as well, and as his hunting in late fall took him 
into the Sunlight Valley, where large elk herds were found, 
he made a winter camp there and in 1884 built the first log 
house in Sunlight Basin, and to keep the elk out of a piece of 
nice grass-land or meadow, he built a pole fence Avith bored 
posts to fence in his land, which now began to take the name 
of a "ranch," the first ranch in the entire upper northwest 
corner of what was then Sweetwater County, Wyoming 

Frank Chatfield married a young woman in Cooke City in 
1884, her given name was "Kitty" (last name unknown). She 
helped Chatfield build up the ranch in Sunlight Basin, and 
they purchased a few shorthorn or Durham cows from a trail 
herd that was driving from Oregon into Big Horn Basin to 
deliver to the Lovell ranch on the lower Stinking Water. Kitty 
milked cows all summer, and sold the butter in Cooke City, 
taking pack horses to carry the elk meat and butter, and they 


brought back their winter provisions, a little at a time, each 
trip. They had taken into Sunlight an old mowing machine, 
piece by piece, on pack animals ; they made a hayrack out of a 
pole with shafts on it with willow brush teeth. This was dragged 
by one horse, and a small amount of hay was put up and care- 
fully husbanded, for it had to carry through the first calves 
that winter and spring to feed some of the older cows. 

The following year they continued to make butter and put 
up hay, and soon several tons were produced from the natural 
meadow which they irrigated from a small ditch of water out 
of Sunlight. 

Kitty was handy and willing, and Frank was able to do 
almost anything he set his hand to. They added to their fences 
and buildings, and their herd of cattle grew in numbers, for 
Sunlight was a fine grass country. This couple took time away 
from ranch and hunting duties to prospect for gold, for both 
had the mining urge. They crossed the head of Sunlight and 
on to the head of the Stinking Water, even as John Colter had 
done so long before, and prospected all the tributaries of the 
North Fork of the Stinking Water. On a small creek, now 
known as Kitty Fork or Kitty Creek, they found placer indica- 
tions sufficiently promising so that they made a permanent 
camp and set up a pit saw, with which they whip-sawed lodge- 
pole pine logs into inch lumber to build flumes and sluices to aid 
them in their placer operations. They succeeded quite well, it 
is said. 

These same placer grounds on Kitty Fork are still being 
worked by other miners to this day. It was a man's work to 
whip-saw lumber, but Kitty was willing and courageous. 

The second white man to become a permanent resident of 
Sunlight Basin was Adolphus J. Beam, who came from Prairie 
duChien, Wisconsin, and who had spent some time trapping 
and had assisted Chatfield with his market hunting. Al Beam, 
as he was familiarly known, settled on a piece of land two miles 
down the creek below Chatfield 's, and began the development 
of a ranch, building log houses, corrals and pole fences. He 
purchased a small bunch of cows, and prospered as a cattleman, 
as did Chatfield, for they both shortly gave up their efforts at 
hunting for the market, and had sufficient cattle to require all 
their time in attending to the ranch and their herd. 

All of the range was open to these two pioneers, and their 
herds of horses and cattle prospered. After the death of Frank 
Chatfield, the widow, Kitty, married a Cyrus Josiah Davis, who 
also came from the Gallatin Vallev. In 1909, Kittv was wounded 


in the arm by a gunshot while she was in the new town of Cody, 
Wypming, and died as the result thereof. 

;' It was customary for the first few settlers in Sunlight and 
Crahdall Creek and the Upper Clark's Fork Valleys to do their 
trading in Cooke City and Livingston, and very little travel 
went over Dead Indian Hill to the east, until the nineties, when 
each year a considerable migration of Mormons, traveling bj^ 
wagon to Idaho did a little necessary road work here and there, 
and as the town in Big Horn Basin started to offer some trade 
advantages to the settlers of the upper Clark's Fork, to attract 
them and their purchasing away from Cooke City and Red 
Lodge, Montana, and when Big Horn County was formed from 
Fremont County, there were reasons for the Clark 's Fork peo- 
ple to trade more in Big Horn Basin. yi^In the late nineties, John 
R. Painter developed a ranch in Sulilight Basin, and was also 
opening up the Sunlight mining district. He built a wagon 
road from the settlement in Sunlight, on up to the mouth of 
Galena creek, close to the mining property, and as a consider- 
able amount of freighting was done for three or four years, the 
Dead Indian Hill road became more traveled, and eru)ugh work 
was done on it to enable a wagon to travel the grade.) 

fit was in 1909, however, Ijefore any attempt was ever made 
to permanently improve the old dangerous Dead Indian Hill 
road. That year the few original settlers in Sunlight Basin or- 
ganized, and established a grade from the foot of the lull at 
the creek on up to the top of the old "Beaver Slide," which had 
been the worst of several bad places. This new grade was sur- 
veyed out with a spirit-level and a sixteen-foot straight-edg'e. 
The new road was about three-fourths of a mile long, and is still 
in use on the same grade as originally built, and today a good 
graded road has been completed to the top of the mountain, 
where the altitude is 8,000 feet. ' 

The county and the United States Forest Service made pos- 
sible the later road building, but the first work was done entirely 
by the settlers without outside help of any kind. It is no longer 
necessary to drag a tree or use a rough-lock, and today the 
automobile ascends and descends this ancient game trail on a 
well-graded road. In the course of time the Sunlight and 
Clark's Fork country became a part of the Yellowstone Timber 
Reserve, which was the very first attempt by the Government 
to set aside a large piece of the public domain, and which became 
known later as the Shoshone National Forest. 

The following men and women dwellers of Sunlight Basin 
in 1909 contributed work, teams, cattle or funds to make the 
new grade on the lower end of the hill a possibility : 


Adolphus J. Beam Ella Tighe 

William V. Campbell John R. Painter 

Siras J. Davis Willard D. Ruscher 

Wade McClung Evelyn T. Painter 

Augustus G. Lafond Mary E. Painter 

Oliver Whitney William T. Painter 


Hervey G. Marvin Marguerite M. Painter 

Samuel Tliompson John K. Rollinson 

^n the early part of this century a post office was established 
at the Painter Ranch on Sunlight at "Spruce Point;" it was 
called Painter, Wyoming. A once-a-week mail from Cody was 
inaugurated. It was quite a lengthy trip to the county seat of 
Big Horn County at Basin but a much longer trip to Lander, 
when that was the^^county seat, in Sweetwater County, and later 
Fremont County. 

By Victor H. Cohen* 

An article in the October, 1939, issue of this joumaP 
mentions the claims of James Bridger against the United 
States government and includes quotations which suggest that 
Bridger was defrauded of his property through the machina- 
tions of United States army officers and a lack of good faith 
on the part of the United States government. The purpose 
of the article was merely to give a description of Fort Bridger 
and to convey some information concerning its acquisition, 
but the incidental reference to Bridger 's claim against the 
government raises an important question. Was the United 
States government guilty of bad faith? 

James Bridger, celebrated hunter, trapper, fur trader, 
and guide, founded Fort Bridger, a trading post, about 1843,^ 

*Mr. Cohen, who is a graduate assistant in the Department of His- 
tory of the University of Wyoming, has prepared this essay under the 
direction of Dr. Alfred Larson. 

1 "James Bridger, a Mexican Citizen," p. 292. 

2 The exact year when the fort was established is a point of dis- 
pute among writers of Western History. The year 1843 is accepted by 
J. Cecil Alter, James Bridger (Salt Lake City, Shepard Book Co., 1925), 
p. 176, and Hiram M. Chittenden, The American Fur Trade of the Far 
West (New York, Press of the Pioneers, Inc., 1935), Vol I, p. 366. 
Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, 1540- 
1888 (San Francisco, The History Co., 1890), p. 684, and C. G. Coutant, 
History of Wyoming (Laramie, Cliaplin, Spafford & Mathison, 1899), 
Vol. I, p. 350, recognize 1842 as the date for the erection of Fort Bridger. 


on Mexican territory. The post was located in what was at 
that time Green River County, Utah Territory,^ in the valley 
of Black's Fork, a tributary of Green River. It was a boon 
to the emigrants on the Overland Trail to California, for this 
oasis in the desert provided an adequate resting spot for the 
weary and a place for replenishing necessary supplies.^ 

Although Bridger's name was given to the fort, it was 
established and owned by Bridger and Vasquez, a Mexican 
fur trader who was associated with him in a fur trading outfit 
about 1840.^ The partners prospered under the jurisdiction 
of Mexico and later the United States. In 1853, however, the 
Mormons, who wished to secure control of the whole Green 
River Valley, made efforts to oust Bridger and Vasquez. The 
desire to depose "Old Jim" was intensified by the rumor 
that he was supplying arms to the Ute Indians, with whom 
the Mormons were at war. Brigham Young issued orders 
for Bridger's arrest on charges of inciting the Indians against 
the Mormon's. It was, however, no easy matter to capture 
the old mountaineer. While Mormon posses were organizing 
to search the mountains, Bridger with a former government 
surveyor, John M. Hockaday, surveyed the Fort Bridger 
lands. Unable to return to the fort because he feared Mor- 
mon posses, Bridger left with his family (toward the end of 
1853), and went direct, it is believed to the farm at Little 
Santa Fe, Jackson County, Missouri. Bridger then proceeded 
to St. Louis, and through official channels had his land survey 
papers filed in the General Land Office on March 9, 1854.^ 

In 1854 Bridger joined Sir George Gore, a wealthy Irish 
nobleman, in a two-year expedition through the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Gore's purpose in his western journey seemed to be 

3 Fort Bridger is now located in Uinta County, Wyoming, and is 
still a historic landmark on the great Lincoln Highway. 

4 "It might be said that Fort Bridger was the West's first 'tour- 
ist's' park, for it was the first post to be established for the convenience 
and trade of travelers, all others having been established for either 
purely militarv or fur trading purposes. " Eock Springs Miner, June 23, 

5 Chittenden, op. cit., p. 366. Coutant (op. cit., p. 350), however, 
disagrees with Cliittenden and states that Vasquez did not become a 
partner until 1845, fully two years after the fort was established. An 
article on Fort Bridger in the Kansas City Times of Sept. 24, 1928 sup- 
ports Coutant. 

Vasquez'" given name is not known and Chittenden (op. eit., p. 350), 
refers to him as Benito Vasquez; Alter (op. cit., p. 176), calls him Louis; 
Coutant (op. cit., p. 350), refers to him as Auguste. Some travelers 
referred to him as a Frenchman and others as a Mexican. 

6 Alter, op. cit., p. 253. 


for pleasure and to justify an eccentric curiosity.''' Bridger 
acted as guide, interpreter, and companion to Gore who was 
highly pleased with his services. 

After leaving Gore in 1856 ''it is said that he (Bridger) 
journeyed to Washington, D. C, where he not only acquainted 
himself with the government's attitude toward the Mormons, 
but made certain officials acquainted with his own views of 
the Mormons, and was presented by a Missouri senator to 
the President.^ Knowing that the United States government 
was going to send an army to quell the Mormon resistance, 
Bridger went to Fort Laramie in the summer of 1857,^ and 
he stayed there until General Albert S. Johnston, in command 
of the Army of Utah, arrived at Fort Bridger in the winter 
of the same year, and drove the Mormons from the fort. 
Bridger was then restored to possession of the fort by Gen- 
eral Johnston, but on November 18, 1857, he leased it (on 
behalf of himself and Vasquez) under a written contract with 
Captain John H. Dickerson, assistant quartermaster, who 
acted for the United States government. The contract pro- 
vided that Bridger should lease to the United States for ten 
years the tract of land consisting of 3,890% acres upon which 
Fort Bridger was situated. In return, the United States 
government agreed to pay an annual rental of $600 for ten 
years, the payment of which was to commence as soon as he 
established his title to the land to the satisfaction of the 
Quartermaster General of the United States, or whenever the 
Attemey General of the United States pronounced the title 
good. The contracting parties further agreed that the United 
States government should have the privilege of purchasing 
the said tract of land by paying Bridger $10,000 and that the 
lease could be terminated by the United States upon three 
months' notice. ^° 

The provision for postponing payments of rent was 
inserted because of a doubt as to the validity of Bridger "s 
title to the land. About a month after the contract was 
signed. Captain Dickerson reported as follows : 

"He (Bridger) bases his claim to it (the fort and 
vicinity) on some Mexican or Spanish law, somewhat similar 

7 F. Geo. Heldt, from conversations with Henry Bostwick, a mem- 
ber of the Gore party, in "Contributions, Montana Historical Society," 
Vol. I, 1876, quoted by Alter, op. cit., p. 268. 

8 Alter, op. cit., p. 270. 

9 Ibid., p. 270. 

10 Report of the Secretary of War to the Senate of the United 
States, Jan. 25, 1889. Sen. Ex. Doe. 86, Vol. Ill, 50 Cong., 2 Sess., and 
Special Session of March 4, 1889, Exhibit 4 C, p. 8 (Ser. No. 2612). Here- 
after, this reference will be referred to as Sen. Ex. Doc. 86. 


to the preemption laws of the United States. I think it ex- 
ceedingly doubtful whether his title is good, but the contract 
is so drawn that no payment is to be made until he estab- 
lishes his title. I have leased the property in order to pre- 
vent any heavy reclamations on the Government for loss or 
destruction of private property in case his title is good. "^^ 

Bridger was then employed as a guide in the Mormon 
War of 1857-1858 and probably delighted in leading United 
States troops against his old enemies, the Mormons, who 
had driven him out of his beloved fort. After the war 
Bridger made frequent visits to his family who were living 
on his old Missouri farm. Between visits he acted as a guide 
for United States exploring expeditions, Union Pacific sur- 
veys, and Indian campaigns. 

Not until 1869, twelve years after he had leased Fort 
Bridger to the United States, did Bridger begin inquiring 
of the War Department whether the government intended 
to pay him $6,000, the sum of the ten annual rental payments 
which he claimed was due him under the terms of the lease. ^^ 
Receiving no reply, he wrote again on January 6, 1870, to 
remind the Secretary of War that the lease of 1857 also gave 
the United States government the option of purchasing Fort 
Bridger for $10,000, and to say that if the government did 
not wish to take advantage of this option, he would like to 
be restored to peaceful possession of the fort.^^ On April 
25 of the same year the War Department replied that as 
soon as Bridger produced evidence of his title to the fort, 
the government would carry into effect the agreement made 
with him in 1857.^^ Apparently Bridger made no effort to 
establish title, but the War Department made inquiries of 
the General Land Office, and in 1872, Willis Drummond, 
Commissioner of that office, declared that no private survey^^ 
or claim, such as Bridger 's, was recognized in the vicinity of 
Fort Bridger. 16 

11 Dickerson to Major G-eneral Thos. S. Jesup, Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral, Dec. 21, 1857. Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 3, p. 7. 

12 Bridger to the Secretary of War, August 21, 1869. Sen. Ex. Doc. 
86, Exhibit 4 A, p. 7. Bridger was apparently illiterate (as indicated by 
the signature on this letter), for in this instance A. Wadsman (sometimes 
spelled Wachsman), Bridger 's son-in-law, wrote for him. 

13 Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 4 B, p. 7. 

14 Ibid., Exhibit 4 F, pp. 9-10. 

15 Infra, p. 2. 

16 Drummond to E. D. Townsend, Adjutant General of the IT. S. 
Army, Dec. 14, 1872. Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 4 G, p. 10. 


In 1873 Bridger, now ill,^'^ but urged on by friends and 
family, solicited the aid of General B. F. Butler, at that time 
a Senator from Massachusetts. Failing to get any satisfac- 
tion from the War Department, Bridger wrote a general 
letter to the Senator hoping that he would use his political 
influence with the War Department or else introduce a pri- 
vate bill in Congress for Bridger 's relief. Bridger also 
played upon Butler's sympathies and wrote him that he was 
a poor man, growing old and feeble, and thus unable to pursue 
his claim. In regard to his title to the fort, Bridger admitted 
to General Butler that he had no evidence and therefore 
could not comply with the government demand, ". . . 
although I (Bridger) was authorized to establish my fort 
there and settle Salt Lake Valley by the Governor of Upper 
California, I have no proper papers to show therefor. "^^ 

There is no evidence that Butler acted upon Bridger 's 
plea or even replied to his letter, and Bridger was too ill 
and helpless to do anything more. In 1878 his family decided 
to take the situation in hand and on January 12 of the same 
year they made a formal inquiry of the Secretary of War 
in regard to the status of Bridger 's claims and also asked 
to be paid the accumulated rent owed to them.^^ On Feb- 
ruary 21, 1878, the Secretary of War informed Bridger 's 
family that "his (Bridger 's) failure to establish title to the 
property in question, previous to its being embraced in a 
military reservation (on July 14, 1859), excluded the Secre- 
tary of War from recognizing his claim to ownership or rent.^° 

Receiving no satisfaction from the War Department, 
Bridger 's family hired one Charles M. Carter, attorney, to 
pursue their claim directly in Congress. By bringing pressure 
upon that body, Bridger 's family and their attorney finally 
started the machinery of Congress rolling on May 17. 1880, 
at which time the House Committee on Claims, in cooperation 

17 Mrs. Wachsman, Bridger's daughter, wrote to General Grenville 
M. Dodge (date unknown) that in 1873 her father's health was beginning 
to fail and his eyes were so bad that he could not distinguish people 
except by the sound of their voices. Dodge, G. M., "Biographical 
Sketch of James Bridger," quoted in Alter, op. cit., p. 520. 

18 Bridger to Butler, Oct. 12, 1873. Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 5, pp. 
13-14. Bridger also added that ". . . had I not leased the premises in 
good faith to the government, I would now reside thereon, and would 
surely by this time have perfected my title thereto under the several 
acts of Congress since passed, from which I was prevented by the Gov- 
ernment keeping me out of possession thereof . . ." 

19 Ibid., Exhibit 4 N, p. 10. 

20 Alex. Eamsey, Secretary of War, to Samuel L. Sawyer, of the 
House Committee on Claims, June 9, 1880. Ibid., Exhibit 4 N, p. 12. 


with the corresponding Senate Committee, asked the War 
Department to investigate and report upon Bridger's suit.^^ 

Carter, evidently knowing that Bridger's claim for the 
rental payments was very doubtful, thought that he would 
have a chance to collect for the improvements erected by 
Bridger and in 1880 he began to collect affidavits to the effect 
that Bridger's improvements were existing when the United 
States army arrived at Fort Bridger in 1857.^2 Bridger died 
on July 17, 1881, but his family, with the aid of Carter, 
continued pursuing the case which was slowly investigated 
by Congress from 1880 until January 25, 1889, at which time a 
complete report of the investigation was presented by Quarter- 
master General S. B. Holabird.^^ 

Knowing that the War Department did not recognize 
Bridger's claim to title of the fort by a grant from the Gov- 
ernor of Upper California, Carter decided that it was hope- 
less to press that claim, and decided to base the source of 
title to the fort on an alleged grant from the Governor of 
Chihuhua whose records probably would be difficult to obtain. 
He stated before the Senate Committee on Claims (date 
unknown) that : 

"Under the auspices of the governor of Chihuhua, in 
1843, before the Mexican War, Capt. James Bridger was 
induced under a promise by the Government of a large grant 
of land to establish a colony in Green River country, Utah, 
then Mexican territory, which he did at great expense. . . . 

"Under the Spanish rule^^ he was to plant said colony 
and retain possession of the country for a term of years 
before he was to receive the title to that grant. "^^ 

Carter further alleged that after the Mexican War Bridger 's 
possession became a part of United States territory, and that 
Bridger, as a former citizen of Mexico,-^ was entitled to 

21 Sawyer to Eamsey, May 16, 1880. Ibid., Exhibit 4 K, p. 11. 

22 For improvement story see Supra, p. 6 et seq. 

23 The complete report was published in Sen. Ex. Doc. 86. 

24 Mexico became independent of Spain in 1820 but doubtless there 
was no change in the Spanish rules for claiming titles to land. 

25 Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 18, p. 21. 

26 The question as to whether Bridger was a citizen of Mexico has 
never been settled although an anonymous article, "James Bridger, a 
Mexican Citizen," in Annals of Wyoming, Oct. 1939, p. 292, states that 
Bridger no doubt had to have permission from Mexican authorities be- 
fore he could build his fort on Mexican territory, and cited Carter's un- 
proved statement that Bridger was a former Mexican citizen. 

However, it was possible for Bridger to erect his fort without per- 
mission from the Mexican governent. as it was a common practice at 
the time in an area so sparsely settled and so far from any repre- 
sentatives of governmental authority for a man to occupy land without 


have his rights respected and protected as provided for by 
the treaty of peace and the rules of international law which 
state that conquering nations cannot dispose of the private 
rights of conquered subjects. Though Carter's averment as 
to the existence of this rule for international law is correct, 
he could not produce evidence of title from the Mexican 
government and therefore the committees on claims felt justi- 
fied in not applying the rule. 

Bridger's attorney ventured to say that the United States 
army officers deliberately attempted to swindle Bridger at 
the time of the signing of the contract in 1857. "Being an 
illiterate man (as will be seen from making his mark on 
the lease), these intelligent Army officers ingeniously worded 
the lease of his property to suit alone the interests of the 
Government, and got possession of a property in which he 
had put his earnings of a lifetime — his all on earth. "^'^ 

Carter also averred that the establishment of a military 
reservation at the fort by the United States government in 
1859 defeated Bridger's efforts to complete his title. ^^ How- 
ever, his argument did not convince the Congressional commit- 
tees on claims for they had proof from Bridger that he made 
no efforts" . . . owing to the fact that I (Bridger) was 
all my life out in the mountains, and consequently ignorant 
what steps were required to be taken to perfect my title to 
the premises. "^^ Robert Ellison, former chairman of the 
Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming, believed that 
Carter stretched the truth several times during the case.^° 

After hearing all the testimony on the question of owner- 
ship of Fort Bridger, the Congressional committees on claims 
in 1892 accepted Quartermaster General Holabird's investi- 
gations and recommendations that no money be paid for 
rental of the fort on the ground that the condition of the 
contract had not been fulfilled, thus precluding the claimant 
from recovery. 31 

After denying Bridger's claim to ownership of Fort 
Bridger, Congress considering the question of payments for 
improvements which were said to be erected by the claimant, 

27 Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 18, p. 21. 

28 Ibid., Exhibit 18, p. 21. 

29 Bridger to Butler, Oct. 27, 1873. Ibid., Exhibit 5, pp. 13-14. 

30 Ellison, Eobert E., Fort Bridger, Wyoming (Casper, Commercial 
Printing Co., 1931), p. 29. 

31 Report of the Committee on Claims, May 5, 1892, Sen. Eep. 625, 
52 Cong., 1 Sess. (Ser. No. 2913), and Eeport of the Committee on Claims, 
June 4, 1892, House Rep. 1576, 52 Cong., 1 Sess. (Ser. No. 3046). 



apparently adhered to the doctrine of equity,^^ which stated 
that a reputed owner of land in unsettled territory where 
unimproved land is of small value should not lose the benefit 
of full compensation for enhancing the value of the property. 
The improvements were said to consist of thirteen log houses 
which were so located as to form a hollow square in the 
center of an area of about four thousand square feet, all of 
whicli were surrounded by a stone wall laid in cement about 
eighteen feet high and five feet thick, with bastions at each 
corner. Outside this wall were a corral for stock, which 
was enclosed by a stone wall laid in cement, and six other 
outhouses. ^^ The questions now arose as to whether Bridger 
built the improvements and if they were still in existence at 
the time of the occupation of the fort by the United States 
army in 1857. In answer to this question Carter presented 
the affidavits that he had gathered in 1880 of several men 
who testified on Bridger 's behalf, many years after they had 
been at Fort Bridger. 

Mr. John Kiney of Missouri swore on January 21, 1880, 
that he was employed as a teamster at the time of the occu- 
pation of Fort Bridger by Johnston's army of Utah, and 
when he arrived at the fort there were valuable improve- 
ments upon the premises made by James Bridger. The im- 
provements, he said, consisted of thirteen log houses enclosed 
by a stone wall laid in cement, and had cost at least $20,000.^^ 
O. li. P. Rippeto, on January 21, 1880, swore that he was a 
wagonmaster with the army of General Johnston in 1857 and 
upon his arrival at Fort Bridger he saw valuable improve- 
ments comprising thirteen log houses and a corral, both of 
which were enclosed by stone walls laid in cement, and these 
improvements could not be placed at a cost of less than 
$20,000. William T. Mack Craw, a day earier, testified to 
the same effect. -^^ 

32 "While it is true that improvements and permanent buildings 
upon land belong to the owner, yet, in a comparatively newly organized 
state, where titles are necessarily more uncertain than they are in Eng- 
land, there is an instinctive conviction that justice requires that the 
possession under a defective title should have recompense for the im- 
provements which have been made in good faith upon the land of an- 
other. The maxim, often repeated in the decisions upon this subject, 
nemo debet locupletari ex alterius incommodo, tersely expresses the 
antagonism against the enrichment of one out of the honest mistake, 
and to the ruin of another." Griswold v. Bragg et ux., May 27, 1880, 
Federal Eeporter, Vol. 48, p. 521, et seq. 

33 Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 17, p. 20. 

34 Ibid., Exhibit 8, p. 15. 

35 Ibid., Exhibit 9 and 7, pp. 14-16. 


Perhaps there was collusion among these witnesses and 
an interested notary public. It seems an odd coincidence 
that three men, Kiney, Rippeto and Mack Craw, within two 
days, before the same notary public, A. Wachsman (who was 
Bridger's son-in-law and who helped him pursue his claims), 
swore to the same story after a lapse of twenty-three years. 
Ellison, in his brief history of Fort Bridger, suggests that 
the statements of the various people who testified on the 
question of improvements were not entirely accurate. 

"I (Ellison) do not know that Bridger should be held 
directly responsible for such 'mistakes' (the affidavits filed 
by Bridger's attorney, Carter, describing the improvements 
that existed in 1857), as he could neither read nor write 
and after reading his attorney's statements in the case I 
prefer to lay the blame upon the latter as I judge he stretched 
the truth in making them in several instances. "^^ 

Government officials apparently questioned these affida- 
vits. On January 25, 1889, Holabird stated that the people 
who testified some twenty or thirty years after the event 
that improvements to the value of from $20,000 to $30,000 
Were still standing when General Johnston arrived at Fort 
Bridger were unquestionably mistaken and must have eon- 
fused the affairs then existing with those existing before the 
Mormon destruction. Moreover, Holabird continued, General 
Johnston in his report to Major J. McDowell, Assistant Adju- 
tant-General, dated November 30, 1857, immediately after his 
occupation of Fort Bridger asserted that the Mormons before 
they retreated burned the buildings in and about Fort 
Bridger, and the only improvement appropriated by the 
troops was a strong stone wall enclosing a square of 100 
feet which was used for storage of the supplies for the army.^'^ 
In confirmation of this statement is a letter from Captain 
Jessie A. Gove who wrote to his wife from the army head- 
quarters at Fort Bridger on November 21, 1857, that when 
he arrived there all the buildings were burned, but there 
was still standing a stone wall laid in cement.^^ Bridger, 
in his letter to Butler, admitted that the Mormons destroyed 
his possessions before the arrival of the United States army. 

"Shortly before the so-called Utah expedition, and before 
the Government troops under General A. S. Johnston arrived 
near Salt Lake City, I (Bridger) was robbed, and threatened 
with death by the Mormons, by the direction of Brigham Young, 
of all my merchandise, stock, — in fact of everything I possessed 

36 Ellison, op. cit., pp. 28-29. 

37 Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 2, p. 6. 

38 Gove to wife, quoted in Ellison, op. cit., p. 29. 


amounting to more than $100,000 worth — the buildings in the 
fort partially destroyed by fire, and I barelv escaped with my 
life. "39 

If Bridger erected improvements valued from $20,000 to 
$30,000, Holabird continued, he would not have been willing to 
sell his fort and improvements for a sum of $10,000. The only 
improvement at Fort Bridger when the United States army ar- 
rived, he concluded, was a solid stone wall laid in cement, ^° 
which was brought from the States at great expense, and for 
which the claimant should be paid the just and generous sum 
of $6,000.*^ His recommendations were accepted by the Con- 
gressional committees on claims in 1892,^^ but Congressional 
action thereon was deferred until 1899 at which time Congress 
awarded the heirs of James Bridger $6,000 for the stone wall 
erected by him at Fort Bridger.^^ 

One aspect of this case which was never considered or at 
least was not mentioned in the Congressional investigations of 
Bridger 's suit was the claim of the Mormons to have purchased 
the fort from Bridger in 1855, before the arrival of Federal 
troops and the signing of the contract between Bridger and the 
goverment. This paper would not be complete without examin- 
ing the basis and evidence of this claim. The evidence for such 
a sale by Bridger is the following entry in the Mormon Church 
Plistorian's Office Journal, under date of October 18, 1858: 

"Louis Vasquez, of the firm of Bridger and Vasquez, ex- 
ecuted a bill of sale of Fort Bridger and acknowledged receipt 
of $4,000 on August 3, 1855, and $4,000 this day (October 18, 

39 Bridger to Butler, Oct. 27, 1873. Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, Exhibit 5, p. 

40 The Congressional investigations make no mention of the Mot 
mons in connection with the stone wall. Captain Gove, writing to his 
wife on Nov. 21, 1857, said that the stone wall laid in cement was built 
by the Mormons the previous May. Quoted in Ellison, op. cit., p. 29. 

Lieutenant Col. A. Chambers to H. H. Bancroft, Jan. 4, 1855, quoted 
in Annals of Wyoming, Oct. 1927-Jan. 1928, Vol. V, p. 91, states without 
any proof that after examining the records of Fort Bridger he found 
that the Mormons built the stone wall. 

The "old Mormon wall" is still standing and is so styled. Ellison, 
op. cit., p. 29. 

41 Sen. Ex. Doc. 86, pp. 1-3. 

42 See note 26. 

43 U. S. Statutes at Large, 55 Cong., 3 Sess., 1899, Vol. XXX, p. 1206. 
Dodge in his "Biographical Sketch of James Bridger," given in full 

in Alter, op. cit., pp. 512-513 wrote that in 1856, (sic) Bridger had 
trouble with the Mormons who robbed him of all his property and burned 
all the buildings in the fort. Despite this admission that improvements 
at the fort were destroyed before the arrival of the U. S. army, Dodge 
says that "The improvements were worth a great deal more money 
(than $6,000) but after the government took possession it seemed to 
have virtually ignored the rights of Bridger. . . ." 


1858) — also acknowledged before Samuel A. Gilbert, Clerk of 
Third District Court, that Hiram A. Morrell was his lawfully 
appointed agent and that he fully approved of the acts and 
doings of said Morrell in the sale of said property.^^ 

At my request, Mr. Glynn Bennion,*^ a member of the His- 
torian's Office of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints, looked for this bill of sale but has not yet been able to 
find it. He did, however, find a letter from Hebar C. Kimball 
to Franklin D. Richards in England dated August 31, 1855, in 
which the following occurs : 

" 'The Church has bought out Bridger's ranch and one 
hundred head of horned stock, some 7 or 8 horses, some flour 
and goods that he had, and paid $8,000 for it, and Mr. Bridger 
is gone.' Kimball was Brigham Young's first counselor in the 
Presidency of the Church and his letter contained the current 
Utah news. Richards was the president of the L. D. S. Mission 
in Great Britain. If the purchase had been made in 1853^^ it 
would not have been news to Richards, since he was in Utah at 
that time. "47 

A third item of possible evidence is indicated by the follow- 
ing letter by Bennion : 

"Yesterday (Jan. 24, 1940) we found a copy of a letter 
(there are tons of them, each volume indexed separately and 
only indexed according to the name of the recipient) from 
Brigham Young to Lewis Robinson,'*^ dated Aug. 9, 1855, con- 
gratulating the latter on having made 'the deal.' Robinson's 
letter which evoked this compliment evidently was not preserved. 
On this copy (in the well known hand writing of Brigham 's 
scribe) the address of Robinson is not given, and the scribe 
evidently misspelled 'Bridger's ranch,' making it 'Bridges 
Ranch'. However, direction is given to sell the flour at two bits 
a pound and beef at 12 to the passing trains. I (Bennion) feel 
sure this letter went to Fort Bridger and refers to the purchase 
of that place, since Robinson was Pres. Young's agent placed in 
charge there, and certainly no other place on the emigrant trail 
having beef cattle and flour was purchased at that time. ' '^^ 

44 Quoted in Alter, op. cit., p. 257. 

45 The author wishes to thank Mr. Glynn Bennion for material which 
aided in the preparation of the part of this essay relating to the Mormon 

46 Many secondary writers state without proof that the Mormons 
purchased the fort from Bridger in 1853. 

47 Letter of Bennion to author, Jan. 23, 1940. 

48 He is usually referred to by writers of Western History as Lewis 

49 Bennion to the author, Jan. 25, 1940. 


The Mormons evidently believed that they purchased the 
fort because the War Department wrote to Coutant (date not 
known ) that ' ' The Mormons set up a claim to the land on which 
the post was located on the ground of a conveyance from James 
Bridger, who was said to hold a Spanish grant for the same."^° 

We may wonder why Brigham Young was so gullible as to 
pay the firm of Bridger and Vasquez $4,000 after the fort was 
occupied by the United States Government. Mr. Bennion gives 
the explanation that : ' ' Brigham had made a bona fide deal 
with Bridger, through Vasquez, and the reputation Brigham 
bore among friends and foes was that he never reneged on a 
contract. "^1 

The entry in the Church Journal referred to above states 
that the money for the purchase of the fort by the Mormons was 
paid to Vasquez in two installments, one in 1855 and the other 
in 1858. Since Bridger was in another part of the country on 
an expedition with Sir George Gore between 1854 and 1856, s- 
he could not have participated in the sale of Fort Bridger, there- 

to Quoted ill Coutant, op. cit., p. 352. 

By 1873 it was coninion gossip around Port Bridger that Bridger 
had sold the fort to the Mormons. E. A. Curley, special correspondent 
of the London Field, after visiting Fort Bridger in 1873 and probably 
interviewing Judge William A. Carter (who was no relation to Bridger's 
attorney, Charles M. Carter), wrote to his paper the same year as fol- 

", . . . at any rate, he (Bridger) so far sophisticated President 
Brigham Young — who was even then an old bird not easily caught — 
that he bought out Bridger, who pretended to hold a stretch of thirty 
miles under a Mexican grant, paying him do^vn $4,000 for the grant, the 
shanties and the cattle, and agreeing to pay $4,000 more at a subsequent 
time. The place became too hot for the Mormons, they had to leave, and 
Bridger rented his pretended grant to General A. E. Johnston, of a mili- 
tary post for $600 a year, on a ten years lease. Taking a copy of this 
provisional lease, he then journeyed to Salt Lake and succeeded in 
raising the other $4,000 from the Mormon prophet. But the contract, 
to be valid, must be confirmed at Washington. A diligent search re- 
vealed the fact that there was no Mexican grant, and that Bridger was 
kindly obliging the government for a substantial consideration, with a 
piece of its own property. The bargain consequently fell through, and 
the post was established without payment of rental, but old Jim had the 
pleasure of spending the $8,000. President Young had made repeated 
applications to have his claim allowed; but, although it is quite as good 
as many another that had passed muster, it is very unlikely that the 
prophet will ever find profitable his $8,000 investment in Bridger. He 
still maintains, however, that he was never so unwise as to be outdone 
by old Jim, that his deeds are all right in his possession; and that it is 
nothing but the willful injustice of Uncle Sam that withholds from him 
this magnificent domain." Curley to London Field, 1873 in report of 
Wvoming Board of Liimigration, 1874, pp. 67-68. Also quoted in Coutant, 
op*, cit., pp. 351-352. 

51 Bennion to the author, Jan. 23, 1940. 

52 Supra, p. 2. 


fore, there is a strong possibility that Vasquez did not share it 
with Bridger who tried to make up the loss by leasing the fort 
to the United States Government. 

The whole question of ownership of Fort Bridger has been 
clouded by a dense haze of contradictory and circumstantial 
evidence presented many years after the sale of the fort was 
said to have occurred. If the research being conducted by an 
active Historian's Office produces concrete evidence of a pur- 
chase from Bridger then it will be shown conclusively that 
Bridger attempted to sell to the United States government what 
he had alreadv sold to the Mormons. 




Chapter VI 

Laramie County 

Erection of First Buildings in Cheyemie — General G. M. 
Dodge, Engineer for U. P. Railroad — Indian Raids — U. P. 
Tracks Enter Cheyenne November 13, 1867. 

Between the 1st and 10th day of July, 1867, a party of 
Union Pacific surveyors surveyed and laid out the townsite 
which was platted and entered eventually by . . . * There is 
some uncertainty about the erection of the first building in Chey- 
enne but while several small shanties and portable buildings were 
put up among the great field of tents and wagons which then 
dotted the shores of Crow creek the first substantial wooden 
building erected on the present site of the flourishing City of 
Cheyenne was built by Judge J. R. Whitehead and its erection 
was commenced on July 1st, 1867. This building, the material 
of which had to be cut and hauled from the Foot Hills twenty 
miles away, at great expense is still standing in an excellent 
state of preservation on Eddy Street (Pioneer Ave.) in Chey- 
enne. Across the street and where Ellis' establishment now 
stands, Judge "Whitehead at this time had a tent pitched which 
served as a temporary home and law office as well. Into this 
tent on the second day after the erection of the building had 
been commenced, walked a tall pale faced young man who in- 

*Blank space left in manuscript for several lines which Mr. Coutant 
evidently intended to supply later. 


quired for Judge Whitehead. The Judge was there aud re- 
sponded for himself when the young man who had walked 
nearly all the way from Denver handed him a letter. The letter 
was from an old friend of Judge Whitehead's in Denver intro- 
ducing W. W. Corlett and suggesting that it might be a good 
plan to form a law partnership with him. "Well," said Judge 
Whitehead, "I am pretty busy just now with other business 
and if you have a mind to try your hand with me in the law 
business you can do so. Tliis is my office and here are my books 
and papers. Pitch in for every thing you see in sight." While 
the Judge was speaking a party came in who wanted some kind 
of a paper drawn. Corlett seated himself at the only table in 
the tent and proceeded to "pitch in." The paper was drawn 
up in due form for which the young lawyer received two five 
dollar greenbacks, one of which he handed to Judge Wliitehead, 
keeping the other himself. The law partnership and firm of 
Corlett and Whitehead, which lasted for some years, was formed 
then and there. As soon as the survey of the townsite was 
completed, and even before, the sale of town lots was begun, 
some of them bringing fabulous prices, the erection of many 
other buildings, principally along what is now Sixteenth, Seven- 
teenth, Eddy, Thomes and O'Neil Streets was at once begun 
and in a very few days after the completion of the survey (July 
10th) the embryo city began to acquire quite a substantial 
appearance. All kinds of business establishments were opened, 
between three and four hundred in all, and among them sev- 
eral gambling houses and as many as sixty saloons. Boarding 
houses and small hotels also began to spring up and among the 
latter the "Dodge House" near the corner of O'Neil and 
Eighteenth Streets, which is still standing (1886) and being 
used as a steam laundry. The popvdation of the city which 
had been officially christened "Cheyenne" began to be esti- 
mated by the thousands long before the season was over and 
it was made up of men, women and children from nearly every 
country and clime on the face of the globe. This population 
was composed of three elements, the active respectable and 
energetic business men, the transient and the uncertain element 
which contained many bad characters of both sexes. Wldle it 
has many times been said and no doubt believed to the contrary, 
there never was a time in the history of the early days of the 
"Magic City of the Plains," when the respectable eleme-t of 
its people did not out-number all other classes nearly two to one. 


Chapter VII 

Laramie County 

Cheyenne Continued — The Union Pacific, Dangers Attending 
Its Construction — Hill and Archer — The Road Completed 
to Cheyenne — A, Track to Fort Russell, etc. 

During the time covered by the preceding chapter work 
was being pushed on the Union Pacific railroad with great and 
unprecedented vigor and grading parties were operating all 
along the line between Sidney, the then western terminus of 
the road, and Cheyenne. Before the first house was built at the 
last mentioned place the graders were at work in the vicinity 
of Pine Bluffs, near the eastern boundary of the Territory, 
and for a considerable distance west of that point. By the 
time the "City of Tents" began to be transformed into one 
of wooden buildings there was scarcely a mile along the entire 
route which was not subjected to the application of the plow, 
the shovel, and the scraper. This work was done under the 
general supervision of General G. M. Dodge, the chief engineer 
of the Union Pacific Railroad and a man of unusual energy and 
"push." General Dodge had, however, many subordinates who 
were not unworthy of their chief, and from them several of the 
streets of the city were named, such as Ferguson (Carey Ave.), 
Ransom (Warren Ave.), Eddy, Sej^mour, Hills (Capitol Ave.), 
and others, some of whom were not much known, however, to 
the people of Cheyenne. The work of constructing the road 
was attended by constant and great danger for it will be re- 
membered by the reader that this was the period when bloody 
and tragic scenes were being enacted in the northern portion 
of the country. The Sioux were constantly making invasions 
and raids into the country lying contiguous to the proposed 
line of railroad and frequently bloody and sanguinary were 
the encounters that attended these raids. 

In the employ of the Union Pacific at that time were two 
subordinate civil engineers named William Archer, a paymaster, 
and James Hill, both of whom had been making Cheyenne their 
home and had become quite well known to most of the respect- 
able people in the city at that time. On the last day of July, 
1867, Messrs. Hill and Archer rode out of the then embryo and 
chaotic city to the east for the purpose of making an inspection 
along the line. When near what is now Archer station, six 
miles east of Cheyenne, they were attacked by a band of mounted 
Indians — Archer being shot from his horse and terribly wounded, 
he was left for dead but recovered, though he never was the same 
man again and his hair turned as white as snow. As the Indians 
had intervened between Hill and Cheyenne, he put spurs to 


his horse and fled in the direction of Pine Bluffs. The Indians 
overtook, killed and scalped him when near what is now Hills- 
dale station, thirteen miles from where the pursuit commenced. 
Archer station was named for one of these victims and not only 
Hillsdale Station but Hill Street in Cheyenne for the other. 
Though somewhat later in the season two other incidents illus- 
trating the dangerous proximity of the Sioux to Cheyenne might 
as well be mentioned here. 

In the month of October, the Indians made a raid to the 
southeast of Cheyenne and taking a turn to the northwest came 
up to and upon the bluffs south of the city and three of them, 
more adventurous than the rest, dashed across the creek and 
rode up to within fifty yards of where the Union Pacific ' ' round- 
house" now stands. On the same day they drove off several 
head of stock that had strayed out of the city to the south. 
Not long after the occurrence last mentioned, two brothers 
Henry and Ed Hurlbut residents of the city, went out south- 
east of the city to take a look at the country. Henry Hurlbut, 
who was at that time a boy of some sixteen or seventeen years 
of age, had a gun with him, but Ed, who was several years 
younger, had none. While out nearly three fourths of a mile 
from the city two dismounted Indians suddenly made their 
appearance and came toward them apparently with the in- 
tention of taking them prisoners, for though armed one with 
a gun and the other with a bow and arrow they did not fire. 
Commanding his j^ounger brother to lie flat on the ground, 
Henry placed himself between him and the Indians and pre- 
pared to fire on them. The two savages retraced their steps 
for a short distance when the two brothers ran for their lives 
toward the city. Turning, the Indians pursued, when Henry 
again faced them, his smaller brother lying down as before. 
Again the Indians hesitated and again the two brothers ran, 
and this sort of a game was kept up until the two brothers got 
back so near the city that the Indians dared to pursue them 
no further and disappeared. Why the two brothers were not 
fired at can only be accounted for on the ground that the In- 
dians desired to effect their capture or were afraid of alarming 
the city in which event they would have been in great danger 
themselves. Through the many dangers and perils which beset 
the work, grading and track laying was pushed with such energy 
that on the 13th day of November, 1S67, the Union Pacific Rail- 
road track entered Cheyenne amid great rejoicing among all 
classes. Among the hoodlum element all who had any respect 
for themselves, of course got drunk, and if a persistent investi- 
gation were to be made upon this point it is quite probable that 
some who were not of the class alluded to, got drunk also. 



Early in the following month, a track was laid from Chey- 
enne to Camp Carlin which had then been permanently estab- 
lished so that not only ''The Magic City of the Plains," but 
the military posts in the vicinity also had full accommodation 
by rail with the eastern world. 


The following letter, dated April 1, 1903, from "F. Chat- 
terton,* Secretary of State," (Wyoming), addressed to Hon. 
Lyle Branch, Senate Chamber, Pierre, South Dakota, was found 
among the "Coutant Notes" and is in the files of the Wyoming 
State Historical Department: 

"Dear Sir: 

Replying to yours of March 30th, with regard to Woman 
Suffrage, would say that our last Legislature passed a reso- 
lution endorsing same, copy of which is enclosed herewith. 

In answer to your questions, would say: 

1. Question: Do the women take advantage of their rights 
as voters? 
Answer: This office had a census of the voters taken in 
1896 and discovered that thirty-two and sixty- 
two one hundredths per cent of the votes cast were 
cast by women. This, in the sparsely settled 
State of Wyoming, would indicate that about 
the same proportion of women vote as men, in 
the country districts, and a slightly larger per- 
centage of men in the towns. 

2. Question 

Answer : 

Does it increase the expense of political cam- 
paigns ? 
It does. In order to get the vote out, it is nec- 
essary to have carriages at all polling precincts 
in order that the women may vote at convenient 
times, as it has been found that many of them 
engaged in household duties cannot spare the 
time to walk to the polling places. 

*renimore Chatterton was Acting Governor of Wyoming from 
April 28, 1903, when Governor DeForest Eichards died in office, until 
January 2, 1905, when Bryant B. Brooks was elected Governor of the 
State. Mr. Chatterton resides at Arvada, Colorado. 


3, Question: Are the conditions of the voting places better? 
Answer: The polling places are kept in the best possible 

condition consistent with the use to which the 
building, is put, and I would say that more care 
is taken to keep the polling places clean than 
if it were used entirely as a voting place for 
men. Disorderly conduct at the polls is unknown 
in Wyoming. 

4. Question: Does it effect the legislation of your State in 

regard to saloons and crime? 
Answer: The Legislature of 1901 passed a law repealing 
the law which licensed gambling. This was al- 
most entirely through the efforts of the women 
of the State. 

In regard to the following questions, would say, as "Wyo- 
ming had equal suffrage both as a Territory and State, there 
is no basis for comparison. It is possible you can procure this 
information from the State of Colorado, which has had a female 
suffrage for the last few years only." 


"Wyoming Writers," an 87-page book by Eva Floy 
Wheeler, of Laramie, Wyoming, is one of the valuable literary 
contributions to the State during Wyoming's observance qt her 
fiftieth anniversary of statehood, this year. Off to a favorable 
start with a good title which immediately reveals the subject- 
matter of its contents, the volume is an impressive as well as 
an illuminating answer to those interested in knowing "who 
has written what" about Wyoming, and one which stimulates 
greater pride in and respect for this ' ' Wonderful Wyoming. ' ' 

More than 250 Wyoming writers, with brief biographical 
sketches of each, together with description of their work, are 
listed under the seven headings: Fiction. Children's Literature, 
Poetry, Drama and Pageantry, Non-Fiction, History and 
Memoirs, and General Non-Fiction. Names of fame, as well as 
those less known, appear in their respective classifications. 

The attractive book, published by the Douglas Enterprise 
Company, Douglas, Wyoming, is enclosed in a rustic card-board 
cover, and its price is $1.00. 

Mrs. Wheeler is the author of " A Bibliography of Wyoming 
Writers, ' ' of which the new book is an expansion, also numerous 
articles on professional subjects in current publications. 



April 1, 1940, to June 30, 1940 


Miscellaneous Gifts 
Morg-aii, Fred and Edward, 3809 Hawthorne Ave., Richmond, Va. — Six 

Civil War bullets or ' ' Minnie ' ' balls (named for Capt. Minnie) 

from site of Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Va. 
Smalley, Mrs. E. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming — -An 11-inch light shade from 

the court chambers of the old court-house, Cheyenne. 

Books — Gifts 

Spring, Agnes Wright, Cheyenne, Wyoming — How the Oregon Trail 

Became a Eoad, by G. W. Martin. 
Wheeler, Eva Floy, Laramie, Wyoming — Wyoming Writers, of which 

donor is the author. 

Books — Purchased 

McClure, A. K. — Three Thousand Miles Through the Rocky Mountains. 

Shankle, G. E. — State names, flags, seals, song, etc. 

Men of Wyoming, 1915. 

Kearny, Thomas- — General Philip Kearny. 

Wister, Owen — The Virginian. 

Historical Society of Montana — Contributions, Vols. 4 and 9. 

Pamphlets — Gifts 

Houser, G. O., Cheyenne, Wyoming — -A Story of Register Cliff on the 
old Oregon Trail, by G. O. Houser, published by The Guernsey 
Gazette, Guernsey, Wyoming. 

Roedel, A. E., Jr., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Five copies of booklet entitled 
"Brands" published by his late father, A. E. Roedel, Sr., of Chey- 
enne, 1938. 

Burlington Railroad, through R. C. Overton, Chicago, 111. Four copies 
"The First Ninety Years.'' An historical sketch of the Burlington 
Railroad, 1850-1940. 


^''ol. 12 

October, 1940 

No. 4 



To Whom the Four Issues of the 1940 Volume of the ANNALS Have Been Dedicated , 
... in Observance of Wyoming's Golden Anniversary of Statehood ■% 

Published Quarterly 

The Wyoming Historical Department 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 


^ol. 12 October, 1940 No. 4 



By E. A. Brininstool 




By Mrs. George H. Gilland 


(Concluding Installment) 265 

By Harry B. Henderson, Sr. 



(Concluding Installment) 273 


A Prominent Wyoming Feminist 295 

By Agnes Jenkins Metcalf 


By William A. Riner, Chief Justice, Supreme Court 

"THAT'S WY'OMING" (Golden Anniversary Theme Song) 309 

By Jack Bryant 



MARY G. BELLAMY', Wyoming's First Woman Legislator 317 

By Eva Floy Wheeler 

UNPUBLISHED, Chapters VIII and IX 323 




By Thomas Kearny 




Published Quarterlv 




State Librarian and Ex-Officio State Historian 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Governor Nels H. Smith 

Secretary of State . Lester C. Hunt 

State Treasurer ...... Mart T. Christensen 

State Auditor Wm. "Sootty" Jack 

Superintendent of Public Instruction . Esther L. Anderson 
State Librarian and Ex-Officio Historian . Gladys F. Riley 

Inez Babb Taylor, Assistant Historian 

The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Committee and the 
State Historical Department assume no responsibility for any statement 
of fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation 
of museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of 
Wyoming citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those 
familiar with important and significant events in the history of the State. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyo- 
ming and the Nation a true picture of the State's past. The ANNALS 
OF WYOMING is one medium through which the Department seeks to 
gain this objective. All communications concerning the Annals should 
be addressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Eiley, Wyoming Historical Department, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are sent free of charge to all State Offi- 
cials, heads of State Departments, members of the State Historical 
Advisory Committee, Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming news- 
papers. It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscrip- 
tion price, $1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1940, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 

By E. A. Brininstool 

I'll give to you the whole round earth, 

And all there is within it — 
Just take it all, for what it 's worth, 

This very blessed minute, 
If you will leave me one small spot. 

Out there beyond the gloaming — 
The only Homeland that I've got — 

My Wonderful Wyoming! 

'Way up beyond the smoke that palls, 

Your peaks rise, white and hoary. 
And on the crooning breeze there falls 

The music of your glory! 
'Tis there my feet would fondly turn, 

'Tis there my thoughts go roaming. 
As for your peaks and plains I yearn. 

My Wonderful Wyoming! 

Your wide, free ranges stretch away, 

And call and beckon to me; 
In all my visions through the day 

Your azure skies pursue me. 
I long for your wild canyons deep 

Where brawling streams go foaming, 
Out where the sunset glory creeps, 

My Wonderful Wyoming! 

For me no spot can quite compare 

With your cloud-capped expanses; 
I love your rocky ranges there, 

Where soft the sunlight glances. 
I love your sagebrush-covered plains, 

Where mighty herds are roaming, 
And every spot where beauty reigns, — 

My Wonderful Wyoming! 

Your stalwart sons have turned the sod, 

And lo! fat fields are gleaming! 
Where once fierce tribes of rednien trod. 

With progress all is teeming! 
I love your skies, so fair and blue, 

As softly falls the gloaming, 
My heart now fondly turns to you, 

Oh, Wonderful Wyoming! 

[ 249 ] 

Governor Nels H. Smith 


Nels H. Smith, present Governor of Wyoming, was bom 
of sturdy Scandinavian parents on August 27, 1884, at Gay- 
ville, South Dakota. He received his elementary education 
in the public schools of his community, and attended the 
University of South Dakota, at Vermilion. 

His career as a stockman-rancher began in 1905, near 
Gettysburg, South Dakota, where he remained until the Fall 
of 1907, when he sold the ranch and came to Wyoming, where 
he has continued through hard work and thrift, to prosper 
and increase his holdings in Crook and Westoii Counties until 
he now has become one of the most successful ranchers and 
cattle-raisers in the State. 

In 1911, Mr. Smith and Miss Marie Christensen, a native 
of Weston County, were married at the ranch home of her 
parents. Mrs. Smith shares whole-heartedly in all her hus- 
band's interests, and she has the distinction of being the 

[ 250 ] 

State's first native-born First Lady. Their two sons, Peter F. 
and Christy K., carry on the traditions of the family and are 
now managing the ranch while the Governor is occupied 
with his State duties at the Capital city. 

Always public-spirited, Mr. Smith served in the State 
Legislature, on the Wyoming Highway Commission, and year 
in and year out, in victory or defeat, he has been a loyal and 
uncompromising Republican. He is a thirty-second degree 
Mason and a Shriner. 

Nels H. Smith was elected Governor by the people of 
Wyoming on November 8, 1938, by the largest majority of 
votes ever accorded a candidate for that office in the State. 

To have served the State as its Golden Anniversary 
Governor has been one of his greatest prides, and none has 
watched with keener interest than he the news of community 
observances throughout the State. 

Governor Smith has affected a general system of com- 
bining and coordinating the various State Departments, which 
has resulted in greater economy, and at the same time in- 
creased efficiency. Some of the outstanding accomplishments 
during the first part of this Golden Anniversary Administra- 
tion are the reduction of the Mill Levy Tax to its lowest point 
in the history of the State ; the reduction of the price of gaso- 
line to the consumer ; an extremely large saving in the opera- 
tion of the Highway Department, and at the same time con- 
tinued improvement in Wyoming highways. More than twenty 
communities of the State are enjoying the benefits of lower 
electric rates, and a complete revision of the law relating to 
the Games and Fish Department was made. This revision elimi- 
nated a number of objectionable phases of the then existing 
law which had been criticized by the courts, and gave greater 
freedom to the Department, enabling it to operate for the 
benefit of the State with consideration for the welfare of 
game and fish resources of the State. 

In Governor Smith's message to the twenty-fifth State 
Legislature, he said: "During the past several months we 
pledged ourselves to repeal the Sales Tax on foodstuffs. T 
have always felt, and I feel now, that foodstuffs should be ex- 
empt from the Sales Tax. 1 earnestly urge that Chapter 102, 
Session Laws of 1937, be amended and reenacted exempting 
foodstuffs from an excise tax. ' ' However, the legislature did 
not pass the law providing for this revision. 

Governor Smith's wholesome and practical attitude to- 
ward the affairs of State, his congenial and friendly manner 
toward all — rich or poor, young or old — who come within the 
radius of his fine personality, have combined to attract to 
himself hosts of admirers and followers who take pride in 
knowing this man as a Good Citizen and a Good Governor. 


on National Highway 20, Lusk, Wyoming, dedicated on August 15, 1940. 
Sponsored by the Lusk Lions Club, Wyoming Stock Growers' Associa- 
tion and stockmen of Eastern Wyoming. Plaq.ue designed by Bill Har- 
wood. Inscription: "TEXAS TRAIL. Texas to Montana, 1876-1897. 
Along this trail passed herds of cattle from distant Texas to replace in 
Wyoming and Montana the fast vanishing buffalo and build civilization 
on the Northwestern plains. Dedicated by the Historical Landmark 
Commission of Wyoming, 1940." 

[ 252 1 

'^he Texas Trail 

as Followed by a Pioneer in 1882 

By Mrs. George H. Gilland* 


There seems to be a wealth of data concerning the origin, rise and 
fall of the western cattle industry. Undoubtedly one of the most au- 
thentic descriptions extant is that given by Walter Prescott in his 
valuable book ' ' The Great Plains. ' ' From this work, from Anthony 
Adams "The Log of a Cowboy," from the March, 1926, edition "The 
Cattleman" and from other sources I have drawn for much of the 
information submitted in this preface, a subject of too great scope to 
be more than touched upon here. 

Following the Texas Revolution of 1836 and the succeed- 
ing border warfare between the Texans and Mexicans, the 
latter retreated across the Rio Grande, abandoning their 
ranches and thousands of head of wild Spanish longhorns 
which thrived and multiplied in the valley of the Neuces, 
the southernmost end of the Texas cattle range. 

The Texas Republic decreed that all abandoned cattle 
were public property ; therefore, many were rounded up by 
Texans and marked with their own brands, thus practically 
founding the Texas cattle industry, and gradually establish- 
ing some of the largest cattle ranches in North America. 
Sporadic attempts were made to market them ; a drive to 
Ohio in 1846 is mentioned and another to Chicago ten years 
later. But while these long-legged, rugged range cattle were 
capable of enduring a 1,000 or even a 2,000 mile trek they 
were neither good beefers nor good milkers. A few shipments 
were made to New Orleans and to Cuba ; some beef was 
furnished the Confederate army during the Civil War ; pickled 
beef was sent to England, but marketing had not become an 
industry and these wild Texas longhorns, originally natives 
of Old Mexico and driven across the border over the Rio 
Grande, increased in southern and western Texas until they 
threatened to over-run the country. 

After the Civil War the South was prostrated, but the 
rise of large cities in the industrial North created a demand 
for beef and gave an impetus to Texas cattle drives. In 1865 
an animal worth four or five dollars in Texas sold for forty 
or fifty dollars in the North ; hence the effort to ' ' connect a 
four dollar cow with a forty dollar market. ' ' Thus the first 

*See biographical sketch of Mrs. Gilland in ANNALS OF WYOMING, 
Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 1939, p. 254. 

[ 253 ] 


link was forged in re-establishing economic relations betAveen 
the North and South after the war. 

One of the first two herds driven from Texas to Wyoming 
in the late '60 's was sold to Mr. Iliff of Colorado, who turned 
them on liis range southeast of Cheyenne. The first shipment 
of beef from Cheyenne was made in 1870 during the Franco- 
Prussian war by a Mr. Pritchard, who bought H. B. Kelly's 
work cattle for $70 per head and sold them in Paris for beef 
for about $150. 

The tales which drifted across the Atlantic concerning 
the immensity of the open range between the Rio Grande and 
the Mexican border excited the curiosity of English and Scotch 
capitalists, some of whom, among them lords and earls, came 
over not only to investigate but to invest. Large companies 
were formed' and it was claimed that by 1882 $30,000,000 had 
been invested by foreign interests in ranches and stock on the 
western plains, the stock usuall.y purchased in Tex'as and 
New Mexico and trailed north. The first herds were driven 
up over pathless ground, but as herd followed herd, "trails" 
were made, named and nameless, the most notorious of which 
was the Chisholm which is said to have wended its way by 
Fort Worth, AVichita and Abilene and became the most popu- 
lar trail in song and story. But its identity seems to have 
merged with others as the multiplicity of herds, both large 
and small, in search of feed, made new trails or crossed the 
old until they were finally embraced in the all-inclusive title 
of "The Texas Trail." 

In the early days of the industry as St. Louis and towns 
east developed demands for western cattle, it became neces- 
sary to establish shipping points where trails from the South 
met the several railroads which by 1866 and later, had crossed 
the Mississippi River and reached the Great Plains. Salina, 
Kansas, seems to have been the first shipping point to the 
East, then, as the railroads pushed westward, Abilene, Wichita 
and Dodge City, where eastern buyer could bargain with 
western seller. Cattle which reached shipping points unfit 
for market or which failed to find buyers were often placed 
on ranches to be fattened. And so the cattle kingdom spread 
from, southern Texas to and over the Great Plains with its 
free and nutritious grasses until the growth of the ranch and 
range industry within fifteen years was phenomsnal. 

But reverses came. The financial panic of 1873 was 
weathered and by '76 the market was recovering. The up- 
trend extended into the boom of the early '80 's and by '85 
the peak of the cattle industry was reached. Ranges had 
been overstocked ; the homestead law passed in '62 had, in 


the ensuing years, brought in settlers who staked out claims 
on the heretofore public domain and following the invention 
of barbed wire in 1874 many claims as well as additional 
range were fenced. The time when cattle outfits such as the 
Converse Company could run a herd of 30,000 or 40,000 head 
on free range was passing. Texas cattle, while hardy on the 
trail, were often unable to withstand the severity of northern 
winters and perished by thousands. The winter of '86 Avas 
a bitter one, the succeeding summer dry and many stockmen, 
native and foreign, lost their entire herds. Among the few 
companies to survive was the Swan Land and Cattle Company. 

And what of the men and boys, the ''Cowboys" who 
helped to build up this gigantic range and cattle business on 
so huge a scale that its ramifications reached afar? But for 
whom in fact it could not have existed. Who, often at the 
risk of their lives, took charge of the cattle from the time 
they left their native haunts on and on to the end of the trail. 

When in the early days, the Texans settled in the Colo- 
rado River valley, they had to learn a method of horseman- 
ship and of carrying arms that "placed them on a footing 
with the Mexicans and Plains Indians ; ' ' also as a protection 
from the wild Texas cattle, many of which were said to have 
been as dangerous as beasts of prey and when attempting to 
round them up no man was safe without his revolver since 
sometimes only his dexterity in drawing it saved his life from 
a charging steer. Thus it was that the cattlemen and cow- 
boys of the period grew up with a knowledge of handling 
cattle, meeting emergencies and "roughing it" born of experi- 
ence — a wild and dangerous life in a wild and dangerous 

Small wonder then that, as Mr. Webb says, "The East- 
erner with his background of forest and farm was often at 
a loss to understand the men of the cattle kingdom; one went 
on foot, the other on horseback; one carried his law in books, 
the other carried it strapped around his waist ; — one responded 
to convention, the other to necessity and evolved his own 
conventions" — "in the East a farm — perhaps 10,000 farms — 
will each have six or seven cows and as many calves. They 
attract no attention; are incidents of agriculture. In the AYest 
a ranch will cover the same area as 10,000 farms and will 
perhaps have 10,000 head of cattle, with roundups, rodeos, 
men on horseback and all that goes with ranching — men in 
boots and jingling spurs ; big hats and frisky horses : camp 
cook and horse wrangler; profanity and huge appetites""- — • 

"The East did a large business on a small scale; the West 
did a small business magnificently." 


And the glamour lured young men from the East who 
came out to exchange the prosaic life of farm, factory or 
college for the danger and excitement of the western range. 
Some failed to make the grade, others, notably those with a 
rugged New England background, remained to make good 
and to be included among the West's most substantial citizens. 

Among the latter was George Henry Gilland who was 
born in the village of Fairfax, Vermont, on the 8th of May, 
1856. He was the sixth of nine children, three of whom were 
born in Ireland before the parents emigrated to this country 
in 1849. Of those three two died in infancy. The father, 
Samuel Gillilan — as the name was spelled in Ireland — had 
raised a family of five children by his first wife, all of whom 
emigrated to Vermont, that rugged state which has imparted 
so many of its sturdy characteristics to its sons. 

Wresting a living from the rocky New England soil was 
a perpetual struggle and like the majority of children in 
those parts the young Gillands worked at odd jobs to help 
supply the family larder and to earn the one pair of shoes 
that must serve to cover their feet during the long, bitter 
winter. But in those days shoes were made to last, with their 
heavy soles, copper toes and calf-skin uppers. At the age of 
twelve and fourteen respectively, George and his brother 
John walked two miles from home to cut cord wood at fifty 
cents per cord. An experienced man could cut two cords a 
day ; a boy half a cord. Thus the combined daily wage of 
the two boys averaged fifty cents and this only when condi- 
tions were favorable, for now and then a tree, in falling, would 
bury itself in the snow and much time was lost in digging it 
out. The boys took their pay in trade, sometimes a barrel of 
flour at fourteen dollars a barrel. Think of it, ye boys of 
today, swinging an axe twenty-eight days or more to pay for 
ninety-six pounds of flour. In the spring they worked in 
the maple sugar bush, the "Sugar Season" opening when the 
sap began to run, usually the last of March or first of April 
and lasting from four to six weeks. But they had their good 
times too — at the "old swimming hole," corn huskings, spell- 
ing bees and out-of-door sports. 

In this environment of hard work, simple pleasures and 
such education as the village school aff^orded, the young Gil- 
lands grew to the age of fifteen when each in turn was con- 
sidered old enough to become an independent unit in the 
battle of life. Desiring to see something of the world and 
having, before reaching his majority, saved one hundred and 
fifty dollars, a goodly sum for one of his age in that locality, 


in April, 1877, George followed his friend, Charles Rugg, to 
Egbert, Wyoming. Soon after his arrival at the Rugg ranch 
on the Muddy, south of Egbert, he made the acquaintance of 
my father, Alonzo Martin, who owned the UC ranch farther 
up the valley, became associated with him and there remained 
for thirty years. With New England frugality he saved his 
money and invested in cattle. 

He and father desired to increase their herds and in the 
spring of 1882 George went by train to Dallas, Texas, to 
purchase cattle for himself, father, Whiffen and Calkins and 
a Mr. Griffen of Iowa who had made arrangements to run 
their herds on father's range. 

At Gainsville, Texas, he met Mv. Whiffen by prearrange- 
ment and together they attended the three-days meeting of 
the Texas Stock Growers Association, made interesting by 
the presence of all the largest cattle owners of the state. 
Hearing of several herds for sale, they went from Dallas to 
P^ort Worth to which place George had shipped branding 
irons, as all cattle before taking the trail were marked with 
the owner's or a road brand, in this case the owner's. 

While inspecting herds and talking with trail bosses 
George took occasion to learn something about the ethics of 
the trail — unwritten laws, the observance of which might 
save trouble and annoyance. For example, no herd approved 
another herd attempting to pass it without good reason. Nor 
should a herd trespass on range alreadj^ occupied. The long- 
experience of old trailers had taught them that if cattle were 
well fed and watered before bedding down at night they were 
less likely to stampede. In the early days of Texas drives, 
trailers had to break the trails, ward off Indian attacks and 
watch for buffaloes, for nothing would start a stampede more 
([uickly than a charging buffalo herd. By '82 these hazards 
were minimized but there were enough other obstacles to be en- 
countered to keep a trail boss and his riders constantly on the 

At Dallas, George bought 1,500 head of one and two 
year old steers. Leaving them there he and Mr. Whiffen 
returned to Fort Worth to assemble their outfit. This con- 
sisted of forty head of horses, half of them broken to ride 
and the rest only halter broken; two teams of mules, a mess 
wagon for which he made a box to fit into the back, with a 
drop door for a table and compartments for cooking utensils 
and small jirovisions, also a large box in which to carry and 
keep dry staple provisions such as flour, coffee, sugar, etc. 
He then hired a cook, a very important asset since a range 
outfit like an army must be well fed. Eight riders were then 


engaged, two of them colored men. Two of the white men, 
Caraco and Whitehead, admitted that they knew nothing 
about riding but wanted the experience of the trail. They 
made good. Saddles, bridles and blankets too were purchased, 
also bedding for altho' it was customary for a rider to supply 
his own outfit the majority of these men were financially 
"broke." To quote Mr. Gilland: 

"With our outfit complete we went into camp to break 
the saddle horses which were only "haltered" and a lively 
week ensued. But they were finally subdued and we returned 
to the ranch below Dallas to receive our cattle which were 
then ready to be turned over to us. This required a ten-day 
journey over narrow roads, through mud knee deep and rain 
which fell daily. Arriving at the ranch several days were 
consumed in branding the cattle. ... In this work we 
were assisted by the eight riders of the ranch who also went 
with us the first ten days of our northward march. 

"We left with our herd on the morning of April 20th, 
traveling first through a well settled country over narrow, 
ungraded roads poorly fenced, which gave us much trouble. 
The first night we camped on the banks of a small, muddy 
creek lined with trees and brush. Including the men from 
the ranch we had sixteen riders. We bedded down in the 
only place available but the yearlings were determined to go 
back home to their mothers, and it was midnight before all 
became quiet. We then called "relief guard" and turned in, 
but I first took the precaution to tie my pony, saddled, to 
the wheel of the wagon nearby to be prepared in case of 
emergency. And the emergency came for almost immediately 
I heard the cattle start. The two Kentuckians were sleeping 
beside me in a tent with an opening in each end, the flaps 
turned back, for the night was warm. When I shouted 'The 
cettle are coming' and they saw through one of the tent 
doors the onrush of the herd, they dashed out the other for 
a tree on the creek bank, but one of them missed his footing 
and plunged headlong over the edge. The charging cattle 
however, divided and swept around instead of over the camp, 
so no harm was done. By this time the men were all in the 
saddle, the Kentuckians in their pajamas (for being tender- 
feet they still slept in their 'nighties') but it was long after 
daylight before the frightened animals were under control. 
The following night they were quiet until nearly morning 
when their attempted stampede was quickly checked. That 
day the ranch riders left us and went back. 

We were still in a farming country and could find no 
place to feed our cattle until we reached the small town of 


St. Joe, where we had our last stampede. Rain was falling, 
the night so dark that no object could be seen and the cattle 
scattered in the brush. The men were all mounted but know- 
ing that search was futile I called them together and sent 
them to bed until daylight, when we started forth. One of 
the men had become lost in the darkness and came in the 
next morning with two hundred head. The ground was soft 
and we could easily trail the cattle. One of the darkies, 
Hamm Harris, and I trailed a bunch down a lane to a farm 
where we found it shut up in a corral with a dozen men lined 
up on the fence. The spokesman hailed me with, 'Are these 
your cattle?' When I replied in the affirmative he declared 
he had found them in his cornfield where they had done much 
damage. 'We'll go and see,' I replied. There had been cattle 
in the field but the tracks were not fresh ones. Moreover, 
I told him that we had trailed my cattle direct to his corral, 
but he demanded fifty dollars to release them. Without fur- 
ther ado I told Hamm to open the gate (we were both armed) 
and I drove the cattle out followed only by the direful threats 
of the farmer. Later, one of the men who had witnessed 
the affair came to our camp and told us that the farmer was 
also a self-styled preacher of St. Joe who left his fence down 
purposely and had already collected toll several times that 
season for purported damage done to his corn. 

Upon counting our herd we found we were fourteen 
head short. As feed was scarce we went on to the Red River, 
an eighteen mile drive through cross timber, and stayed there 
that night. Early the next morning we moved our herd down 
to the crossing ahead of the other trail herds which, however, 
soon caught up. The Red was a dangerous river to cross 
and took toll of many lives, both of men and cattle. The 
water was swift and high and our cattle refused to cross, 
the current catching them and milling them around. The 
boys of the other herds joined us and we soon had a force of 
fifty men at work but to no avail. Then we drove the horses 
in ahead thinking the cattle would follow but that, too, 
failed. After bringing the cattle back we again started them 
across, I swam behind with a lariat, lassooed a steer around 
the neck and started with him after the horses ; his bawling 
attracted the rest of the herd which followed without further 
trouble. Two miles beyond the river we went into camp for 
two days to let the cattle rest and graze, as the feed was 
good. Two men were sent back from there, found the fourteen 
head lost at St. Joe and caught up with us two days later. 

Up to this time Mr. Whift'en had been with us. He now 
decided to return to Gainesville and take a train for Rock- 


ford, Illinois, his home. But before he left he had an experi- 
ence that was amusing, at least to the rest of us. One morning 
we saddled and mounted in the rain. Pinto, a pony to which 
Mr. Whiff en had become attached and which he always rode, 
seemed to object to his yellow slicker and when urged to 
start humped his back and refused to move. Mr. Whiffen 
then spoke to him coaxingly and patted him on the neck, at 
the same time touching him gently with his spurs, whereupon 
Pinto thrust his head down and gave one tremendous 'buck' 
into the air, landing Mr. AVhiffen on his back in the mud. 
Getting up he looked disgustedly at the pony, then standing 
perfectly still, and exclaimed, 'These cussed brutes won't 
stand petting, will they ! ' 

We were now in the Indian Territory, afterward Okla- 
homa, and passed through the Arapaho and Chickasha Na- 
tions. While not unfriendly they were inveterate beggars 
and therefore annoying. Often they would present a request 
from their agent for a dole of beef or a few head of cattle 
in payment for the privilege of grazing our herd across their 
land although the trail was an open one. This we sometimes 
granted, giving them a crippled animal unable to keep up 
with the rest. 

We were now in open country with plenty of feed but 
with four rivers to cross — the Washita, the south and north 
branches of the Canadian and the Cimarron. The Washita 
offered no difficulties but when we reached the South Canadian 
we were detained twenty-four hours by a flood which caused 
it to overflow its banks ; when this subsided we crossed with- 
out much difficulty. The north branch was dry and its wide 
bed of alkali deposits could be seen for miles, glistening white 
in the sun like snow. The Cimarron was wide but the cattle 
had become trail broken and were not afraid to cross, so we 
reached Dodge City in southeastern Kansas without further 

Dodge City was then the delivery point (the half way 
point) for many herds going north, and we found fully fifty 
thousand head there before us. Leaving our herd in charge 
of some of the men the rest of us went into town to purchase 
supplies and to get our mules shod. When returning to camp 
we were caught in a terrific rain and hail storm which lasted 
all night, and fearing our cattle would get mixed with the other 
herds we rode around them all night without stopping to eat 
or sleep. Our reward came in the morning when we counted 
our cattle, for not one was missing while many of the other 
herds were badlv mixed. 


The main trail after crossing the Arkansas at Dodge City. 
led to Julesburg, Colorado, but as this was about one hundred 
and forty miles east of our destination in Wyoming I decided 
upon a more direct route. Therefore, instead of crossing the 
river here we followed it on the south side in a north-westerly 
direction. On the second day out one of our men, Mr. Wallace, 
who had become homesick, wanted to return to Texas. Almost 
opposite our camp but on the north side of the river was Pierce- 
ville, a station on the Santa Fe railroad, but there was no bridge, 
the river, a quarter of a mile wide, was in flood, running bank 
high and the muddy, foaming, seething water reminded me of 
the cauldrons of boiling soft soap I had seen on Vermont farms 
in my youth. But I told Mr. Wallace if one of the boys would 
swim across with him to bring his horse back, he might go. No 
one volunteered, however, and taking pity on his distress I 
piloted him over. We rode to the edge of the bank and after 
repeated urgings my horse plunged in, going so far beneath 
the surface that I was submerged to my neck. Coming up, he 
struck out for the other side, Mr. Wallace following on his 
mount, but the swift current carried us quite a distance do^vn 
stream. We crossed without once touching bottom until near 
the bank; as this was too steep for our horses to climb we 
jumped otf and led them to lower ground. Leaving my com- 
panion at Pierceville I found a shallower crossing and returned 
to camp with both horses in safety. (After reaching Wyoming 
I received a letter of thanks from ]Mr. Wallace.) 

We continued our course on the south side of the Arkansas 
until we reached Granada on the Colorado boundary. Here 
we attempted to drive the cattle across to the north side but 
the river was still A^ery high and they refused to go in. At this 
point there was a combination rail and wagon bridge guarded 
by a watchman in a cabin. In reply to my inquiry he said uo 
regular trains were due for two hours, and that while he had 
no orders to prevent a herd from crossing, we would do so at 
our own risk. Returning to the herd I strung the horses out 
in the lead, drove them onto the bridge, some of the cattle fol- 
lowed them and the rest plunged iuto the river beside and under 
the bridge and the crossing was accomplished without mishap. 

We had left Oklahoma behind and after crossing the Big 
Sandy in eastern Colorado we followed it up to Kit Carson on 
the Kansas Pacific, thence to River Bend where we left the rail- 
road, down Beaver Creek to the present site of Brush, and 
crossed the South Platte river at Snyder Station on the Jules- 
burg branch of the Union Pacific. I was now back on my old 
range where I knew every spring and water hole. From there 
we passed Hunter's Lake, South Pawnee Creek and Wild Horse 


Corral to Grover, thence up Crow Creek to our camp at the 
Beaver Dams in Wyoming, two miles from Areola and ten miles 
south of the Muddy. Thus ended an interesting but the hardest 
experience of my life." 

Mr. Gilland now returned to the UC ranch on the Muddy 
of which he continued in charge. In the fall of '83 Mr. Martin 
moved his family to Cheyenne. Two years later George Gilland 
came up and in November ('85) he and I, then Cora Belle 
Martin, were married by the Keverend C. M. Sanders, pastor 
of the Congregational church, and began housekeeping in the 
house George had built at 408 West 23rd street which still 
stands. Father then went back to the ranch. But his health 
was failing and the following year by his request we moved to 
the ranch. Father and family to town. 

After Father's death here in 1889, George bought the ranch 
and it was there that our four children spent much of their 
early life altho' they were all bom in Cheyenne and attended 
high school there before dispersing to complete their college, 
business or university education, according to individual choice. 

By the turn of the century the dry farming craze had 
reached our vicinity on the Muddy, to the displeasure of the 
stockmen who needed the range. Partly on this account we 
sold the ranch in 1907 to the Federal Land and Cattle Com- 
pany of Iowa, the stock and equipment to other parties and 
moved to town to remain. 

In 1909 we bought our present home at 2116 Carey Ave., 
then Ferguson street, built in the '80 's by George Draper and 
successively owned by N. R. Davis and the Episcopal Church 
which used it as a rectory at the time of our purchase. Here 
our three daughters were married — Ida to Dr. Galen A. Fox 
of Cheyenne, Vera (now deceased) to Bruce S. Jones of Chey- 
enne, and Helen to Dr. Robert C. Shanklin, then of South Bend, 
Indiana but now retired from practice and living in Chicago 
where George Jr. and his wife also live. 

During his thirty years residence on the UC ranch near 
Egbert, Wyoming, George Henry Gilland was always a leading 
spirit in the community, serving on the school board, several 
times elected to the Republican county convention at Cheyenne, 
and in May, 1892, sent as a delegate to the State convention 
there, called to elect delegates to the National convention at 
Minneapolis in June. In 1902 he was elected to the state legis- 
lature ; in 1904 was a delegate to the state convention at Casper 


and in 1911 served again as a representative in the legislature^ 
this time from Cheyenne. 

After his inception into the Blue Lodge in 1902 Mr. Gilland 
took an active and prominent part in Masonry. He became a 
member of Cheyenne Lodge No. 1, A. F. and A. M. ; Past High 
Priest of Wyoming Chapter No. 1 ; Member of the Order of 
High Priesthood, Wyoming ; Past Commander of Wyoming 
Commandery, No. 1 ; Past Master of Kadosh, Wyoming Con- 
sistory, No. 1 ; Knight Commander of the Court of Honor, 33rd 
degree Honorary and a Shriner of Korean Temple, Rawlins. 
He was also Almoner of Consistorj^ No. 1 and Treasurer of 
the Scottish Rite Fund. He belonged to Surat Grotto, to 
B.P.O.E. Lodge No. 660 and to the Cheyenne Country Club ; 
was a water commissioner of District No. 1 and an appraiser 
for the State Land Board. 

In 1924 came business reverses and following years of 
strenuous effort to recuperate, Mr. Gilland 's once vigorous 
health gave way. The death of our daughter, Vera, December 
4, 1930, was the final blow and three years later, on the first of 
December, 1933, he too passed aAvay, loved and honored by all 
who knew him for his business integrity, courageous perse- 
verance in the face of difficulty and his loyalty to family, friends 
and ideals. 


(From The Wyoming Commonwealth, Clieyenne, Wyoming, 
December, 1891.) 

In this democratic Nineteenth century "society," in the 
old and aristocratic sense of the term, is disappearing. People 
of a certain class and certain means do certain things at certain 
times because other people of the same class and the same means 
do likewise. There is a universal tendency toward the equali- 
zation of luxury and of the exterior manifestations of refine- 
ment. Social habits are formed on the models established by 
two or three great centers of civilization, and all the life that 
you find elsewhere is a more or less pale reflection of the real 
article. With the increase of facilities of communication orig- 
inality of all kinds decreases, and the search for local color 
becomes more and more hopeless. — Theodore Child in Harper's. 

The least act of the most unlettered Pioneer toward mold- 
ing an untamed wilderness into a glorious commonwealth, is 
worthy of the highest mark of respect by each succeeding gen- 


(Top, left to right): Frank E. Lucas— October 2, 1924-January 5 1925; 
Prank C. Emerson— January 3, 1927-February 18, 1931 (Died m office); 
(Center): Nellie Tayloe Ross— January 5, 1925-January 3, 1927; (Bot- 
tom): Alonzo M. Clark— (Acting) Eebruary 18, 1931-January 2, 193d; 
Leslie A. Miller, January 2, 1933-January 2, 1939. 


By Harry B. Henderson, Sr.* 

Article V 

Frank E. Lucas 

Frank E. Lucas was born at Grant City, Missouri, in 1876. 
He was educated in the public schools at Bedford, Iowa. 
Early in life he served an apprenticeship in the printing- trade 
at Des Moines, Iowa, and became a newspaper publisher in 
that State. 

Mr. Lucas transferred his residence to Wyoming in 1899, 
locating" at Buffalo, the County seat of Johnson County. He 
acquired the Buffalo Bulletin, became and is its editor and 
publisher. His paper is regarded as one of the best publica- 
tions of the State. 

After having served his constituents as a member of the 
House and Senate of Wyoming, he became a candidate and 
was nominated for and elected to the office of Secretary of 
State in 1922. 

During the Legislative Session of 1923 he urged, recom- 
mended and secured constructive legislation relating to the 
Secretary of State's office. 

LTpon the death of Governor William B. Ross, October 2, 

1924, Mr. Lucas automatically became acting Governor of 

Governor Lucas at once took over the duties of the execu- 
tive office and administered them with fidelity, to January 2, 

1925, when the Governor-elect was inducted into office. Inas- 
much as the duty of preparing a message to the Legislature 
was not incumbent upon him, no state paper was presented. 
His management and administration of public aff'airs during 
his brief term as Acting Governor was most creditable. Upon 
the qualifications of his successor, Mr. Lucas again returned 
to the duties of his office as Secretary of State, completing 
his term. 

Mr. Lucas was married to Ina B. Craven of Lynnville, 
Iowa, in 1886, they have two children. 

The Lucas family has continued to reside at Buffalo and 
are counted among the honored and highly esteemed citizens 
of Johnson Countv and the State. 

*A biographical sketch of Mr. Henderson appears in the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 1939, with the first of this 
series of five articles on Wyoming Territorial and State Governors 
being written especially for this pnblication. 


Nellie Tayloe Ross 

Nellie Tayloe Ross, the first Woman Governor of a Sover- 
eign State to be elected and inducted into office in the United 
States, was the widow of Grovernor William B. Ross who died 
in the second year of his term of office. Subsequent to her 
husband's death she was nominated by the State Central 
Committee of her political party and at the election held in 
November, 1924 was selected by the people to be the Chief 
Executive of the State for the ensuing two years. 

Mrs. Ross was elected to the office of Governor November 
4, 1924 and took the oath of office January 5, 1925. While 
Mrs. Ross was tactful, charming in manner and easy of ap- 
proach, yet her election was influenced in a measure by 
reason of the sympathy which went out to her because of 
her bereavement and further, because she was the nominee 
for Governor in the First Woman Suffrage State. 

Mrs. Ross had been a resident of the State of Wyoming 
for more than twenty years, coming as a bride in 1902. She 
was interested in making a good home for her husband and 
the proper raising of her three splendid sons. It was not 
until after her husband had been elected Governor that she 
took an interest in politics and public affairs. 

While Mrs. Ross lacked executive experience, yet she 
gained an insight into state affairs that was most creditable. 

In the introductory paragraph of her Message to the 
Eighteenth Legislature she said: "The contemplation of duty 
moves me to a declaration of humility with which I approach 
the obligations of the high office which has been committed 
to me, and of my hope that God may give me wisdom and 
direct my mind and heart in the discharge of all my official 
duties. ' ' 

In her message Mrs. Ross called attention to recommen- 
dations to the Seventeenth Legislature, made by her deceased 
husband. Governor William B. Ross, and urged that his 
policies be continued. That the ''pay as you go" system in 
effect should continue. She urged that property values be 
equalized so that the tax burden should be proportionately 
upon all. "Tax reduction is generally recognized as the most 
pressing problem. . . . The time has come in many 
localities when farm taxes equal or surpass the very income 
from the land itself. The excessive cost of government is 
becoming a restraint on individual enterprise. Such a con- 
dition cannot be prolonged with safety. The State has made 
an extraordinary record of economy and tax reduction, which 
had it been followed by local taxing bodies, would have 
lowered the tax bill of every taxpayer in the state. 


Public opinion must be directed toward the control of local 

Reference is made in the message to "Interstate streams 
defense" and that negotiations were in progress in Wyoming, 
Nebraska and Colorado for the purpose of effecting a com- 
pact as to the use of the waters of the North Platte River. 
Many other problems were discussed in the document, deemed 
pertinent to Wyoming advancement. 

The message is generally comparable with the utterances 
of other Governors and is the first State document from a 
woman Governor. 

Mrs. Ross after her retirement from the Governor's office 
continued her interest in public affairs and politics. She was 
elected in 1928 National Vice Chairman of the Democratic 
Party Organization and took an active part in the campaign 
of that year. She continued as an Executive officer of her 
party and was active in its management in the years following 
and upon the election of President Roosevelt was appointed 
Superintendent of the United States Mint. The duties of 
this position have been performed with dignity and fidelity. 

While Mrs. Ross has been active in political affairs for 
the past fifteen years, yet she has not lost her gracious manner 
or held herself aloof from the friends she met, learned to 
know and love during the years preceding her public career. 

Frank C. Emerson 

Frank C. Emerson was governor of Wyoming from Janu- 
ary 3, 1927 to February 18, 1931, the date of his death. 

Mr. Emerson was born May 26, 1882 at Saginaw, Michigan. 
He was educated in the schools of his city and the University 
of Michigan. He came to Wyoming in 190-4, locating at Cora 
on New Fork in what is now Sublette County, and engaged in 
merchandising but that was not his forte. In 1905 lie was 
appointed to an engineering position in the State Engineer's 
office at Cheyenne. Upon the opening of a portion of the 
Shoshone Indian Reservation, Mr. Emerson was placed in 
charge of locating irrigation canals in the district. There- 
after he directed bis eff'orts in the construction of irrigation 
projects in the Big Horn Basin, particularly in the Shell Creek 
and Worland localities. He was regarded highly as an Irriga- 
tion Engineer, and was a valuable man to the Basin Country, 
not only as a citizen but as an adviser in Irrigation Canal 
building, and also in the building of drainage systems. 

He was appointed State Engineer in 1919 and became a 
member of the Colorado River Commission for allocating the 


waters of the Colorado River and its tributaries among the 
seven mountain states constituting the water shed. 

Mr. Emerson was nominated to the office of and elected 
Governor in 1926 taking the oath of office on the first Monday 
of January 1927, and was re-elected in 1930. 

By virtue of his having been engaged in the development 
of State resources Governor Emerson brought to the office a 
knowledge of the physical and economic conditions in the 

In his message of January 1927 he said : 

"In arriving at my recommendations as to appropria- 
tions, I have been ruled by the consideration of the utmost 
economy consistent with efficiency in administration in order 
that the tax burden may not be increased . . . It is 
essential that sufficient amounts of money be allowed for 
. the different offices and departments of State which 
vitally concern the business and industry of Wyoming. . . . 
Offices, Departments and Institutions have presented requests 
for appropriations in excess of the amounts made available 
for their use heretofore and each from its viewpoint impressed 
with the necessity for more money if its operations are to be 
carried on to the best advantage. The necessity of sound 
judgment in arriving at a conclusion as to appropriations is 
therefore apparent." 

"There are certain economies that may be effected by 
assigning to present established agencies, duties now per- 
formed by special officers or departments." 

A comprehensive program of highway construction cover- 
ing a period of years is heartily endorsed. 

Legislation designed to provide pensions for the unfor- 
tunate who have reached old age is urged. "A law can be 
drafted that will cause only nominal financial demand upon 
the State. The benefits to be derived would appear to more 
than offset any outlay of money. 

"The Interstate Commission is still engaged upon its 
deliberations in relation to a compact between the States of 
Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming." 

"Recommendations have been made concerning those 
things that in my mind bear promise of definite results in 
relation to the prosperity of Wyoming." 

Governor Emerson in his message to the Twentieth State 
Legislature in January, 1929 reiterates some of the recommen- 
dations made by him in 1927. 

He referred to economics and said "while we may recog- 
nize the wisdom of the increases proposed in the budget we 
still have to foot the bill. How this is to be done without 


increase in taxes is the question. Two ways are open, cut 
clown expenses of operation and increase the revenues." 

The following subjects are ably discussed in the message: 

Consolidation of the Department of Agriculture and the 
livestock boards, the Commissioner of Child and Animal Pro- 
tection, the Board of Charities and Reform, and the State 
Veterinarian. Collection of property taxes ; taxation of intan- 
gible securities, the land leasing system, farm loans, sec- 
ondary highways and a bond issue for their construction. 

In fact all the subjects presented were of great impor- 
tance to the progress and economic interests of Wyoming. 

Governor Emerson was an ardent advocate of the move- 
ment in the Public Land States for the ceding of the public 
domain to such states. He was recognized as an authority 
upon public land questions and inter-state stream adjustments. 

Mr. Emerson and Miss Zennia Reynders of Michigan were 
married January 17, 1910 and at once established their home 
in the Big Horn Basin. Three fine boys now grown to man- 
hood were born in the family. Mr. Emerson was a deeply 
religious man. He was an active member of the Baptist 
Church in his young manhood and brought that membership 
and Church activity to W^^oming, into his home, business and 
political life. He also had membership in the American Society 
of Civil Engineers. 

Governor Emerson took the duties of his job seriously. 
He was an untiring worker. The responsibilities of his office 
and the further fact that the Legislative period brought addi- 
tional work, weakened his physical condition, he fell sick and 
on Wednesday night, February 8, 1931, four days before 
Legislative adjournment, he passed away. 

In the passing of Governor Emerson, Wyoming people 
lost a wise councellor, citizen and friend. 

Alonzo M. Clark 

Upon the death of Governor Prank C. Emerson, Alonzo 
M. Clark, Secretary of State, became, under the provisions 
of the State Constitution, Acting Governor, February 18, 1931. 

Mr. Clark was born in Steuben County, Indiana, August 
13, 1868. He established his home in Crook County, Wyoming, 
in 1901 by homesteading 3'20 acres of land. He taught school 
for many years in Crook, Converse and Niobrara Counties. 
Subsequent to the creation of Campbell County he was County 
Clerk and Clerk of Court of that county for several years. 

In 1926 Mr. Clark was elected Secretary of State and 
re-elected in 1930. It was while serving his second term that 


Governor Emerson passed away, and he was automatically 
ushered into the office and became acting governor. 

Governor Clark necessarily assumed large responsibilities 
in taking up the duty of governor. The legislature had four 
days in which to complete its session. Many bills had been 
enacted and were awaiting the signature of the governor and 
there was also important legislation pending, all of which 
enacted bills were placed on the Acting Governor's desk for 
consideration, approval or rejection. 

Governor Clark took up the task of analyzing the Legis- 
lative Acts before him, giving approval to such as in his 
judgment would be beneficial to the State. He entered 
actively into the administration of State affairs — acquainted 
himself Avith the responsibilities of Governor, and discharged 
the duties of the office with efficiency and dignity. He retired 
from office upon the qualification of the Governor on the 
First Monday of January, 1933. 

Governor Clark and his good wife have continued to live 
in Cheyenne since his retirement from office. 

Leslie A. Miller 

Leslie A. Miller was, at the November election in 1932, 
elected to the office of Governor for the unexpired term of 
Governor Frank C. Emerson, deceased, and took the oath of 
office January 2, 1933. He was again elected Governor at 
the November election in 1934, and was inaugurated on the 
first Monday in January, 1935 — serving for the full term of 
four years ; retiring from office on the first Monday in Januarv, 

Mr. Miller was born at Junction City, Kansas, January 
29, 1886. While yet a young child, he was brought by his 
parents to Laramie where they established their home. He 
grew up in Laramie — was educated in the schools of that city 
— worked for the Union Pacific Railroad Company for about 
tAvo years, and then entered the employ of his father Avho was 
engaged in the mercantile business. During such employment 
he became interested in politics and was elected in 1910 to 
the House of the Wyoming Legislature. He Avas subsequently 
elected to the House in 1922 and to the State Senate in 1928. 
After the close of the Legislative Session in 1911 he transferred 
his residence to Cheyenne and was employed by the State 
Land Department. 

Mr. Miller was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue 
for Wyoming. Upon his Federal Service being terminated 
he gave personal attention to his business as an oil distributor 
and incorporated the Chief Oil Company. 


His observations and experience in public life led him to 
seek the position of Governor. 

Governor Miller in preparing the budget in 1932 had the 
advantage of the research work of the Tax Payers League 
of which he was a member and was able to present to the 
Legislature a program looking toward decreasing the expense 
of State Administration and yet rendering more efficiency. 

In his message to the twenty-second State Legislature 
he said : 

"We are all agreed that economy in State expenditures 
is absolutely necessary. This necessity extends to all political 
subdivisions. Extravagances must first be eliminated, cut the 
expenses next. I am asking practically every department of 
the State to curtail ordinary running expenses. 

"Attention is called to the default in interest on State 
Land Board investments and recpiest made for remedial 
measures. Suggestion is made that on defaulted Land Board 
loans, the State is entitled to at least the landlord's share of 
crop production. Reduction of salary of office and employees 
of the State, in a reasonable amount is urged. 

"I have concluded I will not take up my residence in 
the Executive mansion during my present term, thereby saving 
the State the expense of maintenance." 

The recommendation is made to reduce allowances on 
mileage of privately owned automobiles used by State officers 
and employees. Also that State owned cars be pooled and 
furnished upon requisition only. 

Governor Miller urged the consolidation of certain gov- 
ernmental subdivisions, the abolition of other departments. 
He also urged members of the Legislature to give careful 
thought to the several State institutions and provide for their 
administration upon lines that oft'ered the best results. 

He recommended a study of the price of gasoline in order 
to prevent discrimination against the citizens of Wyoming. 

Governor Miller off^ered a supplementary message to the 
Legislature upon the subject of tax relief. He urged that 
the legislature should, by proper resolution, provide for a 
committee to study the entire tax structure of the State. 

Perhaps the most important legislation of the twenty- 
second state legislature was the Bill providing a way by which 
the overdraft on the general fund of the State could be paid. 
This Bill became Chapter 12-1 of the Laws of 1933. 

Governor Miller in his message to the twenty-third State 
Legislature discussed at length the subject of sales tax, old 
age pensions, unemployment insurance — experiment farm ex- 
penses, the highway department, what to do with the gambling 


problem and liquor control. Many of these subjects were 
favorably considered by the Legislature and Laws relating 
thereto were enacted. 

In his message to the twenty-fourth State Legislature, 
Governor Miller refers to the certificates of indebtedness 
provided for in 1933 as being paid and a credit balance to 
the State General Fund. Public welfare is given extended 
consideration. Taxes are generally discussed. The subject 
of gambling legislation is treated as follows : ' ' Gambling creates 
no wealth, discourages thrift, invites an undesirable element — 
has nothing to commend it." 

The cricket and grass hopper menace was presented, water 
conservation and other subjects pertinent to the progress of 
the State were called to the attention of the Legislature. 

Governor and Mrs. Miller reside in their beautiful home 
in Cheyenne ; their son and daughter likewise live in this city. 






In the first installment of this Memorial, which appeared 
in the July, 1940, number of the ANNALS, comment was 
made concerning the high type of men who drafted the 
Constitution of AVyoming at the memorable convention at 
Cheyenne in September of 1889. As the study has progressed 
in preparation for this, the concluding installment, it has 
been further obvious that Dame Fortune smiled on this young 
Territory when she attracted within her borders such states- 
men as formulated the document by which the new State and 
its citizens were destined to abide. 

In following through these pages it is apparent, to a 
remarkable degree, that most of the men continued to reside 
in Wyoming and to give unsparingly of their talents in 
public service throughout the years — until called to the 
Higher Realm. Those whom circumstances transferred to 
other States in the early subsequent years are, certainly, 
none the less appreciated for their contribution made to 

The ten counties existing in the Territory were to be 
represented by fifty-five delegates elected for attendance at 
the convention. Of these, forty-five appeared in the conven- 
tion hall in the Capitol on the first day, September 2, and 
were sworn in — all counties being represented. Within the 
next few days, four more delegates appeared and took the 
oath, making forty-nine in all who actually participated in 
the sessions. The other six, comprising two each from Carbon, 
Crook and Sheridan counties, were not present and did not 

Carbon County* 

Charles W. Burdick, an attorney, who became one of Wyo- 
ming 's wealthiest men, was born on August 15, 1860. in 
Lucas county, Ohio, and died on January 8, 1927, at Washing- 
ton, D. C, while sojourning in that city on business, from 

The son of a prominent eastern banker and manufacturer. 

*Eight Constitutional delegates were elected from Carbon County, 
including John C. Davis and W. N. Strobridge who did not serve, and 
whose biographies are not contained in this memorial. Little biograph- 
ical information was found concerning Delegate Robert C. Butler, and 
no photograph though extensive research was made. 


he was educated in the public schools of Toledo, Ohio, at the 
Friend's School of Providence, Rhode Island, and at the Ohio 
Wesleyan University, before receiving his law degree from 
the University of Michigan. 

In 1879, attracted to the West in the hope of improving 
his health, Mr. Burdick first settled in the Saratoga section 
of Carbon county, where he engaged in livestock raising and 
began taking part in public life. He was a member of the 
Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Committee of the Constitu- 
tional Convention. 

Mr. Burdick was a member of the Territorial Legislature 
in 1889, and held the office as first auditor of the new State, 
having begun his term in 1890, when he took up his residence 
in Cheyenne. He was Secretary of State in 1894 and served 
four years, following which he began the practice of law in 
Cheyenne, and for a time was associated with J. A. VanOrsdel, 
later a federal judge for the District of Columbia. 

In the early stages of the Salt Creek oil field activity, 
Mr. Burdick, seeing its potential value and importance, be- 
came an active force in its development, which ultimateh^ 
contributed largely to his own financial success. At the time 
of his death he was vice-president of the Franco-Wyoming 
Oil Company and president of the Enalpac Oil and Gas Com- 
pany, a subsidiary of the Franco-Wyoming. 

Mr. Burdick served as chairman of the Republican State 
Central Committee from 1906 to 1912. From 1900 to 1911 
he served as secretary of the state board of law examiners, 
and was a member of the executive council of the American 
Bar Association. 

This Convention delegate was a member of the Masonic 
order and of the Episcopal church. The honorary thirty-third 
degree had been conferred upon him by the former. 

He was buried in Lakeview cemetery, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Surviving him is his only daughter, IMargaret Bur- 
dick (Mrs. George W.) Hewlett. She and Mr. HcAvlett reside 
at their ranch, the Shellback, six miles northwest of Cheyenne. 

James A. Casebeer, in partnership with a ]\Ir. Lombard, 
established at Casper, on November 23, 1888, the "Casper 
AVeekly Mail," the first newspaper in what later has become 
Natrona County. He became the sole owner of the publica- 
tion on April 1, 1889, when Mr. Lombard retired from the 
enterprise, but later sold the newspaper to Alex T. Butler, 
who assumed its management on ]May 16, 1890, whereupon 
Mr. Casebeer departed for Yellowstone Park immediately, 
though what became of him, ultimately, is not known. 


The "Mail" suspended operations after its issue of Janu- 
ary 16, 1891. 

Mr. Casebeer, Casper's only delegate to the Convention, 
was the third postmaster of the town. 

Mr. A. J. Mokler, in his "History of Natrona County," 
says that an attempt was made to locate this delegate for a 
reunion of members of the Convention assemblage in 1920, 
but without success. 

In the "Journals and Debates of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, Wyoming," the index shows that Mr. Casebeer spoke 
twice during the sessions; once, to make a brief report in the 
absence of the chairman of the printing committee, of which 
he was a member, and at another time to voice a second to a 

Robert C. Butler was a cattle man who operated exten- 
sively in Carbon County, probably from approximately 1883 
to about 1888, though the records available concerning him are 

The Brand Book for 1885, published by the Wyoming 
Stock Growers' Association, lists the Butler Brothers, of 
Ferris, Wyoming, and records five brands. The range is 
listed, ' ' Sweetwater, Sand Creek and Muddy, Wyo. ' ' The 
Brank Book of 1887 lists "R. C. Butler," and gives the same 
brands and same range as in 1885 for "Butler Brothers." 

Charles L. Vagner was born in 1849, in Germany, and 
died at Laramie, Wyoming, on July 4, 1905. 

He arrived in Wyoming from Illinois in 1875, and settled 
at Carbon, coal mining community, now a ghost town, in 
Carbon county, where he lived until 1901, when the family 
moved to Laramie. 

Mr. Vagner was engaged in the cattle and sheep business 
in his county, and operated a general merchandise store. 

He was one of the organizers of the Carbon State Bank 
(now the Hanna Bank) and the Carbon Timber Company, 
and was serving as president of both institutions at the time 
of his death. Mr. Vagner was one of the wealthiest men in 
the State. 

He served his county as a representative to the legisla- 
ture, and during the Constitutional Convention he was a 
member of the committee on mines and mining. 

Other public service included membership on th-e first 
board of trustees of the University of Wyoming. 

In earlier life an adherent of the Catholic faith, he later 
withdrew from that church, but at his request before his 


death, was reinstated. In the meantime he became a member 
of the Masonic order and of the Knights of Pythias. 

A daughter, Mrs. Louis E. Coughlin, of Laramie, Wyo- 
ming, survives. 

George Ferris, one-time owner of the famed Ferris-Hag- 
ga.rty copper mine in Carbon County, Wyoming, was a Civil 
War veteran, Avho came to Wyoming territory a year after he 
was mustered out of service. 

Born on a farm in Michigan he received the usual educa- 
tion of his time and station. He enlisted with Company D, 
Seventh Michigan Cavalry, and served four years in the War 
of the Rebellion. Mustered out at Camp Douglas, Utah, Lieu- 
tenant Ferris returned to his native state for a year, following 
which he came to Wyoming and spent some time hunting and 
prospecting, after which he formed a partnership with Joe Hurt, 
and secured a ranch on the Platte river twelve miles below Fort 
Steele, where they engaged in raising cattle. 

In 1889, Mr. Ferris sold his cattle interests and turned 
attention to sheep raising. Subsequently he also disposed of 
that property, and devoted his efforts to mining. 

Mr. Ferris grub-staked Ed. Haggarty. who later discovered 
the copper mine knoAv as the Ferris-Haggarty. Soon after its 
discovery and before much work had been accomplished, Mr. 
Ferris accepted an opportunity to purchase the interest of a 
Haggarty associate, and thereafter devoted his full time and 
means to the mine development, with outstanding success. In 
September, 1902, the mine was sold to the North American Cop- 
per Mining company, for the sum of $1,000,000.00. To i\Ir. 
Ferris was given much credit for the stability of the mining 
industry, as it existed in Carbon county in those days. 

He served his county as commissioner, and twice was elected 
to the legislature, on the Republican ticket. 

While the Convention Journal shows that this delegate 
voted on numerous motions presented, his name does not appear 
on the list of signers of the Constitution. 

George C. Smith was born on December 25, 1842, at Al- 
toona, Pennsylvania, and was admitted to the bar in his native 

He spent a year in Denver before moving to Rawlins, Wyo- 
ming, in 1873, where he practiced law and held the office of 
county attorney for several terms, and where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. 


Mr. Smith enlisted in a Pennsylvania regiment at Lincoln's 
first call for volunteers and served three years and six months 
under General McClelland. 

His part in the Convention was an active one, for in the 
"Journals and Debates of the Wyoming Constitutional Conven- 
tion" the record shows that he presented a number of motions, 
several amendments and made many comments and suggestions 
throughout the sessions. 

Mr. Smith was a member of the Presbyterian church. 

He died of pneumonia on December 25, 1900, on a train 
between Cheyenne Wells, Colorado, and Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
enroute to his home at Rawlins from Pueblo, Colorado, where 
he had undergone treatment for rheumatism. 

A daughter, Mrs. Anna L. Evans, who resides at 4330 Claude 
Court, Denver, Colorado, was with her father when he passed 

Converse County* 

Morris C. Barrow, ("Bill Barlow") brilliant Wyoming 
journalist and newspaper publisher, was born on October 4, 
1857, at Canton, Pennsylvania, and died on October 9, 1910, at 
Douglas, Wyoming. 

A son of the Reverend and Mrs. Robert C. Barrow, he came 
West with his parents to Nebraska, and as a youth learned the 
printing trade. In 1876 he leased the Tecumseh (Nebraska) 
Chieftain, and published it for two years. Later as a U. S. 
postal clerk he was sent to Wyoming, with headquarters at 
Laramie, but in 1879 he returned to his journalistic work, and 
for seven years he accepted editorial positions, successively, on 
several newspapers at both Laramie and Rawlins, Wyoming. In 
the meantime he adopted the pseudonjan, "Bill Barlow," under 
which he became so well known that even many of his friends 
were unaware of his real name. 

His final move was in 1886, to Douglas, Wyoming, where 
he established the first newspaper in Converse County, "Bill 
Barlow's Budget," the present-day "Douglas Budget," which 
made its initial appearance on June 9, 1886, three months before 
arrival of the railroad into the town. 

While the "Budget" was popular and a financial success 
from the time of its first appearance, fame of the publisher was 
spread the widest by his small monthly magazine, called "Sage- 
brush Philosophy," whose circulation eventually extended over 
the United States and the author's reno"\^^l increased beyond the 
portals of Wyoming. Endowed with an extensive vocabulary, 

*Four delegates were elected from Converse County, including J. K. 
Calkins, who did not accept, but Frederick H. Harvey took his place, 
and the four signed the Constitution. 


which he used prolifically in unique, humorous style, Mr. Barrow 
injected into his writings sparkling wit, optimism and wise 
philosophy. The magazine reflected so perfectly the rare per- 
sonality of its author, that after his passing the publication did 
not long survive. 

When the U. S. Land Office was established at Douglas in 
1890, Mr. Barrow was appointed by President Harrison as its 
first receiver, and held the office several other terms. He was 
Mayor of Douglas for two successive terms, and served in the 
Wyoming Legislatures of 1894 and 1896, during which he was 
chief clerk of the House. 

He was a Republican, and a Mason. 

Frederick H. Harvey was born on September 7, 1858, at 
Anamosa, Jones County, Iowa, came to Douglas, Wyoming, 
on July 10, 1886, from Nebraska, began the practice of law 
and entered upon a long and useful career in the State. 

After receiving his elementary education, he won his 
bachelor of arts degree at Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa, 
and moved to Butte, Montana, in 1882, where he taught school 
a year, then returned east for further study, and was grad- 
uated from law college at Iowa City, Iowa, with an LL. B. 
degree. Following a year's post-graduate work in law at 
Columbia University, New York City, Mr. Harvey came west 
again and settled at Ashland, Nebraska, where he practiced 
his profession for a year before moving to Douglas, Wyoming, 
where he passed the remainder of his life, and died on January 
8, 1920. 

Mr. Harvey was elected the first prosecuting attorney 
of his county, 1887, and served as Mayor of Douglas for eight 
years, 1900 to 1908, during which terms the wide streets were 
laid out, a new cemetery established, a tree planting program 
conducted, and other progressive activities launched and com- 

In 1913 Mr. Harvey was vice president of the Wyoming 
Bar Association, and in 1918 he served as president of Con- 
verse County Bar Association. He was head of the law firm 
of Harvey, Hawley and Garst, and was attorney for the town 
of Douglas. 

In the later years of his career, Mr. Harvey took promi- 
nent part in the development and promotion of, the mining 
industry and was one of the pioneer oil attorneys in the 
Rocky Mountain region. 

At the time of his passing, eulogies of his friends appeared 
in the press, and spoke impressively of the high esteem in 
Vvhich he was held throughout the State. 




(Top row, left to right): Edward J. Morris, of Sweetwater County; 
Clarence D. Clark, Frank M. Foote. (Bottom row) : Charles W. 
Holden, Jonathan Jones, Jesse Knight, all of Uinta County. 

He was cited as one belonging to the class of those who 
''Live honestly; hurt nobody; render to everyone his due." 

This delegate to the Constitutional Convention frequently 
addressed that body, according to the records, and as he was 
gifted with eloquence, the flow of his speech was strong and 
convincing. He was a member of the judiciary committee, 
and also served in other capacities. 

William C. Irvine, born in Pennsylvania in 1852, was one 
of Wyoming's pioneer stockmen and prominent citizens for 
fifty years, having come to the Territory in 1873, and as 
head of the Ogalalla Cattle Company, soon became a leading 
figure, which continued until the time of his death. He 


passed away on July 27, 1924, at Santa Monica, California, 
where he had gone a year previously with his family in an 
effort to regain his failing health. 

The family resided at Cheyenne in the 1870s and 1880s 
before moving to their ranch at Ross in Converse county, and 
returned to the former city following Mr. Irvine's election 
as State Treasurer in 1904, in which office he served four years. 

At twenty years of age Mr. Irvine left his native home 
and emigrated to Kansas where he wintered some stock along 
the Solomon river and afterward went East for a few months. 
Returning again to Nebraska he bought a herd of 700 cattle 
near Ogalalla where he spent two years. Next, he formed 
a partnership with the Bosler Brothers, of Pennsylvania, who 
also were interested in cattle. 

One and a half years thereafter he purchased and brought 
4,000 head of stock from Texas and located them near Fort 
Fetterman. The following winter, 1877, he purchased 3,800 
more head, making approximately 8,000 in all. In 1881, he 
consolidated his holdings with some associates and organized 
what was known as the Converse Cattle Company, the capital 
stock at one time being $1,000,000.00, in which he was the 
second largest stockholder. 

He was a member of the Legislature of 1882 and 1884, 
and was a director in the first company incorporated to build 
the Cheyenne Northern Railroad, now the Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quincy Railroad. One of the originators of the Elec- 
tric Light Company of Cheyenne, later known as the Brush- 
Swan Electric Light Company. Mr. Irvine also was one of 
the organizers of the Wyoming Development Company, in 
1883, in the Wheatland section, formed "for the purpose of 
taking out ditches, reclaiming desert land" and similar 

Mr. Irvine was president of the Wyoming Stock Growers 
Association from 1896 to 1911, and was its treasurer at the 
time of his passing, having been elected to the office in 1912. 
Other service for the Association included membership on the 
executive committee from 1882 to 1900, assistant round-up 
foreman of District No. 4 in 1879, and round-up foreman of 
the same District in 1881. 

The recordings of the "Journal and Debates of the Con- 
stitutional Convention" of Wyoming show that this delegate 
took active, though conservative, part in the sessions. He 
was a Republican. 

Funeral services were held at the Masonic Temple in 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, on August 5, 1924, and eulogies to his 


memory were expressed by friends, through the press of the 
State. He was buried in Lakeview cemetery of that city. 

His widow, Mrs. Carolyn Irvine, died in March, 1928, 
and also is buried in Lakeview cemetery at Cheyenne. 

Deforest Richards performed his first public service to 
Wyoming as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, hav- 
ing come to Douglas, Wyoming, from Chadron, Nebraska, 
two or three years previously. He was bom in New Hampshire. 

He served as Wyoming's fourth Governor from January 
2, 1899, until his death in office, on April 28, 1903, having 
completed only four months of his second term. 

With an excellent background of educational training 
and rigid New England Puritanical rearing, together with 
considerable experience in public service and business enter- 
prises before coming West, Mr. Richards arrived in the prime 
of life to take his place as one of the best loved leaders of 
Wyoming and an outstanding citizen for fifteen years, t 

Crook County* 

Meyer Frank, born in Bavaria, Germany, on February 22^ 
1854, came to America in 1870, and joined an elder brother 
at Jeffersonville, Indiana, where he obtained a place as clerk 
and salesman for a time. Later he moved to Alabama and 
for about six years engaged in the mercantile business which 
he had learned from his father, a prosperous grain merchant. 

In 1882 he came West to the Black Hills of South Dakota 
and obtained a position in a mercantile establishment at 
Central City. 

Two years later, 1884, he proceeded to northeastern Wyo- 
ming and established the firm of Frank Brothers at Sundance. 
Later the business was incorporated as the Ogden-Frank 
Mercantile Co., of which Mr. Frank was its vice-president. 
He also, during his career, was vice-president of the Black 
Hills Livestock Company, secretary and treasurer of the 
Weston County Livestock Company, vice-president of the 
Wyoming Livestock Company, vice-president of the Antlers 
Hotel Company, and cashier and principal stockholder of the 
Bank of Newcastle which he organized in 1889. 

He assisted in laying out the town of Newcastle and in 
organizing the county of Weston. "He was the first treasurer 

fFor a complete resume of this delegate's career, see ANNALS OF 
WYOMING, Volume 12, No. 2, April, 1940, pg. 121, sketch as Governor, 
by Harry B. Henderson, Sr. 

*Four delegates were chosen from Crook County to the Constitutional 
Convention, but Thomas H. Moore and Joseph L. Stotts did not serve. 


of these respective municipal organizations." As county 
treasurer he was ex-officio probate judge, and in this capacity 
he solemnized the first marriage ceremony performed in the 
new county. He was county treasurer for three successive 
terms and served as Mayor of Newcastle in 1900 and 1901. 

He purchased the first lot sold in the townsite of Sun- 
dance and erected the first two business blocks within its limits. 

He was a charter member of the Masonic lodge at Sun- 
dance, was a deputy grand master of the grand lodge of Wyo- 
ming in 1902, and had received the thirty-second degree in 
Wyoming Consistory, No. 1. 

Though active in politics, Mr. Frank was not known as 
a partisan, but ''in all the essentials of good citizenship and 
enlightened humanity was an example and an inspiration, 
quickening with the touch of a master hand every impulse 
for good, and concentrating and energizing every element of 
civic power and progress." 

He never married. While Mr. Frank succeeded in build- 
ing up large financial holdings, his fortune later was swept 
away and he left the State. His death occurred in New York 
City, on August 22, 19] 0. 

Richard H. Scott, born on September 3, 1858, in Henne- 
pin County, Minnesota, came to Wyoming on July 5, 1886, 
and settled at Sundance, where he began the practice of law. 

At the age of 17 he received appointment to the United 
States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, from which 
he was graduated on June 10, 1880. After a year's service 
in the U. S. Navy, he resigned in 1881 and began the study 
of law in Minnesota, working on government surv^ey in the 
summer and pursuing his studies in the winter. 

For sixteen years, from 1890 to 1906, Mr. Scott presided 
as judge of the First Judicial District in Wyoming. February 
24, 1906, he was appointed as a Justice of the Supreme Court 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Judge Jesse Knight, 
and was in continuous service on the bench from that date, 
having been chosen at the general election following his 
appointment in 1906, re-elected in 1910, and again re-elected 
in 1914. He served as Chief Justice from January 6, 1913 
to January 4, 1915 and at the time of his death' at Cheyenne, 
September 26, 1917, he was an Associate Justice. 

At both the primary and general elections, Judge Scott 
was given one of the largest majority votes ever accorded a 
candidate for a state office in Wyoming, to that time. 


He was a Republican, and his religious affiliation was 
the Episcopal church. He was a thirty-third degree member 
of the Masonic Order. 

A year previous to coming to Wyoming, Mr. Scott and 
Miss Agnes Coalis, of Jordan, Minnesota, were married, and 
to them a son and four daughters were born, who, together 
with Mrs. Scott, were living at the time of his passing. 

Sheridan County* 

Henry A. Coffeen, born in Gallipolis, Gallia County, Ohio, 
on February 14, 1841, came to Wyoming from Danville, 
Illinois, and settled first at Big Horn, in September, 1884, 
prior to the formation of Sheridan county from Johnson 
count}^ in 1888. 

In 1887 he moved to Sheridan, and to the time of his 
death in that city on December 8, 1912, he took active part in 
public affairs of his community and state. 

He was engaged in the real estate and mercantile busi- 
ness as well as ranching and mining. 

Of him it was said, ' ' He was a brilliant orator and a man 
of refinement and culture. . . . He sought to promote better 
standards of business and social conditions. He believed 
in advancement." 

He was educated at Butler College in Illinois. He taught 
at Hiram College, Ohio, when James A. Garfield was president 
of the college, and while conducting a music and book store 
in Danville, Illinois, he traveled as a public lecturer on a 
lyceum course. 

When the first railway survey was made through northern 
Wyoming and Sheridan came into being, Mr. Coffeen, fore- 
seeing this advantage to the little town, moved to that point 
and assisted vigorously with its advancement by taking active 
part in the promotion of all business enterprise. He was 
largely instrumental in securing the county seat for Sheridan, 
ill competition with the towns of Big Horn and Dayton. 

In 1892, "when the political issue was the gold and silver 
standard, Mr. Coffeen joined the ranks of the silver Demo- 
crats," and was elected to Congress, where on August 15, 
1894, he made a speech in behalf of the reclamation of arid 
lands of the West, endorsing some of the ideas incorporated 
into the Carey Act of that year. 

Being his county's only representative at the Convention 
probably accounts for the fact that he was one of the most 
frequent and eloquent speakers, as disclosed by the records. 

*Tliree Constitutional delegates were elected from Sheridan County, 
including Cornelius Boulware and "William N. Robinson vrlio did not 


At the time of his death, Mr. Coffeen was heavily inter- 
ested in gold and silver mining projects in the Big Horn 
Mountains, and it was stated in the newspaper columns that 
he had spent a small fortune in exploiting and developing 
various mines of that section. A street and school building 
in Sheridan bear his name. 

A daughter, Mrs. John V. Telander, lives at Sheridan, 

Sweetwater County* 

AsBURY B. CoNAWAY was bom on October 13, 1837, in 
McLean County, Illinois, and at the age of thirteen, moved 
Vvdth his parents to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, and as those were 
the days before public schools in that state he received his 
preliminary education in private schools. 

At the age of nineteen, he entered Iowa AVesleyan Univer- 
sity, and "having an unusually active brain, combined with 
great love of study," he finished the four-years classical 
course in three years, besides studying law and being gradu- 
ated from that department at the same time. The degree of 
LL.D. was afterward conferred upon him by that institution. 

He won all prizes offered in his classes, and it was said 
of him that he "read mathematics as others read books." 

Shortly after his graduation in 1860 with the highest 
honors of his class, he was elected to his first office, Justice 
of the Peace, from which he resigned in the following spring 
and moved with the family to Chariton, Iowa. Mr. Conaway 
then taught school a year before enlisting in the 18th Regi- 
ment of the Iowa Volunteer Infantry, for duty in the Civil 
War. He soon rose from a private to the rank of Captain 
and at the close of the War he was brevetted Major for 
meritorious conduct. 

Upon returning to his home in Iowa, Major Conaway 
engaged in the practice of law and was elected to the Legis- 
lature of his county, but in 1868 he responded to the call of 
the West and settled first at South Pass in Fremont County, 
Wyoming, but later moved to Green River, Sweetwater County, 
where he practiced law, and served as County and Prosecuting 
Attorney. He also served as Territorial Judge of the Third 
Judicial District, and was chairman of the Constitutional 
Convention Judiciary Committee. 

On September 11, 1890, he was elected one of the three 
first Justices of the Supreme Court of the new State of Wyo- 

*Five delegates were elected to represent Sweetwater County, all of 
whom served and all of whose signatures appear on the original document. 


ming, became Chief Justice in 1897, and died in office at Cliey- 
enne, Wyoming, on December 7th of that year. 

Judge Conaway was a member of the Episcopal church, 
and in politics he was a Republican. He never married. 

So much did Governor W. A. Richards value this early 
pioneer of Wyoming for his service to the State and of his 
worth as a man and fellow citizen, that the former, in his 
retiring message to the Fifth Legislature, early in 1899, eulo- 
gized Judge Conaway and suggested that a monument be 
erected to his memory at the expense of the State. 

Herman F. Menough, born at Wellsville, Ohio, in about 
1843, died in Rock Springs, Wyoming, on August 8, 1921. 

He came to Wyoming in 1885 from Steubenville, Ohio, 
and settled at Rock Springs, where he held the position of 
foreman mechanic for the Union Pacific Coal Company. 

Later he spent several years in Utah, and was in the 
Klondike region during the gold rush. 

Returning to Rock Springs he took active part in com- 
munity life. He served as postmaster four or five years, until 
1894, and also served as county commissioner, as well as 
superintendent of the General Hospital of that city. 

One of the last remaining Civil War Veterans of his 
community at the time of his death, Mr. Menough had served 
with the 165th Ohio Regiment. He was a Republican and a 
member of the Methodist church. 

Burial took place in Rock Springs, Wyoming, and the 
casket was draped with a silk flag belonging to the American 
Legion, for the purchase of which the deceased had been the 
first to subscribe, with a liberal donation. 

The "Journals and Debates of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion" show that tliis delegate was a member of the Credentials 
Committee of that body. 

Mark Hopkins, born in Connecticut in 1860, had superior 
advantages of education in New York City, where his father, 
an expert civil engineer, followed his profession more than 
thirty years. He also received a thorough course of instruction 
in a Brooklyn College, from which he was graduated in 1878. 

Having placed sjiecial emphasis on the technical and 
scientific branches of mining, immediately after graduation ]\Ir. 
Hopkins began the profession of mining engineering in Penn- 
sylvania, where he remained for eight years. 

He then came to Rock Springs, Wyoming, in 1886, and 
accepted the position of assistant general superintendent of 
the coal mines of the Union Pacific at that place, which he 


held for four years. Later he filled similar positions in Colo- 
rado and Utah, but returned to Wyoming in 1891 and assumed 
charge of the coal mines at Cumberland, Sweetwater County. 
He also served as superintendent of the property now known 
as the Gunn-Quealy Coal Company, and other activities in- 
cluded his development of the mines at Sweetwater, now 
known as the town of Quealy, Sweetwater County, which 
originally was named for him and was called "Hopkinsville. " 

The year of his severing connections with his mining posi- 
tion in Pennsylvania, 1886, Mr. Hopkins was married to Miss 
Ella Bright, of that State. 

He attended the Congregational Church and was a 

He was chairman of the Constitutional Convention Com- 
mittee on Mines and Mining, and the records show that he 
took active part in the discussions pertaining to those matters. 

Louis J. PxIlmer was a young lawyer of Rock Springs, 
Wyoming, who came to Wyoming Territory from Illinois, 
where his father. General John Palmer, at one time a United 
States Senator, ran for President as a "gold Democrat" in 

Mr. Palmer became County Attorney in his community, 
but returned to Illinois in about the year 1895, and it is 
thought that he died soon thereafter. 

He was a Democrat and attended the Episcopal church. 

This delegate to the Wyoming Constitutional Convention 
in 1889, is one of a group whose names appear most frequently 
in the journal and debate records of the sessions. Under the 
heading, "Remarks" in the index of those records, he is 
credited with having spoken thirty times on the Convention 
floor, and in addition, offered several motions. 

EoWiVED J. Morris was born on November 8, 1851, at 
Peru, Illinois, came to South Pass, Wyoming, in 1869. 

He was a son of Esther Morris, known as the "JMother 
of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming," and her husband, John 
Morris, whose family became prominently identified with the 
early history of the Territory and State. 

In the fall of 1882, Mr. Edward Morris, a Democrat, was 
elected clerk of Sweetwater county and moved to Green 
River, Wyoming, where he spent the remainder of his life. 
After serving two terms he was appointed postmaster of that 
town, and was its Mayor two terms, 1891-1892, and 1895-1896. 

In the meantime Mr. Morris had entered the mercantile 
business with some associates, and in 1890 the interests of 


his associates were purchased by his twin brother, Robert J. 
Morris, and half-brother, E. A. Slack, the firm being incor- 
porated as the Morris Mercantile Company, doing a general 
business. The following year a new building was erected, 
and in 1896 the Morris State Bank was incorporated. 

On August 31, 1881, Edward Morris was joined in mar- 
riage with Miss Bertie Chambers, daughter of Jim Chambers 
of Miner's Delight, Fremont County. 

Mr. Morris passed away at Green River, Wyoming, on 
September 5 or 6, 1902, and funeral services were held at 
Cheyenne on September 9. He was a member of the Masonic 
Order and of the Episcopal church. 

This delegate to the Constitutional Convention was re- 
ferred to by Wyoming Historian, I. S. Bartlett, as being one 
of a group of men of Green River who "played important 
parts in the public affairs of Wyoming during the Territorial 
days and in the early days of Statehood." 

Uinta County* 

Clarence D. Clark, born at Sandy Creek, New York, on 
April 16, 1851, came to Wyoming in 1881 from Manchester, 
Iowa, where he had practiced law for seven years, and settled 
at Evanston. He passed away on November 18, 1930, in that 
city, which closed a career of nearly half a century of valuable 
public service to his adopted state. 

Mr. Clark was Wyoming's first representative in the 
United States Congress after statehood was conferred, and 
served until March, 1893. From 1895 to 1917, twenty-two 
years, he served as United States Senator, being the senior 
senator from Wyoming. In July, 1919, he was appointed by 
President Woodrow Wilson on the Canadian-American Inter- 
national Joint Boundary Commission, and relinquished his 
duties in May, 1929. 

For four years he was prosecuting attorney of Uinta 
county, was influential in obtaining a Carnegie Library and 
Federal Building for Evanston ; was offered appointment as 
Associate Justice of Wyoming , in 1890, but declined. He 
was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 
1888, 1900, 1904 and 1908. 

This delegate to the Constitutional Convention took 
prominent part in the deliberations of that assemblage, accord- 
ing to the records, and was a member of the committee of ten 

*Six Constitutional delegates were elected from Uinta County, all of 
whom signed the Constitution for the proposed new State. 

John L. Eussell also was a member from Uinta County, but bio- 
graphical data and photograph have not been located, though extensive 
research was made. 


which presented the final memorial to Congress praying for 
admission of Wyoming as a State. He delivered an oration 
a1 Wyoming's famed statehood celebration in Cheyenne on 
July 23, 1890. It was referred to by the press as "a master- 
p:?ce of eloquence." 

Senator Clark was a graduate of Iowa State University, 
admitted to the bar of that state in 1874, and on August 6 of 
the same year was united in marriage with Miss Alice C. 
Downs, climax to a public school romance of early youth in 
Belvidere, Illinois, where both had been pupils. 

In announcing his death, newspaper headlines proclaimed 
Senator Clark, "Best Loved Citizen of Wyoming. . . . 
Eminent Statesman and Exemplar of American Patriotism, 
Kind Neighbor and Wonderful Friend, Leaves Record of His 
Life Written on Hearts of Men." 

Mrs. Clark passed away suddenly on January 22, 1925, 
while on a cruise of the Mediterranean Sea in company with 
her husband. In observance of their Golden Wedding Anni- 
versary, they were making an extensive tour, which came to 
its tragic end within an hour's sail from Naples, Italy, from 
where they had just departed. Her body also lies in the 
Evanston cemetery. 

Frank M. Foote, born on May 26, 1847, at South Bend, 
Indiana, received his higher education at the Northern Indiana 
College and the Indiana Normal School at Valparaiso. 

With a backgound of business experience as manager of 
a lumber company in his home town for a time, followed by 
a bookkeeping position in Rochester, Minnesota, Mr. Foote 
came to Wyoming in the spring of 1871, and located at 
Bryan, where he w^as employed as a clerk for the Union Pacific 
Railroad. In August of 1872, he moved to Evanston, Wyo- 
ming, as agent for the same company, and held that position 
17 or 18 years. 

Evanston was his home until summoned by death, on 
November 13, 1914, and burial took place at that city. 

Throughout Mr. Foote 's lifetime his activities were numer- 
ous and varied : political, fraternal, military and general 

He was a member of the Wyoming Territorial Legisla- 
ture, 1875-1876 ; probate judge and treasurer, Uinta County. 
AVyoming, 1877-1880; under-sheriff, 1880-1881; member of 
AA^yoming Territorial Penitentiary commission, 1884-1888 ; 
Uinta county assessor, 1895-1896 ; Mayor of Evanston, 1889- 
1890; Receiver of public moneys, Evanston, 1890-1904, 1897- 
1898, and 1899-1914. In 1912, Mr. Foote assisted in organiz- 


ing the Carbon Steel Manufacturing and Mining Company, 
and Avas its first president. 

He was a member of the board of trustees appointed by 
the Governor under the act of February 16, 1895, and em- 
powered, with ex-officio members, to establisli the AVyoming 
Historical Society (later and now conducted as the Wyoming 
Historical Department). 

In military activities, he was the Colonel commanding 
the First Regiment, Wyoming National Guard, 1893-1897, and 
Major commanding First Battalion, Wyoming Volunteers, in 
the Philippines during the Spanish-American war and the 
Philippine insurrection. "He served with gallantry in the 
battle at the taking of Manila on August 13, 1898, as well as 
many other battles, engagements and skirmishes. . . . His 
military record, though brief, is full of fruitful activity. His 
political record is both long and strong." 

Mr. Foote was a member of the Masonic Order, in which 
he had received the thirty-third degree, and of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. He held high offices in both. He was 
a life member of Salt Lake City Lodge No. 85, Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks, and was a Republican in politics. 

In 1873, Mr. Foote and Miss Ida L. Deuel were married, 
at Waterloo, New York. Two sons and two daughters Avere 
born to the couple. W. Holden was born on January 4, 1838, at 
Hennepin, Bureau County, Ohio, and at seventeen began his 
career as a farm hand at wages of $14.00 per month. 

He chose blacksmithing for an early profession, but in 
the meantime studied law and began practicing, first at 
Marion, Illinois, and later at Clinton, until June, 1861, Avhen 
he enlisted in Company F, Forty-first Illinois Infantry and 
served in the Union Army of the Civil War until he Avas 
mustered out, in August, 1864. He took part in some fierce 
engagements though he received only slight injuries. 

Mr. Holden brought his family to Green River, Wyoming, 
from Veedersburg, Indiana, on February 22, 1877, opened a 
law office and founded the Daily Evening Press, but business 
was not lucrative. The folloAving year he began homesteading 
on Fontenelle Creek, Avhere the family eA'entually acquired 
large acreage holdings and stock interests. 

Known as "Judge" from having been a justice of the 
peace, Mr. Holden served as U. S. Land Commissioner for 
twenty j^ears. "Entry for the majority of homes in Green 
River valley, Avas made before him." He served as post- 
master and Avas a member of the school board of trustees for 


twenty-three years. Mr. Holden was instrumental in securing 
a telephone line for the valley, between Opal and Green River, 
65 miles, and a mail route. He was a member of the first 
state board of control and assisted in the formation of rules 
governing its action ; he also took a leading part in the forma- 
tion of the districts for LaBarge and Fontenelle. 

This member of the Constitutional Convention was a 
member of Committee No. 7, Agriculture, Irrigation and Water 
Rights, and the index' to the Journals and Debates discloses 
that he was a frequent speaker on the convention floor. 

He was a Republican in politics. 

In 1911, Mr. Holden sold his ranch to a son, Howard, and 
accompanied his daughters, Minnie and Ella Holden, to River- 
side, California, where he passed away on December 20, 1913. 
The body was brought back to the Valley of the Fontenelle 
and buried by the side of his wife, on the old home ranch. 

Jonathan Jones was born in 1852, at Greansyor, Wales, 
and in 1885 came from the British Isles to Salt Lake City, 
Utah, followed by his wife and their five children a year later. 

Having been a miner in his native land, he again engaged 
in mining and development work as an engineer during his 
first years of residence in Utah. Later he filed on a homestead 
near Evanston, Wyoming, and proceeded to farm and raise 
cattle. Afterward the family moved to Evanston, and in 
1900, Mr. Jones was elected sheriff of Uinta county, serving 
until 1912. Search for desperate criminals in the Jackson 
Hole country, then a part of Uinta County, was among his 
official duties on several occasions. After completing his 
terms as sheriff, Mr. Jones was city marshal of Evanston for 
a few years. Later he sold his ranch and moved to Ogden, 
Utah, in 1915. 

In 1920 he was appointed chief of police at Ogden and 
served two terms. He also was acting United States deputv 
marshal in 1924-1925. 

Mr. Jones was a member of the -Congregational church. 

This member of the Constitutional Convention presented 
File No. 85 entitled, "Concerning Labor," which limited a 
working day to "eight hours for all mines and for all state 
and municipal works." It was adopted as a part of the 
Constitution, after general discussion and debate, during 
which Mr. Jones spoke several times in the interest of the 

Mr. Jones passed away at his home in Ogden, Utah, on 
Sunday, July 14, 1929, following a paralytic stroke two days 


previously, and was buried in Mountain View cemetery of 
that city, on July 17th. 

His widow, three daughters, one son and other relatives 
survived him. 

Jesse Knight was born on July 5, 1850, in Oneida 
County, New York, and after receiving his elementary educa- 
tion he gained his higher learning at Falley Seminary in 
Fulton, New York. 

At the age of seventeen, home ties were severed and he 
proceeded to St. Peter, Minnesota, made his home with an 
uncle, and then journeyed west to Omaha, Nebraska, where 
he obtained a clerical position in a mercantile house. In 1871, 
he moved to South Pass, Wyoming, and accepted employment 
from Sydney Ticknor for a year, when he was appointed Clerk 
of the Court for the Third Judicial District, and also was 
appointed postmaster for South Pass. In 1874 the district 
was re-organized. This necessitated Mr. Knight's moving 
to Evanston, Wyoming, where he continued as Clerk of the 
District Court for ten years longer. 

In the meantime he had been studying law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1877. 

In 1888, he was elected county attorney and served until 
1890. He was elected as district judge in 1890, and after 
seven years of service, he was appointed, in 1897, to fill 
the unexpired term of Judge Asbury B. Conaway as Associate 
Justice of the Wyoming Supreme Court. In 1898 Judge 
Knight was elected his own successor for a full term of eight 
years, and upon retirement of Chief Justice S. T. Corn in 
1904, Judge Knight was elevated to that position, which he 
held at the time of his death, April 9, 1905, at Cheyenne, 

As has been true of many delegates to the Constitutional 
Convention in 1889, Judge Knight was destined to become 
regarded as one of Wyoming's most noble characters. "He 
was, in a measure, self-made. He pushed forward slowly, but 
successfully, through varying" stages of pioneer life to judicial 
eminence. ' ' 

In politics Judge Knight was a Republican, and his 
fraternal organizations included the Benevolent and Protec- 
tive Order of Elks, Cheyenne chapter ; the Masonic Order, 
thirty-third degree ; the Ancient Order of Uiiited Workmen, 
and the Maccabees. 

He was survived by three daughters and two sons. His 
wife, Mary L. Hezlep, of Ohio, with whom he was married on 
February 14, 1876, had passed away several years pre\aously. 


Bibliography of Material Used in 

Compiling Above Biographies of Delegates from Carbon, Converse, 

Crook, Sheridan, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties. 

Progressive Men of Wyoming. 

History of Wyoming, by Beard, Vol. I. 

Cheyenne Sun Supplement, January, 1890. 

Coutant's Notes. 

Dr. L. C. Hunt's Notes. 

The Wyoming Industrial Journal, Vol. I, 1889-1900. 

Mokler's History of Natrona County. 

Journals and Debates of the Constitutional Convention, Wyoming. 

History of Wyoming, by Bartlett, Vols. I and III. 

Wyoming Historical Society Miscellanies, 1919. 

Wyoming State Tribune, April 10, 190.5 and January 9, 1940. 

Coutant's Notebooks, No. 31 and 38, Miscellaneous. 

Coutant's History of Wyoming, Vol. I. 

Coutant's Notes, Uinta County. 

Men of Wyoming, compiled and published by C. S. Peterson, Denver, 

Wyoming Leader, Cheyenne, September 27, 1917. 

Herringshaw's Encyclopaedia of American Biography. 

Uinta County History — Stone. 

Eock Springs Eocket, August 12, 1921. 

National Encyclopaedia of American Biography. 

Women of Wyoming, by Beach, Vol. I. 

Wyoming Times (Evanston) November 19, 1914. 

Wyoming Press, July 17, 1929. 

Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 5, October, 1927, to January, 1928. Nos. 
2 and 3. , 

Bancroft's Works, Vol. 25. 



William E. Chaplin, of Van Nuys, California, calls atten- 
tion to the fact that John W. Hoyt was appointed third 
Territorial Governor of Wyoming by President Hayes, instead 
of President Grant, as stated on page 171 of the July issue 
of the ANNALS OF WYOMING. The information was ob- 
tained from one of the accepted histories of Wyoming, but 
the matter has been checked again, and Mr. Chaplin's state- 
ment is found to be correct. 

R. H. Hall, of Lander, a Wyoming pioneer, calls attention 
of the Wyoming Historical Department to the biographical 
sketch of H. G. Nickerson on page 175 of the July, 1940. issue 
of the ANNALS OF WYOMING, in which it is stated that 
Mr. Nickerson was chairman of the first board of county 
commissioners of Fremont County. Mr. Hall, a member of 
that board, advises that H. E. Blinn was chairman. 

The source of the original information is "Progressive 
Men of the State of Wyoming," pg. 115. 

It is the desire of the Wyoming Historical Department 
that facts presented in the ANNALS shall be accurate, and 
corrections from readers are appreciated. 




A Prominent Wyoming Feminist 
By Agnes Jenkins Metcalf 

Wyoming's observance this year of its fiftieth anniversary 
of admission to statehood, has brought to memory the many 
loyal and untiring women of the Territory of Wyoming, 
through whose efforts was brought about this privilege of 
franchise — which we of the later generation have learned to 
accept as a matter of course. 

As a daughter of one of these pioneer women and one 
whose unswerving loyalty to the cause of woman suffrage 
did its part in bringing about this privilege of franchise, I 
feel that I have just cause to be proud, and it gives me much 
pleasure to set forth a few of the outstanding facts concerning 
her life, which may perpetuate her memory in the annals of 
the state which was her home and which she loved for more 
than a half centurv. 

Therese Alberta Parkinson was born ]\lay 1, 18o3, in 
Fayette, Lafayette County, Wisconsin, the daughter of Peter 


and Cleantha Storms "Welch Parkinson. Her father was a 
pioneer of Wisconsin, having gone there from his home in 
Tennessee while that state was yet a part of the Northwest 
Territory. His family, for several generations, had been 
owners of large estates in Virginia and Tennessee and had 
been slave-holders, but when he and his father moved to 
Yv^isconsin they freed their slaves and took them with them 
to their new home. Benton Parkinson, a brother of Mrs. 
Jenkins was killed in the Union Army during the Civil War. 

"Tessie," as she was familiarly called, was reared in a 
home of such comforts and luxuries and refinement as were 
known in those days, and was educated in both the Normal 
Training School at Platteville, and the University of Wiscon- 
sin at Madison. She was a teacher in the schools in Madison 
prior to coming to Cheyenne to marry James F. Jenkins, who 
vfas at the time in government employ at Camp Carlin, the 
site of which was adjacent to the present Fort Francis E. 
Warren. He later went into business for himself and was 
in the shoe business for 45 years prior to his death in 1928. 
They were married in Cheyenne on December 20, 1877. 

To a young woman coming from such a community as 
Madison, Cheyenne must have seemed to be the jumping-off 
place, with its barren prairie, with but fifteen trees in the 
town and these kept alive with water carried out in buckets 
after the washing had been done, and women of ill-repute 
very much in the majority. And so, with the firm conviction 
that if Cheyenne was to become a place where she and the 
other good women could raise their families and make homes 
to be proud of, the better element of women must build on 
everything for the uplift of women and children, she began 
fitting herself into the civil and social life of the community, 
affiliating herself immediately with the Presbyterian Church 
and was a charter member of its Missionary Society, and in 
1883, when Frances E. Willard and Anna Gordon came to 
Cheyenne, on their nation-wide tour organizing the Temper- 
ance Union, she became a charter member of the Cheyenne 
Temperance Union and an ardent worker for its cause. With 
the idea in mind that with the right to vote, women held the 
"key" to happier homes, better schools and a higher plane 
for their children, she threw herself whole-heartedly into 
the work of suffrage, and through it, temperance. 

Quoting from "A Woman of the Century," edited and 
published by Fh^ances Willard and Mary Livermore, it is said: 
"She has labored to secure equal rights and justice for all 
citizens. — She has done much journalistic work. In April 
1889, Mrs. Jenkins contributed to the 'Popular Science 


Monthly' a striking paper entitled, 'The Mental Force of 
Woman,' in reply to a Professor Cope's article on 'The Rela- 
tion of the Sexes to the Government,' in a jDreceding issue of 
the magazine. She has contributed a number of graceful 
poems to the Denver Times and other journals; she is now 
the regular Wyoming correspondent of the Omaha 'Central 
West,' 'Women's Tribune' and the 'Union Signal.' Her life 
is a busy one and she is a recognized power in Wyoming 
among those who are interested in purifying and elevating 
society, and in bringing about the absolute recognition of the 
equality of the sexes before the law." 

Mrs. Jenkins also wrote regularly for many years for the 
local newspapers. 

In the life of Mrs. Jenkins, in "Women of Wyoming," 
by Mrs. Beach, it says: "Her address (at Laramie in 1883) 
entitled 'Keys,' printed in the Laramie Sentinel was the first 
address on Prohibition ever delivered in the territory. It 
received much favorable comment at the time. In connection 
with her work for the Prohibition cause, she secured the 
introduction and passage of the law making compulsory the 
teaching of the effects of alcohol and narcotics on the human 
system in the public schools. This bill became a law with but 
one dissenting vote, and in reply to a letter of congratulation 
from Miss Willard upon the signal victory for the cause of 
temperance, Mrs. Jenkins said: 'It never even cost a postage 

In 1889, when the Constitutional Convention was called 
to adopt a constitution under the Enabling Act, a vital issue 
was the constitutional clause "The right to vote and hold 
office shall not be abridged on account of sex." This clause 
had caused much debate in Congress and Mrs. Jenkins took 
an active part in helping to retain the clause in our consti- 
tution and influencing members of Congress from the south 
and particularly from her native state of Wisconsin in favor 
of the same. After the adoption of the constitution and its 
approval, on July 10, 1890, a huge celebration was planned at 
the Capitol and the women of the state presented a flag to 
the Governor upon which was inscribed, "To W^yoming from 
her women in honor of the State Constitution." Mrs. Jenkins 
was chosen, in recognition of the part she had played the 
September previously, to make the statehood speech, and the 
following is an excerpt from the record of Robert Morris, 
(son of Esther Morris) Secretary of the State Historical 
Society : 

"When the people of Wyoming met at Cheyenne on July 
23, to celebrate their statehood, by Governor Francis E, 


Warren sat Mrs. Amalia Post, president of the Woman 
Suffrage Association. The first and principal oration of the 
day was made by Mrs. Therese A. Jenkins, of which the 
History of Wyoming says : 

" 'Proceeding to the front of the platform, Mrs. Jenkins, 
in clear, forceful tones which penetrated to the very outskirts 
of the crowd of ten thousand, delivered without manuscript 
or notes an address, which in ability, logic and eloquence has 
rarely, if ever, been equaled by any woman of the land. She 
was grandly equal to the occasion. At the conclusion of her 
address, Mrs. Jenkins received a wonderful ovation, and was 
presented with a magnificent basket of flowers'." 

Mrs. Jenkins' address was copied in innumerable Woman 
Suffrage papers and in Temperance magazines and was even 
translated into many foreign languages. She had a copy 
printed in the French language in one of the French news- 
papers of the day. 

The general election in Colorado was in 1893 and suffrage 
for women was the great issue of the campaign. Mrs. Jenkins 
was selected by Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, upon invitation 
from the Suffrage Clubs of Colorado, to make a speaking 
tour of the state. She spoke thirteen times in the city of 
Denver, and in practically every city and town in the state. 
Victory at the polls made Colorado the second state in the 
Union to have suffrage for its women. She was then called 
upon to go to Kansas. She spoke sixty times in the sixty 
northern counties of that state, beginning with a mass meet- 
ing at Kansas City, Kansas. The cause in Kansas was lost by 
but one vote when the Legislature met. 

In 1895, Miss Susan B. Anthony, president of the National 
Woman's Suffrage Association, carried out a long-cherished 
desire to visit Wyoming. She was on her way to take part 
in the Woman's Congress at San Francisco, accompanied by 
the Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, vice president at large, and 
they stopped at Cheyenne, where they were the guests of 
Senator and Mrs. Joseph M. Carey. Following a dinner 
party at the Carey home, a meeting was held in the Baptist 
Church, at which Mrs. Jenkins presided. 

In 1911 Mrs. Jenkins was made National Superintendent 
of Franchise in the W.C.T.U. and attended the World's Conven- 
tion at Boston. She was asked by Miss Willard to present a 
flag to that convention typical of Wyoming. She made this 
presentation in old Faneuil Hall. The flag was of pure white 
silk with a blue field in which there was one star marked 
WYOMING. In her address she said: "Ere a decade shall 


have passed away other stars shall encircle this star. ' ' In 
ten years her prediction came true. 

Mrs. Jenkins spoke in twelve states for suffrage and in 
as many for prohibition. 

In 1892, she was elected to attend the Republican 
National Convention at Minneapolis, and was the first woman 
ever so honored in the state, and of course the first in the 
nation. Her fellow-members at this convention were Frank 
W. Mondell and Judge C. N. Potter. 

In 1919 she attended the national convention of the 
National Suffrage Society, at St. Louis, and was asked by 
Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt to present the matter to Governor 
Robert D. Carey, of calling a special session of the legislature 
to ratify the 19th Amendment to the Constitution. Governor 
Carey called the special session and Wyoming was one of the 
first states to ratify the amendment. 

The 18th amendment was the one for Prohibition and 
thus two of her cherished hopes came to pass, and although 
she often said that prohibition had failed because the women 
themselves had failed in supporting those who tried to uphold 
the law and order, she was ever of the firm belief that the 
purpose of the amendment was right. She was never radical 
nor bigotted in her temperance beliefs and when Repeal came 
she often said when asked if she was disappointed in the 
returns, "No, for if that is what the people want and the 
way they voted for it, that is what the rest of us must accept 
and like, for that is what I have spent most of my life trying 
to accomplish and that is to give everyone the right to express 
their wish through franchise. ' ' 

In 1920 Mrs. Jenkins was chosen to represent the Rocky 
Mountain region at the World's Convention of the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union and went to London to the 
convention. She spent three months in England, Scotland, 
Belgium, Prance and Switzerland, and although 67 years old 
at the time thoroughly enjoyed every minute of the trip and 
returned full of energy and vigor. 

Socially Mrs. Jenkins took an active part in various 
organizations of her church, she was also a member of the 
I>. A. R., and was a Past Department President of the Women's 
Relief Corps of the G. A. R., and the Auxiliary of the United 
Spanish War Veterans, the Woodmen Circle, the Pioneer 
Club, and other charitable and benevolent organizations in 

It was these memories and the ,ioy of recounting them 
that helped her to spend the last twelve years of her life in 
a wheel chair, joyfully and patiently, but perhaps one of the 


greatest honors conferred upon her during her latter years 
was when she was named by Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt for 
a place of honor in the State Rolls of Honor which hang in 
the National Headquarters of the National League of Women 
Voters in Washington, D. C, honoring the women pioneers 
of the suffrage movement. Seventy-two names appear on 
these rolls of honor, the two from Wyoming being Mrs. 
Jenkins and Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard. Mrs. Jenkins died 
on February 28, 1936, at the age of 83. 

Even though Mrs. Jenkins was continually engaged in 
outstanding civic and social activities for the improved growth 
of Wyoming and the Nation, she did not neglect her home 
and family. She was the mother of three children, and the 
welcome and gracious hospitality of her home was enjoyed 
by her multitude of friends. 

The children, who are all living, are : Mrs. Robert Gr. 
(Elsie C.) Jerpe, of Roseville, California; Horace M. Jenkins, 
of Cheyenne, and Mrs. J. Carl (Agnes Wyoming) Metcalf, 
also of Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Mrs. Jenkins' great grandfather served in the Revolu- 
tionary War ; her grandfather was Colonel Daniel Morgan 
Parkinson, a soldier in the War of 1812 ; her father was a 
lieutenant in the war with Mexico and in the Black Hawk 
Indian War, from Wisconsin ; and her husband, James F. 
Jenkins was a Captain in the Spanish-American War. Her 
son, Horace M. Jenkins also served in the Spanish-American 

Mrs. Therese A. Jenkins, Editor 

(From The Wyoming Commonwealth, Cheyenne, Wyo., December, 1891) 

"The coming woman" will have a world of responsibility 
on her shoulders, for she will be charged with all the require- 
ments of citizenship, and will be a co-worker with man in 
nearly all the duties of life. She will wage an eternal war 
on intoxicants, vice, and all kinds of crime. She Avill point 
to the better way and men will follow it, not because woman 
says so, but because it is right. The coming woman will be a 
helpmate to her husband and will hold an influence over him 
not because of her good looks or her pretty ways, but because 
of her wisdom. She will lift her own sex up to a high standard, 
and the world will be made better, directly through her efforts. 

*Excerpts from a column in "The Wyoming Commonwealth," with 
above heading, edited by Therese A. Jenkins (Mrs. J. F.). 



Hail to Wyoming's lone star of the mountain, 

Tingling with light all the radiant West. 
Brooding and pointing o'er liberty's fountain, 

Untainted, unstinted, where all can be blest! 
Where woman, the slumberer, the oppressed of the ages. 

Stands freed of the burden that fettered her powers, 
And upright and brave writes on history's pages 

The lesson of promise for oncoming hours. 
Hark, the voice of Wyoming her deaf ear engages ! 

'Tis the clarion protest that none can recall, 
And woman, slow rising, marches on to the ages 

When justice beneficent reigns over all. 

— Louise Young Stevens. 

The Carnesville (Ga.) Tribune, edited by Ellen J. Dortch, 
speaks in this azerous style : 

"The question of female evangelists was brought up at 
a session of the Methodist ecumenical council in Washington 
city last week. 

A woman with brains in the upper story, and her heart 
in the right place, will somehow or other find her sphere in 
the highest and widest field she is fitted to Avork in. 

It is useless for any human being to prescribe a woman's 
work or a woman's walk. She will walk in the ways that 
are highest, and follow the impulses that are noblest, holding 
herself accountable only to the Supreme Being that gave them. 

Woman is slowly rising, and when she comes to stand 
beside man as his gentle comrade and faithful helpmate in 
all the works and walks of life, then will the world have 
reached its highest phase of civilization. 

To instill reverential pride of a people in a State's past is 
to create unwavering confidence in its future. 



By William A. Riner* 
Chief Justice, Wyoming Supreme Court 

The following address was delivered at Cheyenne, Wyoming, on 
July 25, 1940, as a feature of the program in connection with a state- 
wide celebration of the Golden Anniversary of Wyoming's admission 
into the Union. — Ed. 

This day belongs not alone to Wyoming but to the entire 
nation. The results of the event it commemorates are the 
heritage not only of the people of this commonwealth and 
America, but also of those who live beyond the seas. On this 
day we celebrate not only the birth of Wyoming as a sovereign 
State, but also the birth in its fundamental charter of the 
legal concept that citizens of a State should enjoy civil and 
political rights regardless of sex. The now present colorful 
scenes of "Frontier Days," likewise commemorate for us, 
and for all who have come here to see them, that romantic 
era which culminated in Wyoming's Statehood — an era filled 
to overflowing with the lofty courage, with the stern duties 

*BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCH— The Honorable William A. Einer, 
Chief Justice of the Wyoming Supreme Court, was born on June 26, 
1878, at Greene, Iowa. He received his bachelor of arts degree 
from the University of Southern California in 1899, and his law 
degree from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, in 1902. He was 
admitted to practice in the courts of Michigan the year of his gradua- 
tion, and later the same year he moved to Cheyenne, Wyoming, where 
his career has been marked with the highest degree of success. At 
this time he is recognized throughout the country as one of the 
outstanding jurists. 

Judge Einer 's public service began in 1908, when he was elected 
city attorney of Cheyenne, and served until 1911 ; he then became 
Assistant United States Attorney, District of Wyoming, and served 
until 1912. In 1922" he was appointed by Governor Eobert D. Carey as 
judge of the first judicial district of Wyoming, then including Laramie, 
Niobrara, Goshen and Platte counties. Subsequently, he was elected to 
the same office for the term, 1922-1928. In 1928, he as appointed an 
associate justice of the Wyoming Supreme Court by Governor Frank C. 
Emerson; later he was elected to the same office for the term, 1928-1934, 
was re-elected for the term 1935-1942, and became Chief Justice of that 
court on January 2, 1939. 

Judge Einer is a thirty-third degree Mason and a member of the 
Mystic Shrine. He is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity, and 
of the Congregational church. In politics he is a Eepublican. 

He and Miss Fannie Borst, of Denver, Colorado, were married in 
1907, and they reside at 114 West Twenty-seventh Street, Cheyenne, 

Judge Einer is a nephew of Judge John A. Einer, a delegate from 
Laramie County to the Constitutional Convention at Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
in 1889, and United States District Judge for the District of Wyoming, 
from 1890 until his death in 1923. 


and with the wise foresight of the pioneer spirit of the West. 
It has been truly said that "Men make a nation" and "States 
are not great, except as men may make them so." 

On the tenth day of this month, fifty years ago, President 
Harrison approved the Act of Congress which admitted Wyo- 
ming into the Union. When the news of the passage of the 
Act of Admission reached this city, the successful conclusion 
of the efforts of the people of Wyoming to attain statehood 
v/as joyously observed, July 23, 1890. Every portion of the 
Territory was invited to join in the demonstration. Military, 
civic and musical organizations united in a parade to start 
the celebration. One of its features, both novel and instruc- 
tive, was a large float, beautifully decorated ; on it were forty- 
two young women, emblematical of the forty-two states of the 
Union. Immediately following this came a diminutive carriage 
drawn by two small Shetland ponies. In this conveyance rode 
three little girls — Grace Cowhick, impersonating the Goddess 
of Liberty, Frances Warren, representing the State of Wyo- 
ming, and a little Miss Elliott, representing the State of 
Idaho. Both states, though recognized then by Congress, had 
not yet attained the full dignity of membership in the Federal 
Union. As suggested by one of the newspapers of that day, 
the tableau seemed to say for the little folks in the carriage 
to those on the large float in front : ' ' You may look down on 
us now, but we'll be on the big wagon by and by." The 
chief address for the occasion was delivered by the Honorable 
Clarence D. Clark of Evanston, who subsequently occupied 
a seat in the United States Senate, for many years representing 
Wyoming there. 

On the 30th day of September, 1889, the members of the 
Constitutional Convention affixed their signatures to the instru- 
ment they had framed. Their work was confirmed and 
adopted by the people of the Territory the following fifth 
day of November by a five-sixths vote of the citizens. The 
boundaries of the commonwealth thus established, though not 
exceptionally large, embrace an area as great as the six states 
of New England and Indiana combined. Indiana alone is about 
the size of the country of Portugal and is larger than Ireland. 
The name "Wyoming" was borrowed from that of tlie his- 
toric valley in western Pennsylvania, whose sad tragedy the 
gifted pen of the Scottish poet, Thomas Campbell, related to 
the world. The name's soft sounding syllables had their 
origin in a Delaware Indian word meaning "plains land" 
or "great plains." While appropriate to its broad expanse 
of prairies, green-hued in Spring and early Summer, tawny 
under the Fall and wintry skies, we know that in Wyoming's 


surface of 365 miles of length and 275 miles of width, many 
far-flung mountain ranges rise in majesty — some like the 
cloud-haunted Tetons — -rivaling in beauty and grandeur the 
proudest peaks of the Swiss Alps. Noble river-threaded 
valleys, fertile as the soil of ancient Eden, lie cradled in their 
supporting flanks. 

The spread of civilization to a new land is often fraught 
with deepest human interest. As a milestone in the progress 
of humanity to possess the world it draws to the forefront 
the best and the worst in human character. The conquest of 
difficulties and hardships ever present in such circumstances 
automatically produces this result. It is natural that prose 
and poetry alike should each do their best to preserve the 
picture for posterity. Let me tell then, but briefly, of this 
region, almost the last of the West to be penetrated by the 
westward trend of- our national life. It is a history worthy 
to minister to the imagination and idealism of the best talent 
our nation shall ever produce. In thrilling and picturesque 
phrase, Wister's "Virginian" has demonstrated its possi- 
bilities. But the end is not yet. The great treasure still 
remains, and there is only left to be found the genius whose 
ability can unlock the overflowing storehouse. 

The migrating hordes of game whose trails criss-crossed 
those made by the moccasined feet of the savage first beheld 
that lonely land known as Wyoming. Then came the buck- 
skin clad fur trappers and traders under Colter, Hunt, Sub- 
lette and Bridger in the early eighteen hundreds, the real 
advance-g'uard of civilization. After them came missionaries 
and the adventurous home-seekers in western lands. Their 
canvas-covered wagons creaked and tossed along the deep 
ruts of the Overland and Oregon trails. Generations may pass 
and the origin of these trails become a legend, but the scars 
they left will still be there to amaze the wondering eyes of 
decades still to come. Even we marvel to see them abraded as 
they were by the tread of thousands upon thousands of men 
and women, the hoofs of millions of animals and the wheels of 
untold numbers of vehicles. On the solid rocks ruts can be 
found worn a foot deep. 

During the first quarter of the last century very little 
was known of the country west of the Missouri. In 1843 
the Edinburgh Review declared that the region between the 
western border of Missouri and the Rocky Mountains was 
"incapable, probably forever of fixed settlement," while west 
of that range "only a very small portion of the land is 
susceptible of cultivation." Even so brilliant a mind as that 
of Daniel Webster inquired in the United States Senate con- 


cerning this region : ' ' What do we want with the vast worth- 
less area, this region of savages and wild beasts, of deserts, 
of shifting sands and whirlwinds of dust, of cactus and 
prairie dogs?" He vehemently then declared — "Mr. Presi- 
dent, I will never vote one cent from the public treasury to 
place the Pacific coast one inch nearer to Boston than it is 
now. ' ' But these erroneous ideas did not long prevail. Men 
of all classes foresook their customary vocations and joined 
the hegira to the new western lands, forgetful or careless of 
the pathless expanses, the unavoidable hardships and the 
inevitable perils of the wilderness. 

We look and we behold through the misty curtains let 
fall by time as through the lofty archways of some grand 
structure the long procession passes, as silent and like as a 
dream, columns of blue-clad troops, saber rattling cavalry 
and plodding infantry under Miles, Terry, Custer and Crook ; 
huge herds of half wild Texas cattle, cowpunchers, horse 
wranglers and chuck wagons ; lurching dust-covered stage- 
coaches and freighters with bull teams and Conestoga wagons. 

Again we look and again we see dimly limned through 
those same magic curtains the cowboys of picture and story 
as they rode through the brilliant days of the old cattle 
industry. At first they had come from Texas, but in the 
zenith of their romantic glory they came from everywhere 
and from every class. They included young Englishmen from 
Oxford and Cambridge, college graduates from the East, — 
well born Americans ; indeed, all sorts who did not ' ' strike 
luck" at anything else and who were full of the ardour of 
youth and its love of adventure. They were satisfied with 
forty dollars a month as pay and good keep during the 
greater part of each year. They rode good horses, high- 
spirited as the "boys" themselves. They bought hand stamped 
Cheyenne saddles and California bits that were ornate as 
jewelry; they stuck their feet in grand tapaderos or hooded 
stirrups richly ornamented and padded with lambs wool. 
Their spurs were fit for the knights of old; their "ropes" 
or lariats were selected with more care than a circus tight- 
rope; and their big, broad felt sombreros cost more than the 
Prince of Wales ever paid for a "topper." 

Parting the curtains once more for another backward 
glance through the enshrouding haze of time, we see the tragic 
close of the "good, old days," the conclusion of the primitive, 
unwieldy and devil-may-care cattle business of the wide open 
ranges. Prices fell, fences began to cut up the broad reaches 
of the prairie grasses ; water was no longer available every- 
where, winter losses became heavier and heavier. The sheep 


industry came and came to stay, despite the fierce opposition 
it had at first to meet. The last free-roving herds vanished. 
In their stead were substituted small bunches of cattle, fre- 
quently held in connection with agriculture. Their owners 
found that thus better grades of stock could be bred, better 
meat produced, risks reduced to a minimum and the expense 
of handling the animals cut to a tithe of that required under 
the wasteful plan in vogue before. 

Wyoming had progressed under Territorial government 
for some twenty years when the steps were taken leading to 
her recognition in the sisterhood of States. Mention of some 
of these steps has already been made. The delegates to the 
Constitutional Convention, fifty-five in number, chosen in 
July, 1889, met in Cheyenne on the second day of September 
of that year. Forty-five of these affixed their signatures to 
the completed instrument, remarkable not only for its declara- 
tion of equality of the sexes in political rights, but also for 
its clarity and wise provisions for the guidance of the new 
government for the days that were to come. Comparatively 
few amendments to the original framework have in conse- 
quence been required to meet the ever-shifting demands of 
fifty years of statehood. 

It is not surprising that this result was wrought. In that 
convention sat many men who subsequently held high office 
in the proposed new state. They were able, they were prac- 
tical, they had been trained and schooled by the difficulties 
and problems necessarily arising in a new land and they were 
endowed with far-sighted vision for the future. Many were 
descendants of men who long ago had left the quiet lanes and 
hedgerows of old England for homes beyond the sea ; who 
had played their part in severing the ties that bound the 
colonies to the out-worn ideas and fettering political notions 
of the old world ; descendants of those Avho had brought 
order out of the chaos immediately following the Revolution. 
Some had gloriously upheld the hands of Abraham Lincoln 
in maintaining the integrity of the Union in the then compara- 
tively recent strife between the states. 

Let me recall for you briefly just a few of the significant 
and outstanding concepts, other than that regarding the suf- 
frage which they wrought into that remarkable instrument 
fashioned in the month of September so long ago. Our state's 
constitution forbids imprisonment for debt except in cases of 
fraud ; it guarantees liberty of conscience, but forbids such 
liberty to "be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness 
01 justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of the 
State." It forbids either the appropriation or the gift of 


state money "to any denominational or sectarian institution 
or association." That strange legal maxim "the greater the 
truth, the greater the libel" is discarded by the constitutional 
language — "Every person may freely speak, write or publish 
on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right ; 
and in all trials for libel both civil and criminal, the truth 
when published with good intent and for justifiable ends 
shall be a sufficient defense, the jury having the rights to 
determine the facts and the law under direction of the court." 

Truly modern is this clause — "The rights of labor shall 
have just protection through laws calculated to secure to the 
laborer proper rewards for his service and to promote the 
industrial welfare of the state." So also is the language, — 
"Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a 
free state and shall not be allowed. Corporations being crea- 
tures of the state endowed for the public good with a portion 
of its sovereign powers must be subject to its control." "The 
water of all natural streams, springs, lakes or other collections 
of still water within the boundaries of the state" is declared 
to be state property, under state control, to equally guard 
all the various interests involved and under the great and 
vital principle "Priority of appropriation for beneficial use 
shall give the better right. No appropriation shall be denied 
except when such denial is demanded by the public interest." 

Wyoming's Constitution forbids, too, "sectarian instruc- 
tion, qualification or tests" to be "imposed, exacted, applied 
or in any manner tolerated in the schools of any grade or 
cliaracter controlled by the state." It insists also that "as 
the health and morality of the people are essential to their 
well being and to the peace and permanence of the state, it 
shall be the duty of the legislature to protect and promote 
these vital interests by such measures for the encouragement 
of temperance and virtue and such restrictions upon vice and 
immorality of every sort as are deemed necessary for the 
public welfare." In these anxious days of strife between 
opinions and doctrines of every sort, when at times it seems 
as if the foundations of what is good and true, what is upright 
and just are about to be uprooted, let us never forget tlie 
solemn declaration proclaimed by Wyoming's fundamental 
charter that — -"Absolute, arbitrary power over the lives, 
liberty and property of freemen exists nowhere i)i a repulilic, 
not even in the largest majority." 

Looking into the past through the lapse of decades, may 
we not say regarding the finished product of the Constitu- 
tional Convention as did Benjamin Franklin, when he urged 
the signing of that other instrument designed for a more 


majestic purpose, the Federal Constitution: "I agree to this 
Constitution with all of its faults — if they are such — because 
I think a general government necessary for us and there is 
no form of government but what may be a blessing to the 
people if well administered ; and I believe, further, that this 
is likely to be well administered for a course of years and 
can only end in despotism, as other forms have done before it 
when the people shall be so corrupted as to need despotic 
government, being incapable of any other; * * * j^ as- 
tonishes me, sir, to find this system approaching as near to 
perfection as it does." 

This day will soon end. All that constitutes this cele- 
bration will soon cease to be seen or heard. Not until another 
fifty years shall have elapsed can these ceremonies again be 
performed. But of one indubitable and changeless fact we 
may feel assured, and it is that when in that distant, future 
day, others shall gather to again commemorate the hundredth 
anniversary of our State, in contemplating the record that 
Time shall have then unrolled they will find high incentive 
to glory in and emulate that record. 

For, in paraphrase of what another has so beautifully 
said, may we not think that every human action gains in 
honor, in grace, in all true magnificence by its regard to 
things that are to come. It is the far sight, the quick and 
confident patience, that, above all other attributes, separate 
man from man, and near him to his Maker ; and there is no 
action, nor art, nor deed whose majesty we may not measure 
by this test. Therefore, as we the people of Wyoming admin- 
ister the government those who have gone before have be- 
cjueathed to us, let us never, never forget that we do this for 
the future. Let it not be for present delight, nor for present 
use alone ; let it be such work as our descendants will thank 
us for. Let us conceive as we use this government with lofty 
purpose and with ever higher objectives, the time will surely 
come when what has thus been done will be held honored 
because our hands have touched the work. 

Let us believe that men will then say, as they look upon 
the fruition of our labors and the wrought substance of them, 
as we do now for those who have passed beyond the glorious 
sunset glow of the golden West — ' ' See ! this our fathers did 
for us." 



Words and Music by 
Jack Bryant 

Golden Anniversary Theme Song 

There 's a state we all hold dear, 
And we love her, never fear, 
Where the skies are bright and clear. 

That's Wyoming! 
With her cattle ranges wide, 

And her mountains side by side, 
Where good fellowship abides. 

That's Wyoming! 
Though you wander o 'er the earth. 

Far from home or place of birth. 
You're still taken at your worth. 

In Wyoming! 
In her friendly atmosphere. 

There's contentment and good cheer; 
You are always welcome here, 
In Wyoming! 

Then we '11 stand and sing the praise 

Of this land where wild life plays, 
Where the saddle horse and dogie 

Still range free. 
'Neath her mellow western skies. 

There's no pretense or disguise; 
Every man is his own size 
In Wyoming! 

Copyright 1940, Wyoming Department of Commerce and Industry 
Scored by E. C. Ekdall 





In a manner most befitting the dignity of such an occa- 
sion, Cheyenne assumed the position of a royal hostess on 
July 25, 1940, when thousands of visitors from throughout 
the length and breadth of the State were welcomed in cele- 
bration of Wyoming's Golden Anniversary of Statehood. 

Before a great assemblage of spectators who gathered to 
pay tribute to the pioneers of those early days, an impressive 
and appropriate program was given at ten o'clock from a 
speaker's platform located at the southern entrance of the 
Capitol, and on the site where a similar event took place 
fifty years previously in celebration of the news that Wyoming 
was to be the forty-fourth star in the field of blue of the 
American flag. 

An hour preceding the program, these same throngs had 
watched a colorful and spectacular pageant-parade, called the 
"Parade of the Governors," wind its mile-and-a-half length 
along the tree-bordered streets of the "Magic City of the 
Plains," while gleaming in the July sun, the golden dome of 
the Capitol towered above the scene. 

The pageant was a vivid portrayal of Wyoming's roman- 
tic past, and its success was credited largely to Mr. Arthur 
Black, of Cheyenne, who had charge of this important cele- 
bration feature. 

Immediately after the parade, the following speaking and 
musical program was given, at which former Wyoming Gov- 
ernors and those pioneers who could claim fifty years con- 
tinuous residence in the State, were honored guests : 

Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, State Librarian and Historian, in 
charge of program arrangements, introduced the presiding 
chairman, Mr. C. D. Williamson, of Hanna, Wyoming, as 
follows : 

"It gives me great pleasure to introduce to you the pre- 
siding chairman, a former State Legislator from Carbon 
County and a man who has, for many years, been closely con- 
nected with the history of our State by taking an active part 
in the development of its banking and various industrial 

"He has given freely of his time and energy in furthering 
the interests of Wyoming, and the committee appreciates his 
accepting its invitation to assist in this Golden Anniversary 

Mr. Williamson, in his brief introductory remarks, said, 
in part: 


"We have gathered here to rejoice at the completion of 
fifty years of sovereign membership in that great unity of 
states, which, as a nation — if we use our heritage wisely — 
will stem and reverse the tide of encroachment on individual 
freedom and the democratic way of life which is at present 
so rampant. 

"In the life of nations, fifty years seems but a brief 
interval, but when one surveys the changes brought about 
in that space of time in this New World of ours and notes 
the advancement in industry, science, the arts, the develop- 
ment of natural resources, the progress in social relationships, 
we cannot fail to be impressed with our obligation to dili- 
gently apply ourselves to building well that portion of the 
superstructure of corporate life alloted to our generation, 
whose foundations have been so wisely laid by those who have 
gone before us. 

"As we assemble here today to celebrate our State's 
Golden Anniversary, we are happy to acknowledge and pay 
tribute to those who in years past have done so much to make 
that progress possible. We have in mind those courageous, 
hardy pioneers who first established trails through, and homes 
in, what Ave now know as Wyoming. We think of those who 
gave their lives to maintain the outposts of our people 
against a hostile and savage race. We think of the pony 
exjDress riders and the railroad builders ; of those who first 
recognized the value of the wild meadows and mountain 
ranges for the production of livestock — soon to become so 
necessary to a fast-growing nation. We think of those who 
sought out and began the development of our vast resources 
of coal and other minerals. And we think of those men and 
women who gave unstinting service to the upbuilding of an 
orderly government in this vast area. To all of these we are 
humbly grateful and to them we accord appreciative recog- 
nition, and we honor their memory." 

Flag'-raising' Is Impressive Moment 

One of the impressive moments of the program occurred 
when a fifteen-foot American flag was raised on a newly 
installed pole a few feet west of the speakers' stand. The 
flag slowly arose and unfurled in the breeze while the National 
Guard Band played the inspiring strains of "The Star- 
Spangled Banner," after which ]\liss Prances INIaraldo sang, 
"God Bless America." The "Banner" was the same which 


had unfurled from the top of the Capitol at the Statehood 
celebration fifty years previously.* 

Governor Smith Greets Former Governors and Pioneers 

The present Governor, the Honorable Nels H. Smith, 
introduced former Governors, the Honorable Bryant B. Brooks, 
and Mrs. Brooks, of Casper, Wyoming; the Honorable Leslie 
A. Miller, and Mrs. Miller, of Cheyenne ; the Honorable Feni- 
more Chatterton, Arvada, Colorado; and the Honorable Alonzo 
M. Clark, of Cheyenne. 

Governor Smith extended cordial greetings and expressed 
regret at the absence of four other former Governors who 
are still living, but were unable to be present, namely: Honor- 
able John E. Osborne, Honorable Frank L. Houx, Honorable 
Frank E. Lucas and Mrs. Nellie Tayloe Ross. 

Li his greeting, Governor Smith addressed the audience 
as follows : 

"I am grateful, indeed, that it is my happy privilege as 
Governor, to extend to you the official welcome and greetings 
of the Government of the State of Wyoming on this occasion, 
commemorating the Fiftieth anniversary of Wyoming's state- 
hood. To you who have come here from outside points, far 
and near — we hope your visit with us will be so pleasant and 
interesting that you will come again — and often. To all, we 
hope that this occasion will be of such inspiration that we 
may all cooperate, more actively than ever before, to the 
continued upbuilding, development and progress of this great 
State and Nation. 

"It is, indeed, gratifying to have with us today so many 
old-timers — men and women who have endured the hardships 
of pioneer times and have had such an active part in making 
life here easier for those who follow. I wish it were possible 
to have each and every one of you come up to the platform 
and be introduced, so that we might all know you better, but 
time forbids. No less happy are we to welcome you of the 
younger generation, for it is upon you and your efiforts that 
the present and future welfare of our great State depends. 
God grant that the combined efforts of all, young as well as 
old, may permit us to look forward confidently to the con- 
tinuation of peace, happiness and progress in that democratic 

*0n display in the speakers' stand was another historic American 
flag — a silk one which had been presented to the State by the women 
of Wyoming at the Statehood celebration of 1890. Both banners are 
the property of the Wyoming Historical Department. 


way of life which is being destroyed in other parts of the 

"We are fortunate, again, to have with us today several 
former Governors of the State of Wyoming. We are happy 
they have found it possible to take part with us in this cele- 
bration. Each, in his own time and way, has served our 
people ably, constructively and effectively. We are proud 
to honor them on this occasion. . . ." 

Several introductions were made by ISlr. AVilliamson, 
including Mrs. Nels H. Smith, the present "First Lady," and 
Mrs. Jean Emerson Grothe, formerly Mrs. Frank C. Emerson, 
who before her subsequent marriage to Mr. Grothe, was the 
widow of Governor Emerson. He died in office on Februarv 
18, 1931. 

Greeting's Brought by Convention Stenographer 

Interest then centered on Miss Louise S. Smith, of Chey- 
enne, when she brought a message and greeting as a lone 
representative of the Constitutional Convention held at Chey- 
enne in September, 1889. 

"Little did I think when a young stenographer reporting 
the proceedings of the Wyoming Constitutional Convention, 
that of all of those who had a part in that Convention, T 
alone would be here today to celebrate with you, 'Wyoming's 
Golden Anniversary','' said Miss Smith. 

"My joy in being at this birthday party is mingled with 
sorrow and regret when I remember that all but two of the 
fine and forthright men who framed our Constitution, have 
passed away. Their ride on the range is over. . . . 

"The years pass swiftly by. Many of you who are here 
today will be present when there will be one hundred candles 
on Wyoming's birthday cake. God grant she may then, as 
now, be part of a free America, 

' The land of youth and freedom 

beyond the ocean bars ; 
Where the air is full of sunlight, 
and the flag is full of stars '. ' ' 

The two living delegates of the Convention mentioned by 
Miss Smith, and from whom she read messages to the audience, 
were: Mr. Henry S. Elliott, of Seattle, Washington, and Mr. 
William E. Chaplin, of Van Nuys, California. 

Pennsylvania Sends Greetings — Scroll and Gift 
An incident befitting the program was the presentation 
of a scroll and a 44-star American flag from Wyoming Valley, 
Pennsylvania, though Mr. Marshall S. Reynolds, of Cheyenne, 


Wyoming, a native son of the former State, Avho made the 
following remarks : 

"At this our observance of the Golden Jubilee of the 
admission of the State of Wyoming to the Union July 10, 
1890, we find it of particular interest to the people of the 
State of Pennsylvania, and especially of Wyoming Valley, as 
evidenced by the beautiful scroll on parchment presented by 
the Wyoming Valley Chamber of Commerce of Wilkes-Barre, 
Pennsylvania in the name of the people of Wyoming Valley. 

"Wyoming was organized as a Territory July 25, 1868, 
from what was a portion of Dakota, Utah and. Idaho, and it 
was then that the name was selected. A large number of 
Pennsylvania pioneers were in the state, and, while it is 
•unknown who first suggested the name, it is fairly well 
established that it was given to the state at that time. 

"The name 'Wyoming' is a corruption of the word 
'Waugh-Wau-Wa-Me" of the Delaware Indians, and, while 
to many of us in the State of Pennsylvania the meaning of 
the word was "Mountains and Valleys Alternating," it has 
been frequently explained that the meaning of the word is 
'Upon the Great Plain.' 

"Under date of July 23, 1890, Mr. Wesley Johnson, 
Secretary of the Wyoming Commemorative Association, wrote 
to the Hon. Francis Warren, Governor of Wyoming at the 
time of its admission, 'As the new Wyoming has now ad- 
vanced to the dignity of statehood, I have taken the liberty, 
as Secretary of the Wyoming Commemorative Association, of 
forwarding to you, the Governor of the 44th Commonwealth, 
a copy of our Memorial Volume containing a correct report 
of the 100th year commemorative observance of the battle 
and massacre of Wyoming July 3, 1778-1878. 

" 'Old Wyoming feels justly proud of the honor of having 
given her name to a member of the great sisterhood of states. 
May the child namesake emulate the example of the mother, 
Wyoming, of bloody memory, and in all things show it is 
worthy of bearing the name of the beautiful and classic valley 
here in Pennsylvania, so rich in patriotic memories and 
immortalized by the poetry of Campbell, as portrayed in the 
life of his ideal Gertrude, endeared to our people of the Brd 
of July massacre, and the sad story of Frances Slocum and 
her life long captivity among the savages and withal, bearing 
within its ample bosom, untold wealth of anthracite not 
second in importance to the commerce of the world to the 
rich gold fields of the Black Hills and your own Rocky 
Mountain State.' 

"To which. Governor Warren replied in part, 'The 44th, 
and the youngest state in the Union, sends you greetings. 


and confident assurance that the child and namesake will 
ever emulate the virtues and patriotism of the mother — the 
Wyoming of that historic Valley of bloody memory. ' 

"At the request of Hon. Edward J. Quinn, President, 
Hon. William N. Reynolds, Jr., Vice-President, J. Arthur 
Bolender, Secretary of the Wyoming Valley Chamber of 
Commerce of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, I have the honor 
of presenting to you this scroll and flag commemorative of 
those sturdy pioneers of the AVyoming Valley from which the 
Wj^oming Territory received its name. The people of that 
Valley are justly proud in having contributed AVyoming to 
the State and the United States and for the additional fact 
that Wyoming Statehood has kept the faith. 

"It is with pleasure that I say, that as early as 1635, my 
ancestors settled in and near what is now known as the Wyo- 
ming Valley in Pennsylvania and have continued to reside 
there through these many years and that the people of that 
locality where I was born, educated and first practiced law, 
with my Uncle William N. Reynolds and William N. Reynolds, 
Jr., were so thoughtful as to request me to become the agent 
in presenting this beautiful scroll and flag to this State with 
their good wishes that in the next 50 years there will come 
a deepening, widening and strengthening of the foundations 
laid so splendidly by those hardy pioneers who left one Wj'o- 
ming wrested from the eastern wilderness, to make a greater 
one amoijig the western mountains." 

To which Governor Nels H. Smith replied in part: "The 
history of the Empire Builders tells us of the hardy pioneers 
who left the great Wyoming Valley to establish a greater 
Wyoming in the Rocky JMountains. This State since its ad- 
mission has made tremendous strides forward in the past 
sixty years, and we believe that its future is assured for even 
a greater place among the several states of the Union. The 
people of our great Commonwealth are deeply appreciative 
of the continued good will of those loyal citizens in the com- 
munity from which we obtained the name Wyoming, and 
especially so to the Wilkes-Barre Wyoming Valley Chamber 
of Commerce. 

"It is especially gratifying that you should be requested 
to present this beautiful scroll and flag since your ancestors 
lived in Wyoming Valley in Colonial times and up to 1842 
when Wyoming County was set aside as a separate county 
and carved out of Luzerne County. 

"I accept this scroll and flag of forty-four stars in the 
name of the People of the State of Wyoming. 


"Please convey in behalf of our people my every good 
wish to President Edward J. Quinn, William N. Reynolds, Jr., 
Vice-President, J. Arthur Bolender, Secretary, and all mem- 
bers of the Chamber of Commerce and invite them to visit 
our state at their convenience." 

Chief Justice Riner Delivers Scholarly Oration 

A highlight of the occasion was the Golden Anniversary 
address by the Honorable William A. Riner, Chief Justice of 
the Wyoming Supreme Court, Cheyenne, whose scholarly ora- 
tion appears elsewhere in this issue of the ANNALS. 

Several musical numbers were interspersed throughout 
the program, including the Golden Anniversary theme song. 
"That's Wyoming," written by Mr. Jack Bryant and sung 
by Mr. Norman Stark. There were two numbers by the 
Philomelians, Cheyenne men's chorus, wdth piano accompani- 
ment by Mrs. Eva Viox', whose "Anvil Chorus" from II Trova- 
tore, by Verdi, was also a reminder of the first celebration 
fifty years ago, when the same selection was sung to anvil 

Bishop Patrick A. McGovern, of Cheyenne, gave the invo- 
cation and the Rev. Walter Dodds, of Laramie, AVyoming, 
pronounced the benediction. 

Activities for the day were sponsored jointly by the Wyo- 
ming Golden Anniversary Committee, the Laramie County 
Committee, Frontier Days Committee and the Cheyenne Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 

Members of the Wyoming Golden Anniversary committee 
were Governor Nels H. Smith, Mr. George 0. Houser, Secre- 
tary of the Department of Commerce and Industry; Miss 
Esther Anderson, Superintendent of Public Instruction ; Mrs. 
Gladys F. Riley, State Librarian and Historian; and Mr. John 
Charles Thompson, of the Historical Landmark Commission. 

Members of the Laramie County Golden Anniversary 
Committee were Mr. Frank Clark and Mrs. Katharine A. 




Wyoming's First Woman Legislator 
By Eva Floy Wheeler* 

In 1910, forty-one years after Wyoming women had been 
granted the rights of equal suffrage, Mrs. Mary G. Bellamy 
received the honor of being elected the first woman in Wyo- 
ming to sit as a duly elected and qualified member of the 
State Legislature. The Wyoming Tribune of Cheyenne, Janu- 
ary 10, 1911, states, "The committee on credentials is as 
follows: Mary G. Bellamy of Albany," and lists twelve other 
members. In the column, "Legislative Notes" of the follow- 
ing day appears this paragraph : 

"Mrs. Mary Bellamy, the only woman representative who 


Eva Floy Wheeler was born near Cestos, Oklahoma. May 12. 1900, 
and taught school in Kansas prior to moving to Colorado vrith her family 
in 1919. She holds a degree of Bachelor of Science from the Colorado 
Agricultural College at Fort Collins, and a degree of Master of Arts 
from the University of Wyoming. At Fort Collins, in June, 1922, she 
was chosen the first Homo Demonstration agent and Girls' Club leader 
for Larimer County, and was serving as Colorado State Nutrition Special- 
ist at the time of her marriage in 1925 to Sherman S. Wheeler, now 


ever sat in a Wyoming legislative body, was paid a nice com- 
pliment by being elected as chairman of the committee on 
credentials. Mrs. Bellamy comes from a family of fighting 
Democrats, and possesses a very independent spirit, which 
has distinguished her many times in her life." 

On January 11, when the House convened, slips of paper 
containing the name of each county, were put into a hat to 
be drawn for the choice of seats. The Wyoming Tribune 
remarks, "The House is very gallant and assigned the honor 
of drawing the slips to Mary G. Bellamy." Mrs. Bellamy was 
chosen for several committees, but she elected only two 
according to the Wyoming Tribune of January 12, "The 
Public Buildings and Institutions Committee and The Educa- 
tion and Public Libraries Committee. ' ' 

Mrs. Bellamy's interest in women and children had led 
her into an intensive study of the laws for their welfare. 
Since the constitution of Wyoming in 1890 was based on the 
laws of California which had the Community Property 
Law and on other laws which were adopted from states based 
on the Common Law of England, the women of Wyoming 
were governed by conflicting laws. They had neither the 
dower right nor the partnership law so could exercise almost 
no property claims. Mrs. Bellamy introduced, in her own 
name, a bill which would permit a judge to appoint a married 
Avoman as an administrator of an estate. She Avas instru- 
mental, through the cooperation of other legislators from her 
county and her colleagues in the legislature, in securing the 
introduction and passage of several bills Avhich improved the 
situation of Avomen and children and protected their rights. 

The food laAVS of Wyoming Avere so lax that goods of 
inferior quality Avere being dumped onto the merchants of 
Wyoming. Mrs. Bellamy Avas successful in promoting laAVs 
AAdiich helped to correct this condition. Under her leadership, 
a measure was passed to transfer women prisoners from the 
Wyoming State Penitentiary to other states haAdng separate 
quarters for Avomen prisoners, and for an institution for 
boys convicted of crime, the Boys' Industrial School near 

Associate Professor of Animal Production at the University of Wyo- 
ming, Laramie. 

Mrs. Wheeler was a member of Phi Zeta Chi (social sorority), and 
is a member of Alphi Phi Epsilon, (national literary), Pi Kappa Delta, 
(national debating), Omicron Nu, (national home economics honor so- 
ciety) and is a pledge to Epsilom Sigma Omicron Sorority. She is a 
member of the Laramie branch of the American Association of Uni- 
versity Women, the Federated Women's clubs, the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station Women's club, the Phi Delta Wives and Mothers club, 
and the Women's Faculty club of the University of Wyoming. 

Professor and Mrs. Wheeler have a daughter and three sons. 


Worland. Indicative of the success of the bill for funds for 
the University of Wyoming which was piloted safely through 
the legislature by Mrs. Bellamy's efforts are the Agricultural 
Plall and the home of the President of the University. 

The Woman's Club of Laramie appointed Mrs. Bellamy 
to interview legislators and others and secure the addition of 
a Home Economics Department to the University. In Chey- 
enne she enlisted the able assistance of Mrs. Gibson Clark, 
Mrs. William C. Deniing, and Mrs. Frank N. Sheik of Wheat- 
land. These women succeeded in creating enough favorable 
public opinion and promises of favor from legislators for the 
bill that when it was presented with its accompanying bill 
for appropriation the measures were both accepted. In 
making a motion for a "call of the House," she was able to 
defeat a bill which was introduced to repeal a statute which 
prohibited the sale of liquor in unincorporated towns. 

Mrs. Bellamy became the leader of the minority because 
her name came first alphabetically on the roll call and there 
were always some who follow the leader in the matter of 
voting. She accepted the responsibility with all seriousness 
and was present at every roll call except one afternoon when 
she was the guest of honor of the Commandant and his wife 
of Fort D. A. RusselP at a reception and a review of troops 
planned in her honor. Her keenness to grasp a situation, 
her ability to work with people and organize them into 
powerful groups, her intelligent straight-forward way of 
thinking, her gift as a public speaker, made her an outstanding 
member of the legislature and helped her to secure the 
passage of many laws which she felt necessary at that time. 
"She was held in high esteem by her colleagues and her desk 
was frequently decked with beautiful flowers, the gift of 
fellow members, friends, and admirers of her activities. ""- 

Mrs. Bellamy was born in Richwood, JMissouri, Friday, 
December 13, 1861, the daughter of Catherine Horine whose 
parents were Virginians of Hugenot ancestry and Charles 
Godat whose family were manufacturers of jewelry in Switz- 
erland. She was named Marie, and Lake Marie in the Snowy 
Range west of Laramie was named in her honor. She is 
affectionately known to her girlhood friends as "Molly," but 
when she entered public work she used the name. "]\Iary. " 
Her father died when she was a baby. Later when an older 
sister died, leaving a baby son, Mrs. Godat and Mary moved 
to Laramie to care for the baby. They arrived in Laramie in 

1 Name changed to Fort Francis E. Warren. 

2 ' ' Women of Wyoming, ' ' by Cora Beach. Casper, S. E. Boyer, 1927- 
1929. 2 Volumes. A history of outstanding women in Wyoming. 


1873, five years after the frontier town had been the "end of 
track" for the Union Pacific railroad. It took them four 
days to reach Laramie by train from Galena, Illinois. Mary 
prepared herself for teaching and followed this profession 
for several years, teaching in Nevada, Laramie, and Johnson 
County, Wyoming. When she taught in Johnson County it 
usually took from seven to ten days to make the trip from 
her school to Laramie. 

Mrs. Bellamy describes the social affairs at Fort Sanders, 
and remembers vividly the appearance in Laramie of the 
personal band of Emperor William of Germany Avhich toured 
the United States during the Centennial celebration in 1876. 
The concert also included the Fort Sanders Band which was 
given the second highest rating in the United States according 
to Army reports. 

In 1886, Marie Godat married Charles Bellamy of Boston, 
Massachusetts, a civil engineer, who died in 1934. Their 
sons, Benjamin C. and Fulton D. are civil engineers living in 
Wyoming. Freeman G., the twin brother of Fulton D., died 
in infancy. 

Mrs. Bellamy was among the eight women who met in the 
Laramie County Library, located in the old Central School 
Building in Cheyenne, in October, 1894 for the purpose of 
organizing a woman's club. The Woman's Club of Cheyenne 
was organized and in 1896, this club affiliated with the General 
Federation of AVomen's Clubs. This was the first club in 
Wyoming to seek membership in the national federation. Mrs. 
Bellamy is one of the six honorary members of the Cheyenne 
club. In 1898 Mrs. Bellamy returned to Laramie and her 
zeal and enthusiasm were instrumental in organizing the 
Woman's Club of Laramie, combining all the study groups 
active at that time. This club also affiliated with the General 
I'ederation. On November 10, 1903 Mrs. Bellamy suggested 
to the Laramie club the possibility of a state federation and 
was appointed chairman of the committee to suggest the 
formation of such an organization to other clubs in the state. 
The ensuing correspondence resulted in a meeting in Chey- 
enne, January 19-21, 1904 at which time the Wyoming State 
Federation of Women's Clubs was organized. Mrs. Bellamy 
was the official delegate from Laramie, and has the distinc- 
tion of being a charter member of the Woman's Club of 
Cheyenne, the Woman's Club of Laramie, and the Wyoming 
State Federation of Women's Clubs. For forty-six years 
she has maintained her active participation in this organiza- 
tion, working faithfully and 'untiringly for the cause of 
woman and her betterment. She was elected one of three 


directors at the organization of the Laramie club and filled 
that office until 1939 when she was named to a permanent 
position on the Board of Directors of that organization. In 
addition she has served as president, official delegate and 
member of committees too many times to enumerate here. 
She was made a delegate for life to the conventions of the 
AVyoming Federation of Women's Clubs. Her keen intellect 
and abundant energy made her a leader in suggesting work 
to be done and in helping to fulfill many plans for entertaining 
the community, raising money for worthy causes, and further- 
ing the aims of the General Federation. On March 29, 1940, she 
was chosen by the Woman's Club of Laramie as the pioneer 
club woman who has had the longest and most outstanding 
continuous record of leadership in the local club. At the State 
Convention of the Federated Women's Clubs of Wyoming, at 
Riverton, September 23-25, 1940, Mrs. Bellamy was chosen as 
the Wyoming woman having the longest, most outstanding rec- 
ord of leadership in the Federated Women's Clubs of Wyoming. 
She has represented Wyoming at the council of the General 
Federation in Portland, Oregon, the National Biennial Conven- 
tion in Denver, Colorado, the National Headquarters in Wash- 
ington, D. C, the conventions of the Western Federations at Los 
Angeles, California, and the State Federation Conventions in 
Massachusetts, Colorado, Utah, and California. 

In 1902, Mrs. Bellamy was elected County Superintendent 
of Schools of Albany County. She re-arranged the school 
districts to provide a more equitable distribution of reA'enue. 
She was responsible for placing a dictionary and a copy of 
lUrds of Wyoming by W. C. Knight, illustrated by Frank 
Bond, in every rural school in the county. In the larger 
schools more reference books were added to the libraries. 
She initiated through the State Federation of Women's Clubs 
the first prizes for essays in High Schools on patriotic sub- 
jects and for prizes among club women for a State Federation 
song. Her theme, "Know Wyoming," interested several 
people in studying Wyoming and the talks and lectures they 
prepared started them on the way to national fame in the 
field chosen first as a hobby. 

During the World War, Mrs. Bellamy was active in Red 
Cross work, being appointed Albany County chairman of the 
Woman's Division of the Liberty Loan drives and Laramie 
City chairman in charge of parades, programs for selling 
Ijberty Bonds, and maintaining interest in the support of a 
French orphan adopted by the Laramie Woman's Club. She 
spared no effort in drawing the entire county together to 
work for a common cause. 

The Council of Women Voters won the attention of this 
alert leader. She attended the meetings of the National 
Council in San Francisco in 1914. served as vice-president 


for the National Council, and promoted harmony among the 
various factions of the council until she won the title of 
"peace envoy of the conference." She was awarded the 
honor of extending to the conference the invitation of Gov- 
ernor Kendrick of "Wyoming to hold the next conference in 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, the first state in the United States to 
grant free and equal suffrage to women. Mrs. Bellamy was 
sent by Wyoming as an envoy to the last great rally for 
women suffrage which was held in Washington, D. C, in 1917. 
Her influence was sought in securing the votes of congress- 
men definitely opposed to suffrage. The practical suggestions 
by the Wyoming envoy won the approval of Mrs. Grace 
Wilbur Trout, a foremost leader from Chicago, other envoys 
to the rally, and the congressmen. She was elected a delegate 
to the Democratic National Convention and was named on 
the committee to notify President Wilson of his renomination. 

In honor of Mrs. Bellamy's efforts to collect a historical 
museum in Laramie illustrating the work of women in the 
home and in public life, the Woman's Club of Laramie voted, 
on January 26, 1935, to name the collection, "The Mary 
Bellamy Collection. "^ 

Mrs. Bellamy is a gifted speaker and was honored with 
the request to introduce Vice-President Marshall to a Chey- 
enne audience of five thousand. December 10, 1939, she gave 
the principal address at a celebration in Cheyenne to com- 
memorate the seventieth anniversary of the granting of equal 
suffrage to the women of Wyoming. She has taken a leading 
part in the programs of the women's clubs in the western 
states too many times to mention in this summary. 

Not only will Mary G. Bellamy's name remain in history 
because she was the first woman to be elected to the Wyoming 
Legislature, but it will become more prominent in its annals 
as the full value of her outstanding personality and accom- 
plishments becomes known to its citizens. She has devoted 
her life to the betterment of womanhood and her influence 
has been felt in every state where the women have secured 
the franchise through her efforts. Unselfish with her time, 
her efforts, and her money, Mary G. Bellamy has contributed 
to other women a broader vision of endeavor and an inspira- 
tion to extend their activities and interests for the benefit of 

3 Minutes of the Woman 's Club of Laramie. 


"Women of Wyoming," by Cora Beach. Casper, S. E. Boyer, 

Minutes of the Woman's Club of Laramie. 
"Mary Godat Bellamy," by Mrs. Fulton Bellamy, 1940. 
Personal interviews with Mrs. Bellamy by the author. 
Wyoming State Tribune, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 





Chapter VHI 

Laramie County 

Post OflBce Established at Cheyenne — First City Election, Sep- 
tember 1, 1867— Pat Mullaly and "Limber Jim" Killed. 

Affairs in Cheyenne at this period were in a very un- 
settled condition. There was no form or semblance of gov- 
ernment of any kind — life and property were in jeopardy 
day and night, and the respectable class of people did not 
feel safe even in their own homes. Robberies and lesser crimes 
M^ere committed daily and nightly and there was no authority 
as yet vested in anybody to prevent it. Every man was his 
own ruler and a large portion of them desired to be rulers 
of their neighbors, also. To add to the general unsettled state of 
affairs, there was no way of obtaining mail except by express 
and this was a very unsatisfactory medium of communicating 
with the outer world. As this state of affairs was almost intol- 
erable, some of the leading spirits in Cheyenne began to cast 
about to see whether some remedy could not be applied and as 
the result of their efforts a post office was established in Chey- 
enne on the 9th day of September, 1867, with Thos. E. jMcLeland 
as postmaster. After moving from "pillar to post" for 
some time, the post office was finally established on the first floor 
of a two-story frame building on the southeast corner of Seven- 
teenth and Ferguson Streets, where at the present time (1886) 
stands the magnificent brick block occupied in part as a banking 
house by Morton E. Post & Company. 

The next step toward bringing order out of cliaos after 
taking the preliminary steps which resulted in the establishment 
of a post office, was to organize some sort of a government under 
which life and property might be afforded some degree of pro- 
tection at least. For this purpose a meeting was called and met 
at the large store of A. C. Beckwith, August 9, 1867, which re- 
sulted in the appointment of a committee, of which Judge J. R. 
Whitehead was chairman, to prepare and present the draft of a 
charter. In due time another meeting was held and a charter 
adopted by the almost unanimous vote of the respectable people 
of the city. Under this charter an election was held Septemher 
71 h, which resulted in the election of H. ]\I. Hook, mavor; 
A. C. Beckwith, W. 11. Harlow, S. ]\I. Preshaw, R. E. Ta^ny. 
J. B. Thompson and J. C. Willis for councilmen. J. R. White- 


head, city attorney ; Thomas E. McLeland, city clerk ; N. H. 
Meldrum, treasurer; and Edward Melanger, city marshal. 
The Whitehead Block, which was at that time not only nearly 
finished but the only suitable place, was selected as the head- 
quarters of the new city government and it was here that the 
first meeting of the provisional city council was held. The 
new city government had many difficulties to contend with 
but it struggled on manfully and with good results. Under 
the power conferred by the charter, J. M. Slaughter was 
appointed City Justice and later on under the provisional 
county government Wm. H. Miller was appointed and offici- 
ated as "Judge of the Supreme Court." All of these precau- 
tions, however, did not result in impressing the laAvless char- 
acters in the city so as to put a stop to the lawlessness which 
largely prevailed. To uphold and sustain the city authorities 
in their efforts to maintain law and order, fifty-eight of the 
leading citizens of the city volunteered to act when called upon as 
special officers. Among this number were Judge Kuykenda-l, 
Henry Houseman, T. W. Rutledge, J. R. Whitehead. J. H. 
Gildersleeve and other prominent citizens. The members of 
this volunteer organization (or part of them at least) would 
sleep every night at the Whitehead Block in the court room 
in order to be ready for any emergency, and it was well that 
they did so for night after night there were such riotous and 
diabolical proceedings in various parts of the city that had 
it not been for the assistance rendered by these brave and 
fearless men, Cheyenne would probably have burned to the 
ground ere it had seen its first anniversary. 

On the night of September 16, 1867 an event occurred in the 
northwestern portion of the city, then more populous than at 
present, which will always be remembered by all of the "Old 
Timers" who were residents of "The Magic City of the Plains" 
at that time. The event referred to was the killing of Pat Mul- 
laly and "Limber Jim." Of the latter but little was known at 
the time, for he was a comparatively new comer in the city. 
Pat Mullaly, who was at the time of his death one of the 
members of the special police force of fifty-eight, had been 
iti Cheyenne from the very first and had many friends among 
the people of the city. "Pat" in these days had a hay ranch 
over on the Box Elder and was also in business in Cheyenne. 
Shortly after the town was started, Mullaly built the two- 
story frame buildings on the corner of Thomes and Sixteenth 
streets, which at the present time (1886) is owned by L. R. 
Bresnahen. In this building Pat opened a saloon and for 
some time did a thriving business. Eventually, however, some 
very bad characters among whom was "Limber Jim" — who 


if he had any other name did not see fit to announce it— 
began to flock around him and he became somewhat demor- 

As the result of his various sayings and doings, IMuUaly 
got into a quarrel with a woman who went by the name of 
''Lead Beader" and who kept a saloon and place of resort in 
the northwestern portion of the city not far from where at this 
date the old Dodge House stands. Certain parties who fre- 
quented the place alluded to became involved in the quarrel 
also, but at leng-th an understanding was reached — as Pat in- 
ferred — and on the evening of September 16th, Pat ]Mullaly. 
Limber Jim and two females went up to the saloon of "Lead 
Beader" for the purpose, as Mullaly expressed it, of "setting 
up the wine." The door was closed but it was at length forced 
open by Mullaly, who with ' ' Limber Jim, ' ' close behind, entered 
the house. As he did so, a shot fired by some party from under 
a bed in an adjoining room, the door of which was open, took 
effect in Mullaly 's side or breast and killed him almost in- 
stantly. "Limber Jim" turned to retreat and as he did so he 
was shot in the back by someone in the building, but not before 
he had fired one shot from a revolver wounding ' ' Lead Beader, ' ' 
the woman who kept the house, in the right arm. He ran about 
fifty yards from the house when he dropped dead in a pile of 
lumber. Several shots were fired in all and inside of five min- 
utes after the first one was heard there were as many as twelve 
hundred people around the place where the shooting had oc- 
curred. Judge Kuykendall, who as before stated, was one of the 
special officers and slept that night at the city headquarters in 
the Whitehead Block, was one of the first on the ground and 
arrived in time to see Mullaly breathe his last. As soon as it 
became known who it was that had been killed the crowd resolved 
itself into a mob, and not only the building in which the shooting 
took place, but others adjoining, were burned to the ground, 
the flames lighting up the entire city. The city witnessed a 
reign of terror for the balance of the night and in some places 
where people were fortunate enough to have cellars, they 
resorted to them as shots were being fired in all directions. 
Among those who were driven below that eventful night 
were W. S. Hurlbut and Frank Hurlbut at their drug store, 
which had been opened on Eddy Street in the building now 
owned and occupied by S. L. Moyer. Among the most dan- 
gerous characters on the "warpath" that night was a fellow 
named Wall, who was finally seized and locked up in an old 
building not far from where the Cheyenne Gas Company 
works have since been built. The mob set out to break in 
the building, but were beaten back by the special police. 


Some three miles east of the city were camped about 400 
graders and word was sent to them by the mob to come up 
and help them burn the town. As soon as this was known 
word was sent to the military authorities at Fort Russell of 
what was in prospect and asking for assistance. In reply to 
this call three companies of infantry came down on the 
"double jump," and were soon followed by the companies 
of cavalry. The arrival of the troops put an end to all further 
rioting for that night. The graders who had but little dispo- 
sition to join the mob remained at their camp and toward 
morning the mob, which had made the city hideous for most 
of the night, dispersed to their various homes and resorts. 
From the fact that all "old timers" in Cheyenne regard the 
"night when Pat Mullaly was killed" as one of the most 
eventful nights in the early history of the city, a more ex- 
tended mention of it has been made than there otherwise 
would have been. 

Chapter IX 

Laramie County 

First Newspaper in Cheyenne — First Territorial County Elec- 
tion, October 8, 1867 — Lot Jumping — Murder of Mead 
and Hazlett. 

Up to this period in the then short history of Cheyenne, 
the town had been without a newspaper of any kind, but on 
the 19th day of September, 1867, "The Cheyenne Daily 
I^eader" made its first appearance, N. A. Baker being its 
first editor and proprietor. It was of course warmly greeted, 
its reception being such that two other newspapers were 
started shortly afterwards: "The Daily Argus," L. L. Bedell, 
editor, October 25th, and the "Rocky Mountain Star," 0. F. 
Williams, editor, December 8, 1867. Of these papers and of 
others which made their appearance later, something will be 
said farther along. 

What is now Laramie County was then nothing but an out- 
lying portion of Dakota and so far away from the "mother 
territory" that but little was known as to what was being done 
there and most of the people cared less than they knew. It was 
felt, however, that a provisional county organization would 
greatly aid the law abiding citizens in preserving order and 
protecting life and property. With this end in view, a meeting 
was called and held in the Whitehead Block, September 27th, 
n. M. Hook, mayor of the city presiding with Judge Whitehead 
officiating as secretary. The result of the meeting was that J. R. 
Whitehead, T. J. Street and L. L. Bedell were appointed com- 


missioners to parcel out the imaginary county into districts 
which was done, and an election held October 8th for "all the 
territorial county and township officers, provided for by the laws 
of Dakota" and at which election about everybody who had been 
in the country ten days or more were allowed to vote if they 
so desired. The number of votes polled at this election was 
1,924 nearly all of them for the only ticket in the field. The 
following were elected: J. H. Casement (voted for) as dele- 
gate in Congress ; J. R. Whitehead, member of the legislature ; 
M. L. Hinman, C. L. Howell and "W. L. Hopkins, county 
commissioners. W. L. Kuykendall, Judge of Probate ; T. J. 
Street, County Attorney; J. H. Creighton, Register of Deeds; 
D. J. Sweeney, Sheriif ; L. L. Bedell, Treasurer; James Irwin, 
Coroner; J. H. Gildersleeve, Superintendent of Schools, and 
Frank Landberg, Surveyor. 

The idea in voting for Casement as delegate in Congress 
was, that as there would be two or more candidates for delegate 
over in the "mother territory." ]\Ir. Casement might, if every- 
body voted for him, have a plurality, and thereby Cheyenne 
(virtually) have a delegate at Washington of its own choosing. 
Like the provisional city government, the county organization 
was based solely upon the will and consent of the people, and had 
no authority outside of that in a strict legal sense. This step, 
however, proved to have been one taken in the right direction for 
the county authorities greatly aided those of the city in main- 
taining law and order from that time forward, until a perma- 
nent local government was established. Shortly after this 
step was taken, another large installment of respectable citi- 
zens came forward and volunteered their services as special 
officers when called upon. It was well that these precaution- 
ary steps were taken in time, for shortly after a systematic 
Xjrocess of lot jumping was inaugurated by a group of "hood- 
lums" who came up from the vicinity of Julesburg and else- 
where, and these men in conjunction with a respectable — in 
numbers only — hoodlum element in the city, undertook once 
more to "run the city" as they termed it, and ex'ceedingly 
lively times followed during the continuance of which many 
shooting affairs took place among which were two or three 
downright murders. One of this character — and a double 
murder at that — occurred late in November. Four men named 
Mead, Ilazlett, Shepherd and Cullen, prior to that time, had 
been living in a "dugout" across Crow Creek and just north 
of the U. P. railroad bridge, when one morning, early, Cullen 
started out earlier than the rest, taking his gun and those of 
the others along with him. He then opened fire upon his 
companions left behind. Mead was shot and instantly killed; 


Hazlett mortally and Shepherd dangerously wounded. Haz- 
lett died the next day, but Shepherd eventually recovered. 
Cullen attempted to escape, but was captured before he could 
be tried, escaped again and has never been heard of since. 
This incident and many others of a similar character which 
occurred about that time fully illustrate the situation so far 
as security to life and property were concerned at the close 
of the year 1867. 

(To be continued) 


An interesting collection of nearly 100 items received by 
the Historical Department and placed on display in the State 
Museum during the past quarter is from Miss Gertrude Wyoming 
Dobbins, of Los Angeles, California. The gift is a lifetime col- 
lection by Miss Dobbins and her late mother, and is to be known 
as the "Emma Jane and Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins Collec- 

Miss Dobbins was born in Wyoming, as her middle name 
would indicate, and her father, Asa C. Dobbins, was the first 
U. S. Weather observer in Wyoming, located at Cheyenne, in 
1870. He passed away about fifty years ago. 

One of the most unique items is a small brass kerosene 
lamp with glass chimney, which was a part of his office equip- 
ment furnished by the U. S. Government. 

A lovely French doll, of 1880, with silken hair and attired 
in the mode of that day, is an attractive item, and is one of the 
prized possessions of Miss Dobbins' childhood days. 

The family loved travel, and in the collection are souvenirs 
from the World's Fairs of the past nearly fiity years, beginning 
with the Chicago, or Columbian Exposition, in 1893, in which 
Wyoming provided a building and an exhibit. There is an 
assortment of badges from Cheyenne Frontier Days, beginning 
with the first one in 1897, and the Pioneers' Reunion at Chey- 
enne, in 1917, together with more than 100 other badges from 
political and fraternal activities over the State and Nation. 

In other words, the display may be regarded as a cross- 
section of the history of Wyoming recorded throughout the life- 
time of this one family by the gathering and preservation of 
emblems and mementos from various activities of community, 
state and nation. 

It also tells the story of hundreds of other early-day Wyo- 
ming families who took part in and contributed to the building 
of WONDERFUL WYOMING, and who, with these pioneer 
women can with propriety claim, in the words of Aeneas, 
"All of which I saw, and part of which I was." 


By Thomas Kearny, Kearny, N. J. 


The following article Avas sent to the Wyoming Historical De- 
partment, for publication in the ANNALS, by Mr. Thomas Kearny, of 
Kearny, N. J., author of the book, ' ' General Philip Kearny, Battle 
Soldier of Five Wars, ' ' published by G. P. Putnam 's Sons, and is printed 
verbatim in this issue of the ANNALS in courtesy to the author. 

Mr. Kearny states two "fascinating new facts" Avhich were 
omitted from the book are set forth in the article. — Ed. 

During the research for the biography of Major Generals 
Philip and Stephen Watts Kearny, the ruthless editing of the 
publishers deleted two fascinating "new" facts, which make 
the Massacre at the Fort, popularly called Fort Phil Kearney, 
distinctive in the annals of the world; actually, the biograph- 
ical records of which it has been said, rightly or wrongly, has 
not been written into American history. 

President Woodrow Wilson, in unveiling the equestrian 
statue of Phil Kearny at the National Cemetery in Arlington, 
used the following sentences : ' ' My State has written into this 
marble Major General Philip Kearny's Biography; 'Fought 
with the French in Algiers ; and with the French and Italians 
at Solf erino in the war of Italian Liberation in 1859 ; New 
Jersey honors her most distinguished soldier'; yet the true 
biography to my country is simply 'Phil. Kearny'." Thi'ough- 
out his Address, the President used the word "Phil," when 
referring to Kearny in the report of it, the period is used 
after Phil. Facts which witness to the true spelling of the 
name of the Fort. (See, Infra.) In "Lincoln," Sandburg, in 
his twenty references, always so calls Kearny. 

On page 442 of General Philip Kearny, Secretary of War, 
the Honorable James W. Good's letter to Thomas Kearny — 
the author — is qvioted as follows: "A letter from Mr. Good 
dated April 25tli, 1925 (see Archives of his office), states that 
the Fort in Wyoming was named "Fort Philip Kearny," and 
that Fort Kearny, Nebraska, was so named for Stephen Watts 
Kearny, Philip Kearny's uncle, and both names in the original 
orders were so spelled, — never abbreviated such as 'Phil' 
without a period which indicates that the name was actually 
spelled "Philip." Thus it is that the towns of Kearny, 
Wyoming, and Nebraska misspell their names, at least as 
historical!}' viewed — which, however, does not apply to the 
Nebraska Historical Society, which at the time of the acqui- 
sition by Nebraska of the site of the Old Fort Kearny Parade 
Grounds, caused the Legislature to name Park Kearny — 


Fort KEARNY Park ; also California, Kansas, and New Jersey, 
Phil's home; — so write the name geographically. 

On page 120 of General Philip Kearny, it is written: 
'"The overwhelming opinions of the cartographers make the 
territory, as far East as the Headwaters of the Gila river,— 
and the Rockies — a part of Alta California in 1846, when 
Stephen Watts Kearny occupied it for the United States;" 
to which the author adds that all the historians of the "West, 
nearly, California, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, et al., make 
this terrain part of Nuevo Mejico. Then Mr. Kearny adds : 
"Kearny was governor of this terrain, including in whole or 
part, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and 
WYOMING (the extreme and small area in the southeast), 
by reason of the Law of Nations, (I speak as lawyer) which 
holds the conqueror Military Governor." This, we believe, 
is a new fact in Wyoming written history; as it IS a new fact 
in the history of the other named States. 

Now for the two new factors which are referred to in the 
first paragraph : 

In the Minutes of the 56th Congress, Second Session, 
(House of Representatives Report No. 2683), occurs the follow- 
ing minute: "Mr. Mondell for the Committee of Military 
Affairs, submitted the following report : ' The Bill now before 
Congress provides for an appropriation of eight hundred dol- 
lars for the erection of a monument to mark the site of the 
battlefield known as Massacre Hill, near Sheridan, Wyoming, 
near the site of Old Fort Phil. Kearny. The battle has the 
distinction of being one of the two battles in all recorded 
history, in which there were no survivors left among the 
vanquished; the entire force of eighty-five (sic. ed.) engaged, 
being all killed. Secondly, the battle in which 'Repeating 
Arms' were used for the first time in any general engage- 
ment'." The fact concerning the survivors, or lack of them, 
has been recorded on the monument, but not — we believe — 
that it was the second one "in recorded history." This fact 
about repeating arms, it is believed, has never before been 
recorded as history. It may be remarked that the original 
bill carried an appropriation of five hundred, whereas this 
bill by which the monument now at the Site was erected, 
carried eight hundred dollars. 

In General Philip Kearny, two new interpretations affect- 
ing Wyoming are given, namely: "The first manoeuvre of the 
Mexican War, was the KEARNY EXPEDITION of 1845 
to the South Pass," which was also a "Threat Against the 
Oregon Country," annexed the next year to the United States, 
as the extreme southeastern sector of Wyoming (see above) 


— as well as the 'terrain of ten States" — was conquered the 
same year by S. W. Kearny. Captain Philip Kearny, who 
accompanied his uncle's "First Mexican War Manoeuvre" and 
the "threat against Oregon," drew from the headwaters of 
the Columbia River, some water which he used to baptize his 
son to become General John Watts Kearny, in Calvary Episco- 
pal Church, New York City, where Phil's father was senior 
warden ! 

It may not be amiss, nor uninteresting, to note that just 
as this is written, Miss Mary Kearny, Kearny, N. J., a grand- 
daughter of ' ' General Philip Kearny of the Fort, ' ' has received 
a letter from President Roosevelt, asking her to sponsor the 
Destroyer, KEARNY, named for her first cousin. Commodore 
Lav/rence Kearny, who as Tyler Dennett, in his "Americans 
in Eastern Asia Write," helped Warren Delano, Franklin 
Delano Roosevelt's grandfather establish the 'open door 
policj^' in China, 1842. The launching to take place on 
March 9th, 1940, at the Federal Shipbuilding Co. at Kearny, 
N. J., a town named for the Fort's sponsor! In "General 
Philip Kearny, ' ' a note of this exploit is given, and the biogra- 
phy of Lawrence Kearny, by Professor Carrol Storrs Alden, 
of the Naval Academy, gives a full account. 



July 1, 1940, to September 30, 1940 

Pictures — Gifts 

Fowler, Mrs. Benjamin F., 707 East 18th Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Old photograph of Mr. and Mrs. Orlando King; photograph of Chero- 
kee Bob, famous western scout. (4"x6i/^") (Eobert Waldron, born 
in Loudon County, Virginia, October 8, 1836.) 

Hunt, Dr. Lester C, Secretary of State, Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Photo- 
graph of Wm. E. Chaplin, Secretary of State of Wyoming, 1919-1923, 
signer of the State Constitution, posed with the Constitution, on 
July 10, 1940, at Cheyenne. 

Leffler, Mrs. Leo, 517 W. 23rd Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Photo- 
graph 13i/^"xl6" Co. "H" Girl Guards at celebration of Statehood 
in 1890. 

Pictures — Purchased. 

Edwards, Elsa Spear, Sheridan, Wyoming. 24 tinted photographic views, 
Wyoming scenes. 

Books — Gifts 

Spring, Agnes Wright, Cheyenne, Wyoming — A Family Trek to the 
Yellowstone, by Mrs. N. E. Corthell. 1928. 

Books — Purchased 

Burt, M. Struthers— Powder Eiver, Let 'er Buck. 1938. 

Books in Department Prior to April 1, 1939, Recently Accessioned 

Coffeen, Herbert— The Teepee Book, Vols. 1 and 2, 1915, 1916. 
Triggs, J. H. — History of Cheyenne and Northern Wyoming, 1876. 
Triggs, J. H. — History and Directory of Laramie City, 1875. 


Orr, E. S. — Agricultural Education in Public Schools of Wyoming. 
Hoyt, J. W.-T— Life of John W. Hoyt, carbon copy of typewritten manu- 
script, 758 pp. 


The Emma Jane and Gertrude Wyoming Dobbins Collection 

Dobbins, Gertrude Wyoming, Fremont Hotel, Fourth and Olive Streets, 
Los Angeles, California. — 
Small brass lamp used by Asa C. Dobbins in first weather bureau 

or station in Cheyenne, October, 1870; furnished by the 

Brown Betty tea pot in Dobbins family 200 years; 
Small book, printed in 1752, and calendar, April, 1761; 


Two beaded reticules, 150 to 200 years old; 

French bisque headed doll belonging to Gertrude in 1880; 

Set of doll dishes, caster, etc., 1880; 

Collection of political buttons, medals and ribbon badges, including 

Cheyenne First Frontier Days, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1902, 

1903, 1909; 
Indian beaded blanket belt and money pouch; 
Papoose moccasins; 
Rare Indian breast plate; 
Money bag; 
Mexican money bag; 

Two Dobbins old family albums — many Wyoming pioneers; 
Three abalone shells; 
Three old sea shells; 

14 Indian and other baskets; 
Old Mexican plaque; 

Round liead piece used by women of India when carrying loads on 

their heads; 
Two books pressed flowers; 

Statuette of Commander Dewey, of Spanish American War; 
Mirror and brush given to Gertrude, Christmas, 1889; 
Eskimo doll; 
Old Mexico doll; 
Souvenir cotton boll; 
Chinese sword holder; 

Chinese woman's shoe from old Chinatown, San Francisco, 1897; 
Seed hand bag from Samoa; 

Small cube Kansas salt from Columbia Exposition, 1893; 
Tiny China marble, 100 years old; 

Souvenir invitation to the Alert Fire Company "Calico Ball," 1880; 
McKinley's presidential campaign souvenir, small ladder; 

15 pieces of Indian pottery; 

Collection of souvenir china pieces: 24 plates, some Wedgewood; 

five souvenir cups and saucers; souvenir tea pot from Columbian 

Exposition; cream pitcher; pickle dish; salt and pepper set 

(Utah); three small souvenir glasses; 
Cup, saucer and plate set of hand blown blue glass from Old Mexico; 
Napkin ring, childhood gift of Frances Warren, who became the 

wife of General Pershing; 
Plate from Fort D. A. Russell, Spanish American War, 1898; 
Package of documents, letters, etc.; 
Warranty Deed, Union Pacific to Asa C. Dobbins, 1877, to lot on 

East 17th Street, where weather bureau was located for many 

years ; 
Autographed letter, Theodore Roosevelt to Gertrude Wyoming; 
Invitation to Dobbins family to wedding of Frances Warren and 

General John Pershing; 
Invitation to Gertrude Wyoming to reception of President McKinley 

at White House; 
Invitation to Governor W. A. Richard's Inauguration and Ball, 1S95; 
Old Cheyenne school photograph; 

Photograph of last stagecoach to leave for Deadwood from Cheyenne; 
Album containing foreign post cards of the world before 1914 

World War; 
Autographed volume of Judge Wesley P. Carroll's poems; 
Photograph of Judge Wesley P. Carroll. 


The Cliarles Anda Collection 

One of the most important collections offered to the Wyoming 
Historical Department in recent years is that of the late Charles Anda, 
of Casper, Wyoming. 

Several months prior to Mr. Anda's death on May 26, 1940, he 
offered his valuable collection of 122 firearms, swords and Indian 
relics, all catalogued, to the Historical Department, in consideration 
that the State provide suitable glass cases for exhibit of the items in 
the Museum. 

There being no funds to finance the purchase of show cases, the 
State Legislature, 1941, will be asked to make an appropriation for 
this purpose. 

In the meantime, Mrs. Anda delivered her husband 's collection to 
the Historical Department, where it is being held in storage until such 
time as the State may be in position to fulfill its part of the contract 
in providing display cases. 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Jeffrey, Henry B., 1011 Lincoln Street, Denver, Colorado. — Gold pen 
used by the Constitutional Convention delegates to sign the Con- 
stitution, September 30, 1889, at Cheyenne, and presented by the 
Convention delegates to donor 's father, John K. Jeffrey, Secretary 
of the Convention. 

Burdick, William A. (World War Veteran) Tort Meyer, Florida, formerly 
of Cheyenne. — Four pieces of paper foreign money: 10 pesos (Mexi- 
can); 50 centimes (2) (French); 1 franc (Belgian); 1 peso (Chile) 

Wyoming Valley Chamber of Commerce, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 
through Governor Nels H. Smith — A handsome scroll, inscribed with 
a message of greeting and congratulation to the people of the State 
of Wyoming on the 50th Anniversary of Statehood. The scroll, 
17"x22" is hand lettered and ornamented with an artistic border 
design in water colors. Also an American Flag with 44 stars, 6'x9'. 

Adamsky, Mr. and Mrs. Ealph, Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Album of the 
Union Pacific Eailway (small book); 

Homemade rolling pin by Felix Eobidoux at Ft. Bridger, Wyoming, 
1850 's; son of Joseph Eobidoux, founder of St. Joseph, Mo.; 
American flag 4'9"x27"; 45 stars; 
Two badges from the celebration of statehood; one 3"x5", dated 

July 23, 1890; one 2y2"x6", dated July 26, 1890, 44th star. 
Printed program of Statehood celebration, 1890. 

Chenery, J. A. L., Eiverton, Wyoming — Wyoming Statehood celebration 
badge of 1890; ticket of admission to inaugural ball at Cheyenne 
in 1889; printed program of statehood celebration held on July 23, 



Dedication of Idaho-Wyoming momunent on July 5, 1940, at joint Golden 
Anniversary Celebration, in which Governors of the two States and 
members of the Wyoming Landmark Commission took part: (Left to 
right) Mr. Warren Richardson, Commission chairman; Mr. John Charles 
Thompson, treasurer; Governor C. A. Bottolfsen, of Idaho; Governor 
Nels H. Smith, of Wyoming; Mr. Joseph Weppner, Commission secretary. 





The Wyoming Historical Landmark Commission, com- 
posed of Mr. Warren Richardson, Chairman. Mr. J. S. Wepp- 
ner, Secretary, and Mr. J. C. Thompson, Treasurer, sponsored 
two dedicatory tonrs dnrinw the past snmmer of 19-10. The first 
tonr took place July 3rd to 7th, and marked the formal begin- 
ning of the observance of Wyoming's Golden Anniversary of 
Statehood. The dedication of the monument at Border, Wyo- 
ming, erected in honor of Idaho's and Wyoming's fiftieth 
anniversary of Statehood was one of the important features 


of this first tour. Following this program in rapid succession 
many anniversary celebrations were held in the various coun- 
ties of the State throughout the summer months. 

The second tour started on August 15, at Fort Laramie, 
and concluded at Jackson, Wyoming, on August 18. 

July Tour 

On Wednesday, July 3rd, 1940, at 11 :30 a. m. the Historical 
Landmark Commission and party arrived at the site of Old 
Fort Supply near Robertson, Wyoming. The program which 
was arranged by the local community began immediately with 
the singing of "America" and other appropriate songs, by 
the choir of the local Mormon ward. The bishop of the ward 
gave the invocation and acted as chairman of the program. 
He first introduced President Tom Brough of the Lyman 
stake who gave a very interesting address on old Fort Supply 
telling how it was one of the first out-posts established by 
Brigham Young. Following this Mr. Weppner was introduced 
by the chairman and carried on the program in behalf of the 
Historical Landmark Commission calling first on Mr. Warren 
Richardson, chairman of the Commission, who made a short 
talk. Governor Nels H. Smith followed with a brief address. 
Mr. Weppner then introduced all the members of the party, 
some twenty state officials and their wives. The program 
came to a close with everyone joining in the singing of 
"God Bless America." 

The dedicatorial party then journeyed to Mountain View^ 
where at 12 :30 p. m. they were treated to a barbecue lunch 
after which they attended the local rodeo there. Leaving at 
3 :30 p. m. they continued on to Rock Springs where they 
spent the night. 

The next morning, July 4th, at 7 :00 a. m. the party left 
for Daniel, Wyoming, where they attended the dedication of 
the DeSmet Centennial celebration of a pontifical high mass 
said by Reverend Bishop P. A. McGovern assisted by twenty 
priests from throughout the State. The dedicatorial sermon 
which concluded the service was given by Reverend Bishop 
D. A. Hunt of Salt Lake City. This service was attended 
by five or six thousand people and included Mr. Frank 
Matthews of Omaha, Supreme Knight of the Knights of 
Columbus; U. S. Senator Joseph C. O'Mahoney of Wyoming; 
Governor Nels H. Smith and Mrs. Smith, and most of the 
Wyoming state officials. 

Journeying on to the Green River Rendezvous on the 
nearby Vigo Miller ranch, the entire crowd Avere the guests 
at a big picnic lunch given by the Knights of Columbus of 
Wyoming. At 1 :00 p. m. a very appropriate speaking program 


was carried out which opened with an address of welcome by 
Governor Smith followed by a talk from U. S. Senator Joseph 
O'Mahoney. The principal address was given by Mr. Frank 
Matthews of Omaha, Supreme head of the Knights of Colum- 
bus. After the program the dedicatorial party and most of 
the crowd drove on to Pinedale, Wyoming, where they en- 
joyed a rodeo in progress there. Following this they were 
entertained at the summer home of Mr. and Mrs. Ted Crippa 
on Fremont Lake to an excellent lunch and a boat trip on 
beautiful Lake Fremont. The night was spent in Pinedale. 
On the morning of July 5th at 7 :30 a. m. the party left 
Pinedale arriving at Names' Hill at 10:00 o'clock where the 
Commission dedicated a marker which had been erected some 
years before. Mr. Weppner acted as chairman and the pro- 
gram was opened with an address by Grovernor Smith followed 
by John Charles Thompson who gave a very interesting ac- 
count of the history of Names' Hill. Mr. Weppner then 
introduced Mrs. P. J. Quealy of Kemmerer whose late husband 
had made a gift to the State of the site of Names' Hill. After 
this program the party journeyed to Kemmerer where at 
12:00 noon they were entertained by the Lion's Club to a 
fine trout dinner. 

Leaving Kemmerer at 2 :30 p. m. the party arrived at 
the border of Idaho on north highway 30. 12 miles north of 
Cokeville, where they met Governor Bottolfsen and many of 
the Idaho state officials to join with them in the dedic-ition 
of a monument on the border line of Wyoming and Idaho. 
This monument was erected half on the Wyoming side and 
half on the Idaho side and commemorated the 50th anniver- 
sary of statehood of these two states. Mr. J. D. Noblitt of 
Cokeville acted as Master of Ceremonies. The program was 
opened with a selection by the Montpelier High School b-ind 
and the invocation by President Silas L. Wright of the Bear 
Lake stake. An address, "The Old Oregon Trail,"" was given 
by Mr. Thomas P. Wilson of Pueblo, Colorado. Then followed 
the presentation of the monument by Governor Nels H. Smith 
of Wj'omiug and Governor C. A. Bottolfsen of Idaho, both 
of whose talks were enjoyed by the crowd of some three or 
four thousand people who received their talks with much 
applause. The unveiling ceremony was in charge of Mrs. 
Herman Teichert of Cokeville and Mrs. Ed. C. Kich of ]Mont- 
pelier. The acceptance of the monument Avas made in very 
inspiring responses by ]\Irs. M. B. Nash, Idaho State Historian, 
and Mr. Warren Richardson, chairman of the Wyoming His- 
torical Landmark Commission. The benediction was given 
by Mr. Reed Dayton of Cokeville and the program was 


brought to a close by the singing of "America" led by the 
Montpelier High School band. The commission and party 
left immediately after this program and spent the night at 
Jackson, Wyoming. 

Saturday, July 6th, was spent traveling to Lander by 
the way of Togwotee Pass. At 6 :30 p. m. that evening all 
vv^ere entertained at a very fine dinner at the Wyoming State 
Training School at Lander after which the Governor and 
the members of the State Board of Charities and Reform and 
others in the party made a complete inspection of the 

Sunday, July 7th, at 10 :00 a. m. the party continued on 
to the Penitentiary State Farm at Riverton and at noon were 
served a delicious dinner of articles of food which were 
rciised on the Farm. At 2:30 p. m. they left for the Big and 
Little Wind River Rendezvous where a monument was dedi- 
cated marking the place which commemorated the memory 
of the many pioneers who had camped at that spot. The 
program was in charge of the Chairman, Mr. J. J. Jewett, 
and the address of welcome was given by Mr. A. B. Conant, 
mayor of Riverton, and was followed by an address from 
Governor Smith. Mr. Weppner, on behalf of the Historical 
liandmark Commission, accepted the gift of the monument 
to the State of Wyoming. The program was brought to a 
close by the singing of "America." This being the last dedi- 
cation the party then dispersed and left for their homes. 

August Tour 

August 15th the party arrived at Fort Laramie at 9 :45 
a. m., all members of the Commission present. Mr. Weppner 
acted as chairman of the dedicatorial program which was held 
on the front porch of old Bedlam. He first called upon Mr. 
Warren Richardson who made the speech dedicating the 
"Portugee" Phillips monument. This was enjoyed by all 
present as Mr. Richardson, when a boy, had known "Portu- 
gee" Phillips and his family. He related many incidents 
which occurred during his contact with them. Mrs. Ruth 
Joy Hopkins of Casper was called upon next and gave an 
interesting talk on her oil paintings of old pioneers which 
was on exhibition at Fort Laramie. Mr. Canfield, Director 
of the Rocky Mountain National Parks, including Fort Lara- 
mie, made a very good talk on the rehabilitation of Fort 
Laramie. He, like all others, expressed the hope that the 
government would completely restore it. The chairman then 
called on Mr. Robert Ellison of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Mr. 
B. B. Brooks of Casper, both former members of the Com- 


mission, who responded with interesting reminiscences of 
their early days at old Fort Laramie. Among those present 
at the dedication who were introduced to the audience was 
a nephew of "Portugee" Phillips, Mr. Gomez and his wife. 
Mr. Howard R. Driggs, President of the Oregon Trail Associa- 
tion, was called upon and spoke in behalf of the many mem- 
bers of the Association who had arrived in a caravan of 
automobiles from the East to be present at the dedication. 
The Commission extended an invitation to the Association 
to join them and continue with the dedicatorial tour. 

The party then left for Lusk where they arrived at 1 :00 
p. m. and were entertained at luncheon by the Lions Club. 
After luncheon all attended the dedication of the Texas Trail 
monument, some three miles east of Lusk on highway 20. 
This monument was sponsored by the Lions Club of Lusk. 
Mr. Hans Gatchshi acted as chairman and called on many of 
the old timers who had followed cattle up the Trail. All made 
interesting talks. Mr. John Charles Thompson gave a fine 
address in which he told of the many cattle outfits who were 
pioneers in the cattle industry in Wyoming. Mr. Richardson 
accepted the monument in behalf of the Historical Landmark 
Commission of Wyoming. 

Immediately after this dedication the party drove one 
mile west of Lusk where Mr. James Grifiith, who sponsored 
the erection of the Lathrop monument, gave a fine eulogy 
to Mr. Lathrop, one of the outstanding stage drivers of the 
old Deadwood-Cheyenne line. Mr. Griffith, on behalf of the 
contributors of this monument, presented it to the State. 
That evening at 7 :00 p. m. the party was entertained at a 
nearby river park to a real western barbecue picnic, spon- 
sored by the Lions Club. This, of course, was a special treat 
to the members of the Oregon Trail Association from the East. 

The next morning the Commission and party, some 40 
or 50 in number, left Lusk at 7:00 a. m. August 16tli and 
traveled to Buffalo where at 2 :00 p. m. they attended a diMli- 
cation of the DeSmet monument on the shore of Lake DeSmet. 
This monument was sponsored by a committee from Sheridan 
and Johnson counties composed of W. H. Edelman. Sheridan 
chairman, Dr. Frackelton of Sheridan, and T. J. Gatchell, 
Bert Griggs and Jesse Keitli, all of Buffalo. ]\Ir. George 
liayman, one of Sheridan's prominent attorneys, acted as 
chairman. The program was opened with a prayer by Father 
Short of Sheridan and the singing of "America," led by Mr. 
Flynn and a chorus. ]\Ir. Layman introduced Father Br:ulv. 
pastor of Buffalo, who gave an inspiring address in wliicli 
he told of the good work of Father DeSmet not only as a 


Catholic missionary but as a government agent, having made 
many important treaties with the Indians for the government. 
Mr. Layman presented the monument which was accepted 
by Mr. Weppner in behalf of the Historical Landmark Com- 
mission of Wyoming. Mr. Bert Griggs and Mr. Howard 
Driggs were called upon and both gave fine talks. 

The Commission and party left at 3 :00 p. m. and drove 
up the highway to the "Portugee" Phillips marker near old 
Fort Kearny where a second program was carried out. This 
marker commemorated the start of the famous ride of "Portu- 
gee" Phillips to Fort Laramie. Mr. George Layman also 
acted as Chairman for this program, introducing first Mr. 
Robert Ellison of Tulsa, former member of the Commission, 
vvho gave a very authentic and interesting account of the 
ride of "Portugee" Phillips and the massacre of Fetterman 
and his soldiers and the beleaguered Fort Kearny. Mr. Rich- 
ardson made a short talk and the chairman introduced many 
of the old timers who were present. 

The party then continued to Ranchester to the Connor 
Battlefield monument where at 7 :00 p. m. a program dedi- 
cating this monument was carried out. Mr. Weppner acted 
as chairman introducing first Mr. John C. Thompson who gave 
the history of the battlefield. Mr. Robert Ellison added an 
historical bit on Major Connor and his achievement at the 
time of the battle. After this dedication the party journeyed 
on to Dayton where they spent the night. 

The journey took up again the next morning, August 
the 17th, and included a trip over the Big Horn mountains 
through the beautiful Shell Canyon and on into Cody, arriving 
there at 12 :00 noon. Immediately upon arrival a dedication 
followed of the new road leading from the edge of the town 
to the Buffalo Bill monument. This dedication was spon- 
sored by many civic organizations of Cody and the Montana- 
Wyoming Oldtime Cowboys Association who were holding 
their convention in Cody at that time. The party had lunch 
in Cody after which they drove to Dead Indian Hill, some 32 
miles north of town in the Sunlight Valley, to attend the 
dedication of a monument erected by the Forest Rangers and 
Mr. W. A. Rollinson, an old pioneer ranger and cattleman. 
This monument commemorated the old Indian trail over the 
pass into the great hunting ground. This pass was also a 
later cattle trail into that country. A brief but appropriate 
program was carried out, Mr. Rollinson recalling incidents 
of his boyhood days and presenting the monument to the 
State of Wyoming. Mr. Richardson, on behalf of the Com- 
mission, accepted. That evening at 7 :00 p. m. the National 


Oregon Trail Association, the Historical Landmark Commis- 
sion, the Montana-Wyoming Cowboy Association and the 
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney Association Avere entertained 
at a banquet at the Cody Inn. There were 300 present. Mr. 
Paul Greever acted as master of ceremonies and introduced 
many fine speakers from the members of the four different 
organizations present. Everyone had a most enjoyable evening 
and the banquet did uot conclude until 11 :30 p. m. 

Sunday morning, August 18th, at 7:00 a. m. the His- 
torical Landmark Commission and the Oregon Trail caravan 
and other interested parties left Cody by way of the Shoshone 
Canyon and dam and entered Yellowstone Park at the East 
entrance, going out the South entrance and arriving at the 
Berolzheimers ranch at 1 :00 p. m. where they were entertained 
at a Dutch lunch. Immediately after lunch the party moved 
on to Leek's place where at 1:30 p. m. a monument marking 
the old Trappers Trail was dedicated. This monument was 
erected and given to the State by many persons interested in 
the history of the Jackson Hole country. Mr. William Leek, 
81 years old, one of the pioneers in the Jackson Hole Countrj'' 
gave a most interesting talk of his boyhood days when he 
had arrived in Jackson 60 j^ears ago. W. H. Jackson, 97 
years old, who was the official photographer of the Hayden 
Expedition in Jackson Hole in 1870, also told of his experi- 
ences ill those early days. The Commission and ]iarty then 
journeyed to Turpin MeadoAV Lodge where at 2:00 p. m. a 
monument erected in memory of Dick Turpin, one of the 
colorful old pioneers, was dedicated. Dick Turpin had left 
$300.00 in his will for the erection of a marker and monument. 
Mr. William Simpson, chairman of the executive committee, 
gave an interesting talk covering the life of Dick Turpin and 
presented the monument to the State in behalf of the com- 
mittee. Mr. Richardson, chairman of the Commission, re- 
sponded and accepted for tlie State. 

The Commission then adjourned to the Jackson Lake 
Lodge where they were the guests of the National Trail 
Association at a ban(|uet which opened the convention of 
that organization. IMajor Proctor of New York, Secretary 
of the Association, acted as toastmaster. The dinner and 
program was considered a great success and the guests did 
not depart until 11 :00 p. m. This marked the close of tiiis 
dedicatorial tour.